|Zion National Park|
|IUCN Category II (National Park)|
|Location||Washington, Kane, and Iron counties, Utah, USA|
|Nearest city||Springdale, Utah(south), Orderville, Utah (east) and Cedar City, Utah near Kolob Canyons entrance. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Washington County is a County located in the US state of Utah. Kane County is a County located in the US state of Utah. As of 2000 the population was 6046 and by 2005 had been estimated at 6202 Iron County is a County located in the US state of Utah. As of 2000 the population was 33779 and by 2005 was estimated at 38311 The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Springdale is a town in Washington County, Utah, United States. Orderville is a town in Kane County, Utah, United States. The population was 596 at the 2000 census. Cedar City is a city in Iron County, Utah, United States, 250 miles south of Salt Lake City on Interstate 15. Kolob Canyons is the northwest section of Zion National Park of Utah, United States.|
|Area||146,598 acres (593 km²), 143,035. 07 acres (579 km²) federal|
|Established||July 31, 1909|
|Visitors||2,567,350 (in 2006)|
|Governing body||National Park Service|
Zion National Park is a United States National Park located in the Southwestern United States, near Springdale, Utah. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation The Southwestern area of the United States could be defined as the states west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit such as the 37 Springdale is a town in Washington County, Utah, United States. A prominent feature of the 229-square-mile (593 km²) park is Zion Canyon, 15 miles (24 km) long and up to half a mile (800 m) deep, cut through the reddish and tan-colored Navajo Sandstone by the North Fork of the Virgin River. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Navajo Sandstone is a geologic formation in the Glen Canyon Group that is spread across the U The Virgin River is a nearly 160 mile (322 km long tributary of the Colorado River in the southwestern United States. Located at the junction of the Colorado Plateau, Great Basin, and Mojave Desert regions, this unique geography and variety of life zones allow for unusual plant and animal diversity. The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the The Great Basin is a large arid region of the western United States. For the indigenous American tribe see Mohave. The Mojave Desert (moʊˈhɑːvi or /məˈhɑːvi/ ( Hayikwiir Mat'aar in Mojave Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena The Life Zone concept was developed by C Hart Merriam in 1889 as a means of describing areas with similar Plant and Animal communities Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. A total of 289 bird species, 75 mammals (including 19 species of bat), 32 reptiles and numerous plant species inhabit the park's four life zones: desert, riparian, woodland, and coniferous forest. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. "Riparian" redirects here For the legal doctrine see " Riparian water rights. Ecologically a woodland is an area covered in trees differentiated from a Forest. Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial Biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest Notable megafauna include Mountain Lions, Mule Deer and Golden Eagles, along with reintroduced California Condors and Bighorn Sheep. The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family The mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) is a Deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. The Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere The California Condor ( Gymnogyps californianus) is a North American Species of Bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep in North America and Siberia with large horns which can weigh up to. Common plant species include Cottonwood, Cactus, Datura, Juniper, Pine, Boxelder, Sagebrush, yucca , and various willows. The cottonwoods are three species of Poplars in the section Aegiros of the genus Populus, native to North America, Europe and western A cactus (plural cacti) is any member of the Spine plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas Datura is a Genus of 12-15 species of vespertine Flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. Junipers are Coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. Acer negundo is a species of Maple native to North America. Box Elder, Boxelder Maple, and Maple Ash are its most The yuccas comprise the Genus Yucca of 40-50 species of perennials Shrubs and Trees in the Agave family Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily
Human habitation of the area started about 8,000 years ago with small family groups of Native Americans; the semi-nomadic Basketmaker Anasazi (300 CE) stem from one of these groups. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States "Anasazi" directs here For the X-Files episode see Anasazi (The X-Files. In turn, the Virgin Anasazi culture (500 CE) developed as the Basketmakers settled in permanent communities. The Virgin Anasazi were the westernmost Ancestral Puebloan group in the American Southwest. A different group, the Parowan Fremont, lived in the area as well. The Fremont culture or Fremont people is a Pre-Columbian Archaeological culture which received its name Both groups moved away by 1300 and were replaced by the Parrusits and several other Southern Paiute subtribes. The canyon was discovered by Mormons in 1858 and was settled by that same group in the early 1860s. TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon Mukuntuweap National Monument was established in 1909 to protect the canyon, and by 1919 the monument was expanded to become Zion National Park (Zion is an ancient Hebrew word meaning a place of refuge or sanctuary). Zion ( Hebrew: צִיּוֹן ( Persian: صهیون tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion The Kolob section was proclaimed a separate Zion National Monument in 1937, but was incorporated into the park in 1956.
