Zouave was the name given to certain infantry regiments in the French army, as well as to units in other armies which imitated the dress or drill of the French zouaves. The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces
The Zouaves of the French Army were first raised in Algeria in 1831 with one and later two battalions, initially recruited solely from the Zouaoua (or Zwāwa), a tribe of Berbers finding homes in the mountains of the Jurjura range (see Kabyles). The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Land Army is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and its largest French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. The existence of the new corps was formally recognised by a Royal decree dated 7 March 1833. In 1838 a third battalion was raised, and the regiment thus formed was commanded by Major de Lamoriciere. Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière ( 5 September 1806 - 11 September 1865) was a French General. Shortly afterwards the formation of the Tirailleurs algeriens, the Turcos, as the corps for Muslim troops, changed the enlistment for the Zouave battalions, and they became a purely French body. Tirailleur literally means a Sharpshooter in French from tir - target Three regiments had been formed by 1852, and a fourth, the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard, in 1854.
The Zouaves saw extensive service during the French conquest of Algeria, initially at the Mouzaia Pass action (March 1836), then at Mitidja (September 1836) and the siege of Constantine (1837). Constantine ( Arabic: is the capital of Constantine Province in north-eastern Algeria. Recruited through voluntary enlistment or transfer from other regiments of men with at least two years service, the Zouaves quickly achieved the status of an elite amongst the French Army of Africa.
The Crimean War was the first service which the regiments saw outside Algeria. The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought They subsequently served in the Franco-Austrian War of 1859, the Mexican Intervention (1864-66) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870). The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia The French intervention in Mexico, also known as the Maximilian Affair and The Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico by the army of the The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 The distinctive dress and dash of the Zouaves made them well known outside France and they were frequently portrayed in the illustrated publications of the period. The 2nd Zouaves (popularly known as "the Jackals of Oran") had their eagle decorated with the Legion d' Honeur following the Battle of Magenta in 1859. The Battle of Magenta was fought on June 4, 1859 during the Second Italian War of Independence, resulting in a French-Sardinian victory under Each of the three line regiments of Zouaves was allocated to a different province of Algeria, where their depots and peace-time garrisons were located.
After 1871 the Zouaves lost their status as an elite corps of long service volunteers and became a force mainly composed of conscripts from the French settlers in Algeria and Tunisia, undertaking their compulsory military service. Shortfalls in numbers were made up by recruiting and conscription from the southern régions militaires of mainland France (Métropole). Military recruitment is the act of requesting people usually male adults to join a military voluntarily Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority In 1899 the law of that year created for each regiment of Zouaves a 5th Battalion, "to be stationed in France" in groupes des 5e batallions de Zouaves. The 5th battalions of the 1st and 4th Zouaves were stationed as part of the Gouvernement militaire de Paris. The 5th battalions of the 2nd and 3rd Zouaves were stationed in the région militaire de Lyon. Upon mobilization for war in France, these battalions would form the nucleus of Régiments de Marche de Zouaves , each of 3 battalions.
The four Zouave regiments of the French Army wore their traditional colorful dress during the early months of the First World War. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The development of the machine gun, rapid fire artillery and improved small arms obliged them to adopt a plain khaki uniform from 1915 on. From 1927 to 1939 the "oriental dress" of red fez ("chechia"), blue sash, braided blue jackets with waistcoats and voluminous red trousers was reintroduced as off-duty dress for re-enlisted NCOs and other long service regulars in the Zouave regiments. The fez ( Greek: Φέσι Turkish: fes plural fezzes or fezes) or Tarboosh طربوش, not to be confused with North It was also worn by colour guards and other detachments on ceremonial occasions. White trousers of the same style had earlier been worn as an item of hot weather dress. The four regiments were distinguished by the colours (red, blue, white and yellow) of the "tombeaus" or false pockets on the front of their open fronted jackets
The Zouaves played a major role in the 1914-18 War with their numbers being expanded to nine regiments de marche. These units retained much of their traditional panache, especially in the attack. during World War I. They were however less conspicuous in World War II, seeing service mainly during the opening stages of the War (1940) and in the course of the liberation of France (1944).
As predominantly conscript units the Zouaves did not serve in Indo-China between 1945 and 1954. They were however employed extensively during the Algerian War, before being finally disbanded in 1962 following Algerian independence. This was inevitable since their recruitment base was the European population of Algeria, which dispersed with the ending of French rule.