The geology of the Zion and Kolob canyons area includes nine formations that together represent 150 million years of mostly Mesozoic-aged sedimentation. The geology of the Zion and Kolob canyons area includes nine known exposed formations all visible in Zion National Park in the U The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. Sedimentation describes the motion of Molecules in Solutions or particles in suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity At various periods in that time, warm, shallow seas, streams, ponds and lakes, vast deserts and dry near-shore environments covered the area. Uplift associated with the creation of the Colorado Plateaus lifted the region 10,000 feet (3000 m) starting 13 million years ago. The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the
The park is located in southwestern Utah in Washington, Iron, and Kane counties. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Washington County is a County located in the US state of Utah. Iron County is a County located in the US state of Utah. As of 2000 the population was 33779 and by 2005 was estimated at 38311 Kane County is a County located in the US state of Utah. As of 2000 the population was 6046 and by 2005 had been estimated at 6202 Geomorphically, it is located on the Markagunt and Kolob plateaus, at the intersection of three North American geographic provinces: The Colorado Plateaus, the Great Basin, and the Mojave Desert. The Markagunt Plateau is an 800 square mile plateau located in the southwest corner of Utah between Interstate 15 and U The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the The Great Basin is a large arid region of the western United States. For the indigenous American tribe see Mohave. The Mojave Desert (moʊˈhɑːvi or /məˈhɑːvi/ ( Hayikwiir Mat'aar in Mojave The northern part of the park is known as the Kolob Canyons section and is accessible from Interstate 15, exit 40. In the US state of Utah, Interstate 15 runs north-south through the southwestern and central portions of the state passing through many of the population centers
The 8,726 foot (2660 m) summit of Horse Ranch Mountain (photo) is the highest point in the park; the lowest point is the 3,666 foot (1117 m) elevation of Coal Pits Wash, creating a relief of about 5,100 feet (1500 m). Horse Ranch Mountain is the highest summit in Zion National Park, in Utah
Streams in the area follow rectangular paths because they follow jointing planes in the rocks. The headwaters of the Virgin River are at about 9,000 feet (2700 m) and the river empties into Lake Mead 200 miles (320 km) southeast after flowing 8,000 feet (2400 m) downward. Lake Mead is the largest man-made Lake and Reservoir in the United States. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand This gives the Virgin a stream gradient that ranges from 50 to 80 feet per mile (0. Stream gradient is the ratio of drop in a Stream per unit distance usually expressed as feet per Mile or Meters per Kilometer 9–1. 5%)—one of the steepest stream gradients in North America.
The road into Zion Canyon is 6 miles (9. 7 km) long, ending at the Temple of Sinawava ("Sinawava" refers to the Coyote God of the Paiute Indians). At the Temple, the canyon narrows and a foot-trail continues to the mouth of the Zion Narrows, a spectacular gorge with walls 40–100 feet (12–30 meters) wide and 1000 feet (300 m) tall. The Narrows in Zion National Park, (near Springdale Utah) is a section of canyon on the North Fork of the Virgin River. The Zion Canyon road is served by a free shuttle bus from early April to late October and by private vehicles the other months of the year. Other roads in Zion are open to private vehicles year-round.
Other areas of the park also offer outstanding scenery. The east side of the park is served by the Zion-Mount Carmel Highway which passes through the Zion-Mount Carmel Tunnel and ends at Mt. State Route 9 (SR-9 is a state highway in southern Utah, serving Zion National Park. Carmel Junction. On the east side of the park notable park features include Checkerboard Mesa and the East Temple and one of the more popular hikes, the Canyon Overlook Trail.
West of Zion Canyon, the Kolob Terrace area features The Subway, a famous slot canyon hike, and Lava Point, with a spectacular view of the entire area. The Kolob Canyons section, further west near Cedar City, features one of the world's longest arches, Kolob Arch. Cedar City is a city in Iron County, Utah, United States, 250 miles south of Salt Lake City on Interstate 15. Kolob Arch is a Natural arch in Zion National Park, Utah. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society considers Kolob Arch to be the second longest natural
Spring weather is unpredictable, with stormy, wet days being common, mixed with occasional warm, sunny weather. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Precipitation is heaviest in March. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric Spring wildflowers bloom from April through June, peaking in May. A wildflower (or wild flower) is a Flower that grows wild meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted Fall days are usually clear and mild; nights are often cool. Summer days are hot (95 °F to 110 °F; 35 °C to 43 °C), but overnight lows are usually comfortable (65 °F to 70 °F; 18 °C to 21 °C). Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Afternoon thunderstorms are common from mid-July through mid-September. Storms may produce waterfalls as well as flash floods. A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water often in the form of a Stream, flowing over an Erosion -resistant rock A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic lowlying areas - washes rivers and streams Autumn tree-color displays begin in September in the high country; inside Zion Canyon, autumn colors usually peak in late October. Winter in Zion Canyon is fairly mild. Winter storms bring rain or light snow to Zion Canyon and heavier snow to the higher elevations. Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. Clear days may become quite warm, reaching 60 °F (16 °C); nights are often 20 °F (−7 °C) to 40 °F (4 °C) . Winter storms can last several days and make roads icy. Zion roads are plowed, except the Kolob Terrace Road and the Kolob Canyons Road, which are closed when covered with snow. Winter driving conditions persist from November through March.
Archaeologists have divided the long span of Zion's human history into three cultural periods, each characterized by distinctive technological and social adaptations. The Narrows in Zion National Park, (near Springdale Utah) is a section of canyon on the North Fork of the Virgin River. Angels Landing is a rock formation measuring 5785 feet tall in Zion National Park in southern Utah. The Great White Throne is a large tall mountain of white Navajo Sandstone situated in Zion National Park of southwestern Utah Kolob Arch is a Natural arch in Zion National Park, Utah. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society considers Kolob Arch to be the second longest natural
The first human use in the region dates to 8,000 years ago when family groups camped where they could hunt or collect plants and seeds. During the 6th millennium BC, Agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored About 2,000 years ago, some groups began growing maize and other crops, leading to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Later groups in this period built permanent villages (called pueblos). Pueblos are traditional communities of Native Americans in the southwestern United States of America. Archaeologists call this the Archaic period and it lasted until about 500 CE. Baskets, cordage nets, and yucca fiber sandals have been found and dated to this period. The yuccas comprise the Genus Yucca of 40-50 species of perennials Shrubs and Trees in the Agave family The Archaic toolkits included flaked stone knives, drills, and stemmed dart points. The dart points were hafted to wooden shafts and propelled by throwing devices called atlatls. An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl; in English pronounced or) or spear-thrower is a Tool that uses Leverage to achieve greater velocity
By 300 CE some of the archaic groups developed into an early branch of seminomadic Anasazi, the Basketmakers. "Anasazi" directs here For the X-Files episode see Anasazi (The X-Files. Basketmaker sites have grass- or stone-lined storage cists and shallow, partially underground dwellings called pithouses. They were hunters and gatherers who supplemented their diet with limited agriculture. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Locally collected pine nuts were important for food and trade. Pine nuts are the edible Seeds of Pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus)
The Parrusits and several other Southern Paiute subtribes lived in the Virgin River Valley south of Zion Canyon for hundreds of years following the departure of the Anasazi and Fremont Indians around 1300 CE. Tradition and archaeological evidence holds that they are a Numic-speaking cousin of the Virgin Anasazi. Parrusits seasonally migrated up and down the valley in search of wild seeds and nuts in what is called the Neo-Archaic period. Nut is a general term for the large dry oily Seeds or Fruit of some Plants. Some farming and hunting supplemented their diet.
Evidence suggests the Parrusits had great reverence for the large monoliths and turbulent waters in Zion Canyon. A monolith is a geological feature such as a Mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock or a single piece of rock placed as or within a monument They believed the monoliths were responsible for the streams and springs they depended upon by communicating with the rocks, animals, water, and plants that make their home there. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Modern bands of Southern Paiute still visit sites within the park to perform rituals and collect plants.
The Historic period begins in the late 18th century, with the exploration and settlement of southern Utah by Euro-Americans. A European American (Euro-American is a person who resides in the United States and is either from Europe or is the descendant of European immigrants Padres Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and Francisco Atanasio Domínguez passed near what is now the Kolob Canyons Visitor Center on October 13, 1776, becoming the first white men known to visit the area. Silvestre Vélez de Escalante was a Franciscan Missionary and explorer of the Southwest United States during the late 18th century Francisco Atanasio Domínguez, a native of Mexico City, was ordained a Franciscan priest and Missionary and explorer of the Southwest United States Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In 1826, trapper and trader Jedediah Smith led 16 men to explore the area in a quest to find a route to California. Jedediah Strong Smith (born January 6, 1799 — presumed date of death May 27, 1831) was a hunter, trapper, Fur trader California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. These and other explorations by traders from New Mexico blazed the Old Spanish Trail, which followed the Virgin River for a portion of its length. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The Old Spanish Trail is a historic Trade route which connected the northern New Mexican settlement of Santa Fé with that of Los Ángeles Captain John C. Fremont wrote about his 1844 journeys in the region. John Charles Frémont ( January 21, 1813 July 13, 1890) was an American military officer, explorer, the
In the 1850s, Mormon farmers from the Salt Lake area became the first white people to settle the Virgin River region. TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon Salt Lake City is the Capital and the most populous city of the U The Virgin River is a nearly 160 mile (322 km long tributary of the Colorado River in the southwestern United States. In 1851, the Parowan and Cedar City, Utah areas were settled by Mormons who used the Kolob Canyons area for timber, and for grazing cattle, sheep, and horses. Cedar City is a city in Iron County, Utah, United States, 250 miles south of Salt Lake City on Interstate 15. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. They prospected for mineral deposits, and diverted Kolob water to irrigate crops in the valley below. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops Mormon settlers named the area Kolob - in Mormon scripture, the star nearest the residence of God. In the Latter Day Saint movement, Kolob is a Star or Planet mentioned in the Book of Abraham as being nearest to the Throne A star is a massive luminous ball of plasma. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the Energy on Earth God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity.