The traditions of the Zouave regiments are maintained at the present time by the French Army's Commando Training School, which occasionally parades colour parties and other detachments in Zouave dress. While other branches of the old Armée d'Afrique have either survived or been reestablished as representative units in recent years (notably the Foreign Legion, Chasseurs d' Afrique, Tirailleurs and Spahis) the French Army does not appear to have any plans to recreate one of its most distinctive and best known corps. The Chasseurs d'Afrique (literally Huntsmen of Africa although "African Light Horse" would be an alternative translation were a light Tirailleur literally means a Sharpshooter in French from tir - target Sipahi ( Ottoman Turkish: ota سپاهی also transliterated as Spahi, Sepahi, and Spakh; traditionally rendered as Spahia
The Papal Zouaves were formed in defence of the Papal States by Lamoricière in 1860. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa The Zuavi Pontifici were mainly young men, unmarried and Roman Catholic, who volunteered to assist Pope Pius IX in his struggle against the Italian Risorgimento. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian They formed an international regiment, coming from Flanders, France, The Netherlands, Bavaria, and even Canada. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page After the occupation of Rome by Victor Emmanuel in 1870, the Papal Zouaves served the government of National Defence in France during the Franco-Prussian War, and were disbanded after the entrance of Prussian troops into Paris. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city They wore a similar style of uniform to that of the French Zouaves but in grey with red trim. A grey and red kepi was substituted for the North African fez. The kepi is a Cap with a flat circular top and a Visor ( American English) or peak ( British English) The fez ( Greek: Φέσι Turkish: fes plural fezzes or fezes) or Tarboosh طربوش, not to be confused with North
In 1863, during the Lithuanian and Polish uprising against the Russian Empire, a French ex-officer who had served previously in one of the French zouave regiments, François Rochebrune, organized the Zouaves of Death. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The January Uprising ( Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Members of this Polish unit swore "to conquer or to die" and not to surrender. They wore a black uniform with white cross and red fez. The fez ( Greek: Φέσι Turkish: fes plural fezzes or fezes) or Tarboosh طربوش, not to be confused with North
The Zouaves of Death first saw active service at the Battle of Miechów on February 17, 1863. Lt. Tytus O'Brien de Lacy escaped with 400 zouaves to Galicia in March 1863. Galicia (Галичина ( Halychyna) Galicja is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine,
Commanding officers of the regiment were: Colonel François Rochebrune; Lieutenant Count Wojciech Komorowski; Lieutenant Tytus O'Brien de Lacy; Lieutenant Antoni Wojcicki; and Lieutenant Tenente Bella.
Chronology of the Zouaves of Death:
See January Uprising
Numerous Zouave regiments were organized from soldiers of the United States of America who adopted the name and the North African-inspired uniforms during the United States Civil War. The January Uprising ( Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Union army had more than 70 volunteer Zouave regiments throughout the conflict, while the Confederates fielded only a about 25 Zouave units. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861.  Arguably the most famous Union Zouave regiments were from New York: the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Duryee's Zouaves" (after its first colonel, Abram Duryee), and the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Fire Zouaves". The 5th New York Volunteer Infantry was a volunteer Infantry Regiment that fought during the American Civil War, led by Colonel Abram Abram Duryée (April 29 1815 &ndash September 27 1890 was a Union Army general during the American Civil War, the commander of one of the most famous Zouave The 11th New York was initially led by Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth, until his death in 1861. Elmer Ephraim Ellsworth ( April 11 1837 &ndash May 24 1861) was a lawyer and soldier best known as the first conspicuous casualty of the The regiment was badly mauled during the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861 as it acted as the rear guard for the retreating Army of the Potomac. Background Brig Gen Irvin McDowell was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to command the Army of Northeastern Virginia. The 5th New York was considered one of the elite units of the Army of the Potomac and was only one of two volunteer regiments brigaded with the regular division commanded by George Sykes. The Army of the Potomac was the major Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. George Sykes ( October 9, 1822 &ndash February 8, 1880) was a career United States Army officer and a Union General At the Second Battle of Bull Run, the 5th New York, along with another Zouave regiment, the 10th New York "National Zouaves", held off the flanking attack of James Longstreet's Corps for ten crucial minutes before it was overrun. Background and opposing forces See also Northern Virginia Campaign See also [[Second Bull Run Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] James Longstreet (January 8 1821 &ndash January 2 1904 was one of the foremost Confederate Generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate The 5th New York thus suffered the highest percentage of casualties in the shortest amount of time of any unit in the Civil War (of 525 men, approximately 120 were killed and 330 were wounded in less than 10 minutes). From 1863 onward, Zouave uniforms were often used to reward Union army regiments for exceptional battlefield performance. Zouaves gradually vanished from the U. S. military in the 1870s and 1880s, as the militia system slowly transformed into the National Guard, however some Zouaves saw service in the Spanish-American War. For the National Guard of a State and other countries' National Guard see National Guard.
The Zouave uniform was sometimes quite elaborate, to the extent of being unwieldy. Some Zouave regiments wore a fez with a colored tassel (usually yellow, blue, green, or red) and turban, a tight fitting short jacket (some without buttons), a wide ten-foot long sash, baggy pantaloons or "chasseur" trousers, white leggings, and a short leather cuff for the calf, called jambieres. The fez ( Greek: Φέσι Turkish: fes plural fezzes or fezes) or Tarboosh طربوش, not to be confused with North Gaiters are items worn on the lower leg and used primarily as Personal protective equipment; similar items used primarily for display are Spats. The sash was especially difficult to put on, often requiring the help of another Zouave. The Zouave uniform was better suited for warm climates and rough terrain. The loose pantaloons allowed for greater freedom of movement than trousers, while the short jacket was much cooler than the long wool blouse worn by most armies of the time. One of the reasons for the smaller number of Zouave units in the U. S. and Europe was the expense of the specialized uniform over that of mass-produced uniforms of a single color and cut.