In 1858, they had expanded 30 miles (48 km) south to the lower Virgin River. That year, a Southern Paiute guide led young Mormon missionary and interpreter Nephi Johnson into the upper Virgin River area and Zion Canyon. Johnson wrote a favorable report about the agricultural potential of the upper Virgin River basin, and returned later that year to found the town of Virgin. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture More settlers arrived in 1860 and 1861 and settled the towns of Rockville and Springdale. Catastrophic flooding by the river (especially in the Great Flood of 1861–1862), little arable land, and poor soils made agriculture in the upper Virgin River a risky venture. In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel
In 1861 or 1862, Joseph Black made the arduous journey to Zion Canyon and was very impressed by its beauty. His stories about the Canyon were at first seen as exaggerated, prompting his neighbors to call the Canyon "Joseph's Glory". The floor of Zion Canyon was settled in 1863 by Isaac Behunin, who farmed corn, tobacco, and fruit trees. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. A fruit tree is a Tree bearing Fruit &mdash the structures formed by the ripened ovary of a Flower containing one or more Seeds. The Behunin family lived in Zion canyon near the site of today's Zion Lodge during the summer, and wintered in Springdale. Zion Lodge is a Lodge located in Zion National Park. Gilbert Stanley Underwood designed the Zion Lodge in the 1920s Isaac Behunin is credited with naming Zion, a reference to a place of peace mentioned in the Bible. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin
Two more families settled Zion canyon in the next couple of years, bringing with them cattle and other domesticated animals. This is a list of animals that have been domesticated by Humans. The canyon floor was farmed until Zion became a Monument in 1909.
The Powell Geographic Expedition entered the area in 1869 after their first trip through the Grand Canyon. The Powell Geographic Expedition was a groundbreaking 19th century U The Grand Canyon Powell returned in September 1872 and descended the East Fork of the Virgin River (Parunuweap Canyon) to the town of Shunesberg. John Wesley Powell ( March 24, 1834 - September 23, 1902) was a U He may have made the climb up to Zion Canyon, and named it Mukuntuweap under the impression that that was the Paiute name. In the same year, Geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, working with the Wheeler Survey, descended the North Fork of the Virgin River from Navajo Lake to Zion Canyon, making the first recorded descent of "The Zion Narrows". Grove Karl Gilbert ( May 6, 1843 &ndash May 1, 1918) known by the abbreviated name G The Wheeler Survey was a survey of a portion of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian. The Narrows in Zion National Park, (near Springdale Utah) is a section of canyon on the North Fork of the Virgin River. It is likely that he named this remarkable section of canyon in the process.
Powell Survey photographers, Jack Hillers and James Fennemore, first visited the Zion Canyon and Kolob Plateau region in the spring of 1872. Hillers returned in April of 1873 to add more photographs to the "Virgin River Series" of photographs and stereographs. A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an Image created by Light falling on a light-sensitive surface usually Photographic film or an electronic Stereoscopy, stereoscopic imaging or 3-D (three-dimensional imaging is any technique capable of recording three-dimensional visual Hillers described wading the canyon for 4 days and nearly freezing to death to take his photographs. Geologist Clarence Dutton later mapped the region and artist William H. Holmes documented the scenery. Clarence Edward Dutton ( May 15, 1841 &ndash January 4, 1912) was an American geologist and US Army officer William Henry Holmes ( December 1, 1846 &ndash April 20, 1933) was an American Anthropologist, Archaeologist,
Paintings of the canyon by Frederick S. Dellenbaugh were exhibited at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904, followed by a glowing article in Scribner's Magazine the next year. Scribner's Magazine was first published in January 1887, also by the publishing house of Charles Scribner's Sons, which spent $500000 to compete That, along with previously created photographs, paintings, and reports, led to U. S. President William Howard Taft's proclamation creating Mukuntuweap National Monument on July 31, 1909. William Howard Taft (September 15 1857 – March 8 1930 was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting In 1917, the acting director of the newly created National Park Service visited the canyon and proposed changing its name Zion from the locally unpopular Mukuntuweap. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation That occurred the following year. The United States Congress added more land and established Zion National Park on November 19, 1919. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A separate Zion National Monument, the Kolob Canyons area, was proclaimed on January 22, 1937, and was incorporated into the park on July 11, 1956. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Travel to the area before it was a national park was rare due to its remote location, lack of accommodations, and the absence of real roads in southern Utah. Old wagon roads were upgraded to the first automobile roads starting about 1910, and the road into Zion Canyon was built in 1917, to as far as The Grotto.
By the summer of 1917, touring cars could reach Zion Canyon, and the Wylie Camp was established - a tent camp providing the first visitor lodging in Zion Canyon. The Utah Parks Company, a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Railroad, acquired the Wylie Camp in 1923, and offered ten-day rail/bus tours to Zion, Bryce, Kaibab, and the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. The Utah Parks Company, a subsidiary of Union Pacific Railroad, owned and operated restaurants lodging and bus tours in Bryce Canyon and Zion National Bryce Canyon National Park (ˈbraɪs is a National park located in southwestern Utah in the United States The Zion Lodge complex was built in 1925 at the site of the Wylie tent camp. Architect Gilbert Stanley Underwood designed Zion Lodge in the "Rustic Style" and the Utah Parks Company funded the construction. Gilbert Stanley Underwood (1890-1960 was an American Architect best known for his National Park lodges In 1968, the main lodge building was destroyed by fire but was quickly rebuilt. The detached Western Cabins (photo) survived and were added to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of
Work on the Zion-Mount Carmel Highway started in 1927 to provide reliable access between Springdale and the east side of the park. State Route 9 (SR-9 is a state highway in southern Utah, serving Zion National Park. The road opened in 1930 and park visitation and travel in the area greatly increased. The most famous feature of the highway is the 1. 1-mile (1. 8-km) Zion-Mount Carmel Tunnel, which has six large windows cut through the massive sandstone cliff. A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. On the south side of the tunnel, switchbacks take motorists from the tunnel to the floor of Zion Canyon. On the east side the Zion-Mt. Carmel Highway terminates at Mt. Carmel Junction and Highway 89, allowing visitors to travel by car to other national parks, including Bryce Canyon and the Grand Canyon.
In 1896, local rancher John Winder improved the Native American footpath up Echo Canyon so he could travel on horseback up to the East Rim, and hence to Long Valley. This trail was improved again about 1925 and became the East Rim Trail. Other trails were built in 1925 including the West Rim Trail and the Lady Mountain Trail. The auto road was extended to the Temple of Sinawava, and a trail built from there one mile (1. 6 km) to the start of the Narrows. The next year saw construction of the Angels Landing Trail, and two suspension bridges were built over the Virgin River. The Hidden Canyon trail was built in 1928. The West Rim and East Rim Trail were built for horse-back riding visitors, and were blasted out of the sandstone in many places.
The original ranger cabin was built at The Grotto in the 1920s. A real visitor center was first built in the 1950s, facing the Temples and Towers of the Virgin. Park facilities were redesigned in 2000, with the visitor center converted to a human-history museum (photo) and visitor center functions moved to a new solar powered facility adjacent to the south entrance. A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development open to the public which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits the Solar energy is the Light and radiant heat from the Sun that powers Earth 's Climate and Weather and sustains Life
Zion Canyon Scenic Drive provides access to Zion Canyon. Traffic congestion in the narrow canyon was recognized as a major problem in the 1990s and a public transportation system using propane-powered shuttle buses was instituted in the year 2000. From April through October, the scenic drive in Zion Canyon is closed to private vehicles, and visitors ride the frequent shuttle buses. The new plan restored natural quiet to the canyon.
On April 12, 1995, heavy rains triggered a landslide that blocked the Virgin River in Zion Canyon. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Over a period of two hours, the river carved away 590 feet (190 m) of the only exit road from the canyon, trapping 450 guests and employees in the Zion Lodge. A one-lane temporary road was constructed within 24 hours to allow evacuation of the Lodge. A more stable, albeit temporary, road was completed on May 25, 1995 to allow summer visitors to access the park. Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 This road was replaced with a permanent road during the first half of 1996.
The Zion-Mount Carmel Highway can be traveled year-round. State Route 9 (SR-9 is a state highway in southern Utah, serving Zion National Park. Access for over-sized vehicles requires a special permit, and is limited to daytime hours, as traffic through the tunnel must be one way to accommodate large vehicles.
The 5 mile (8 km) Kolob Canyons Road was built in the mid-1960s to provide a scenic drive and access to the Kolob Canyons section of the park. This road often closes in the winter.
The nine known exposed formations visible in Zion National Park are part of a super-sequence of rock units called the Grand Staircase; they represent about 150 million years of mostly Mesozoic-aged sedimentation in that part of North America. For the similarly named structure on the RMS Titanic, see Grand Staircase of the Titanic For the stairs in the White House see Grand The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. Sedimentation describes the motion of Molecules in Solutions or particles in suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity The formations exposed in the Zion area were deposited as sediment in very different environments:
Uplift affected the entire region, known as the Colorado Plateaus, by slowly raising these formations more than 10,000 feet (3,000 m) higher than where they were deposited. The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the This steepened the stream gradient of the ancestral Virgin and other rivers on the plateau. Stream gradient is the ratio of drop in a Stream per unit distance usually expressed as feet per Mile or Meters per Kilometer
The fast-moving streams took advantage of uplift-created joints in the rocks to remove all Cenozoic-aged formations and cut gorges into the plateaus. Zion Canyon was cut by the North Fork of the Virgin River in this way. During the later part of this process, lava flows and cinder cones covered parts of the area. Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures A cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical Hill of volcanic fragments that accumulate around and downwind from a Volcanic vent.
High water volume in wet seasons does most of the downcutting in the main canyon and carries much of the 3 million tons of rock and sediment that the Virgin River transports yearly. Downcutting, also called erosional downcutting or downward erosion or vertical erosion is a geological process that deepens the channel The short ton ( S/T) is a unit of mass equal to 2000 lb (around 907 In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere The Virgin cuts away its canyon faster than its tributaries can cut away their own streambeds, so tributaries end in waterfalls from hanging valleys where they meet the Virgin. A tributary is a Stream or River which flows into a mainstem (or parent river A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water often in the form of a Stream, flowing over an Erosion -resistant rock In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is The valley between the peaks of the Twin Brothers is a notable example of a hanging valley in the canyon.
|Rock Layer||Appearance||Where To See||Deposition||Rock Type||Photo|
|Dakota Formation||Cliffs||Top of Horse Ranch Mountain||Streams||Conglomerate and sandstone|
|Carmel Formation||Cliffs||Mt Carmel Junction||Shallow sea and coastal desert||Limestone, sandstone and gypsum|
|Temple Cap Formation||Cliffs||Top of West Temple||Desert||Sandstone|
|Navajo Sandstone||Steep cliffs 1,600 to 2,200 ft (490 to 670 m)|
thickRed lower layers are colored by iron oxides
|Tall cliffs of Zion Canyon; highest exposure is West Temple. Mount Carmel Junction and Mount Carmel are Unincorporated areas located 12 miles east of Zion National Park and 17 miles north of Kanab in Cross-bedding shows well at Checkerboard Mesa (photo)||Desert sand dunes covered 150,000 mile² (390,000 km²)Shifting winds during deposition created cross-bedding||Sandstone|
|Kayenta Formation||Rocky slopes||Throughout canyon||Streams||Siltstone and sandstone|
|Moenave Formation||Slopes and ledges||Lower red cliffs seen from Zion Human History Museum||Streams and ponds||Siltstone and sandstone|
|Chinle Formation||Purpleish slopes||Above Rockville||Streams||Shale, loose clay and conglomerate|
|Moenkopi Formation||Chocolate cliffs with white bands||Rocky slopes from Virgin to Rockville||Shallow sea||Shale, siltstone, sandstone, mudstone, and limestone|
|Kaibab Formation||Cliffs||Hurricane Cliffs along I-15 near Kolob Canyons||Shallow sea||Limestone|
The Great Basin, Mojave Desert, and Colorado Plateau converge at Zion and the Kolob canyons. The Great Basin is a large arid region of the western United States. For the indigenous American tribe see Mohave. The Mojave Desert (moʊˈhɑːvi or /məˈhɑːvi/ ( Hayikwiir Mat'aar in Mojave The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the This, along with the varied topography of canyon-mesa country, differing soil types, and uneven water availability, provides diverse habitat for the equally diverse mix of plants and animals that live in the area. Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets For the song see CANYONMID. For the band see Canyon (band. A canyon (rarely cañon) or gorge A mesa ( Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic for "table" is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. In 1999, biologists counted 289 bird species in the park. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Seventy-five mammal and 32 reptile and amphibian species are also found. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers Prehistoric amphibian Amphibians (class Amphibia such as Frogs Toads Salamanders Newts Gymnophiona, Sirens and These organisms make their home in one or more of four life zones found in the Park:
Desert conditions persist on canyon bottoms and rocky ledges away from perennial streams. Sagebrush, Prickly pear Cactus, and Rabbitbrush, along with Sacred Datura and Indian Paintbrush are common. Opuntia is a Genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae. Currently only prickly pears (also known as Nopal or Datura wrightii or Sacred Datura is the name of a Poisonous Perennial plant and ornamental flower of southwestern North America Utah Penstemon and Golden Aster can also be found. Milkvetch and Prince's Plume are found in pockets of selenium-rich soils. Selenium (səˈliniəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic number 34 represented by the chemical symbol Se, an atomic mass of 78 Common daytime animals include Rock Squirrels, Pinyon Jays and Whiptail and Collared lizards. A squirrel is one of the many small or medium-sized Rodents in the family Sciuridae. The Pinyon Jay ( Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) is a Jay between the North American Blue Jay and the Eurasian Jay in size Teiidae is a family of Lizards native to the New World generally known as whiptails. The Oklahoma Collared Lizard or Collared Lizard, Crotaphytus collaris, is a North American lizard that can reach a foot (30 cm long in length (including (photo) Desert Cottontails, Jackrabbits, and Merriam's Kangaroo Rats come out at night. The Desert Cottontail ( Sylvilagus audubonii) also known as Audubon's Cottontail, is a New World Cottontail rabbit, a member of the family Hares and jackrabbits are Leporids belonging to the Genus Lepus. Cougars, Coyotes, Gray Foxes, and Ringtails are the top predators. The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family The coyote (kaɪˈoʊti ˈkaɪoʊt ( Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The Gray Fox ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a Mammal of the order Carnivora ranging throughout most of the southern half of North America
Cooler conditions persist at mid-elevation slopes, between 3900 to 5500 feet (1190 to 1680 m). Stunted forests of pinyon pine and Juniper coexist here with manzanita shrubs, cliffrose, serviceberry, Scrub Oak, and yucca. The pinyon (or piñon) Pine group grows in the southwestern United States and in Mexico. Junipers are Coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. The Manzanitas are a subgenus of the genus Arctostaphylos. They are evergreen Shrubs or small Trees present in the Chaparral Purshia ( bitterbrush or cliff-rose) is a small genus of 5-8 species of Flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, native to western Amelanchier, also known as shadbush, serviceberry, sarvisberry, juneberry, Saskatoon, shadblow, shadwood The yuccas comprise the Genus Yucca of 40-50 species of perennials Shrubs and Trees in the Agave family
Stands of Ponderosa Pine, Gambel Oak, manzanita and aspen populate the mesas and cliffs above 6000 feet (1830 m). Ponderosa Pine ( Pinus ponderosa) sometimes called Bull Pine or Western Yellow Pine is a widespread and variable Pine native to western North Gambel Oak ( Quercus gambelii) is a Deciduous small Tree or large Shrub widespread in the foothills and lower mountain elevations of the Aspens are Trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the Poplar genus Populus sect A mesa ( Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic for "table" is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
Golden Eagles, Red-tailed Hawks, Peregrine Falcons, and White-throated Swifts can be seen in the area. The Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere The Red-tailed Hawk ( Buteo jamaicensis) is a medium-sized Bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the " The Peregrine Falcon ( Falco peregrinus) also known simply as the Peregrine, and historically as the "Duck Hawk" in North America is a The White-throated Swift ( Aeronautes saxatalis) is a Swift of the family Apodidae native to western North America, south to cordilleran California Condors and Bighorn Sheep were introduced in the 1990s. The California Condor ( Gymnogyps californianus) is a North American Species of Bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep in North America and Siberia with large horns which can weigh up to. Nineteen species of bat also live in the area.
Boxelder, Fremont Cottonwood, maple, and willow dominate riparian plant communities. Acer negundo is a species of Maple native to North America. Box Elder, Boxelder Maple, and Maple Ash are its most Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily Animals such as the Bank Beaver, Flannel-mouth Suckers, Gnatcatchers, Dippers, Canyon Wrens, the Virgin Spinedace, and Water Striders all make their homes in the riparian zones. The 15-20 species of small Passerine Birds in the gnatcatcher family occur in North and South America (except far south and high Andean Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the Bird family Cinclidae The Canyon Wren ( Catherpes mexicanus) is a small North American Wren, and is about 14 The family Gerridae contains insects commonly known as water striders, water bugs, magic bugs, pond skaters, skaters, skimmers Mule Deer browse on vegetation throughout the park. The mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) is a Deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America.
For many, the highlight of Zion is a trip up the main canyon to the Temple of Sinawava, via the park-run propane-powered free shuttle buses (operating April 1 to October 31) or driving in their own vehicles the rest of the year. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Spectacular, colorful sandstone cliffs soar into the sky above a flat-bottomed, forested valley floor.
Driving through the east side of Zion to U.S. Route 89 allows access north to Bryce Canyon National Park or south to the north rim of the Grand Canyon. In the US state of Utah, US Route 89 is a long north-south State highway through the central part of the state Bryce Canyon National Park (ˈbraɪs is a National park located in southwestern Utah in the United States The Grand Canyon Due to the narrowness of the Zion-Mount Carmel Tunnel, RVs and buses must obtain a special pass and run through the tunnel during limited hours.
The more primitive sections of Zion include the Kolob Terrace and the Kolob Canyons. The Grotto in Zion Canyon and the viewpoint at the end of Kolob Canyons Road have the only designated picnic sites. In contemporary usage picnic can be defined simply as a pleasure excursion at which a Meal is eaten outdoors ( Al fresco or En plein air
More than 150 miles (240 km) of maintained trails provide access to the roadless interior. Seven popular trails with round-trip times of half an hour (Weeping Rock) to 4 hours (Angels Landing) are found in Zion Canyon. Two popular trails, Taylor Creek (4 hours round trip) and Kolob Arch (9 hours round trip) are in the Kolob Canyons section of the park (near Cedar City). Hiking up into The Narrows from the Temple of Sinawava is a popular summertime diversion. Orderville Canyon, a narrower slot canyon, is also a favorite. Heartier souls can backpack down The Narrows from the top in two days, or hike down in one long day (12 hours). Other popular backpack trips include the West Rim Trail and LaVerkin Creek/Kolob Arch.
Zion is a center for Rock climbing, with short walls like Touchstone, Moonlight Buttress, Spaceshot and Prodigal Son being very popular. Rock climbing is a Sport in which participants climb up or across natural rock formations or man-made rock walls with the goal of reaching the There are many short free climbs, and a large number of hard, long aid climbs. Rockclimbing does not require a permit, though any anticipated bivy on a wall does. Certain areas are closed for raptor nesting in the spring.
Zion is the USA's most concentrated center for canyoneering. Canyoning (known as canyoneering in the US is traveling in Canyons using a variety of techniques that may include Walking, Scrambling, Popular routes like Pine Creek and Mystery Canyon were first descended in the 1950s and 1960s, with the last of the big drainages (Heaps) descended in 1982. Zion has a concentration of about 50 technical canyons, characterized by downclimbing and rappels in beautiful sandstone canyons. The most difficult canyons have long sections of entrenched narrows, with keeper potholes that require technical gear and specialized techniques to escape.
Lodging in the park is available at Zion Lodge, located halfway through Zion Canyon. Zion Lodge is a Lodge located in Zion National Park. Gilbert Stanley Underwood designed the Zion Lodge in the 1920s Zion Lodge is open year-round and has motel units, cabins, a restaurant, café, and gift shop but rooms fill up fast. Entering dictionaries after World War II, the word motel, a Portmanteau of motor and hotel or motorists' hotel, referred Three campgrounds are available; South and Watchman at the far south side of the park, and a primitive site at Lava Point in the middle of the park off Kolob Terrace Road. Definition Camping describes a range of activities Survivalist campers set off with little more than their boots whereas Recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped Watchman is the only campground in the park that takes reservations and Lava Point has only primitive facilities and is usually open from May to October. Camping in the backcountry requires permits.
Guided horseback riding trips, nature walks, and evening programs are available from late March to early November. For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description The Junior Ranger Program for ages 6 to 12 is active from Memorial Day to Labor Day at the Zion Nature Center. Memorial Day is a United States Federal holiday observed on the last Monday of May (on May in) Labor Day is a United States Federal holiday observed on the first Monday in September
Rangers at the Zion Canyon Visitor Center and the smaller Kolob Canyons Visitor Center can help visitors plan their stay. A bookstore attached to the Zion Canyon Visitor Center, run by the Zion Natural History Association, offers books, maps, and souvenirs for sale, with proceeds benefiting the park. The Association also runs the Zion Human History Museum.
Zion Canyon IMAX in nearby Springdale, features many interesting documentaries about the natural history of Zion Canyon and the American Southwest
Adjacent to the park on the south, is the town of Springdale, Utah which offers services such as lodging, food, and entertainment. Springdale is a town in Washington County, Utah, United States. There is also lodging, food and entertainment offered on the east side of the park along the Zion-Mount Carmel Highway and in Mt Carmel Junction. State Route 9 (SR-9 is a state highway in southern Utah, serving Zion National Park. Mount Carmel Junction and Mount Carmel are Unincorporated areas located 12 miles east of Zion National Park and 17 miles north of Kanab in
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