|Notable Zambos :|
Hugo Chávez and José María Morelos
Official population numbers are unknown. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón ( September 30, 1765, Valladolid now Morelia Michoacán – December 22, 1815, San Cristóbal
|Regions with significant populations|
|Spanish, and Portuguese|
|Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant); and other religions. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.|
|Related ethnic groups|
|African people, and Amerindian people. The term African people can refer to people who live in Africa, or people who trace their ancestry to Indigenous inhabitants of Africa. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States.|
Zambo is a Spanish term (the Portuguese language term is Cafuso) that was used in the Spanish Empire and continues to be used today to identify individuals in Hispanic America who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Cafuzo is a term of Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a Black African and an Amerindian (see Zambo) The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries The term African people can refer to people who live in Africa, or people who trace their ancestry to Indigenous inhabitants of Africa. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. The word originated from the Romance and Latin language. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The feminine word is Zamba (not to be confused with the Afro-Brazilian Samba folk dance or Samba music, or with Argentine Zamba folk dance). Samba is a lively rhythmical dance of Brazilian origin in 2/4 time danced under the Samba music. Samba ( is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil. It is widely viewed as Brazil's national musical style For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.
The word is not used in English, but people of this ethnicity exist in North America; the singer Tina Turner is Afro-Amerindian, as was the singer and guitarist Jimi Hendrix. Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock; November 26, 1939) is an eight time Grammy Award -winning American James Marshall Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix) (November 27 1942 – September 18 1970 was an American Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter
Under the caste system of Spanish and Portuguese colonial Latin America, the term originally applied to the children of one African and one Amerindian parent, or the children of two zambo parents. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. During this period a myriad of other terms were in use to denote other individuals of African / Amerindian ancestry in ratios smaller or greater than the 50:50 of zambos: "Cambujo" (Zambo / Amerindian mixture) for example. Today, zambo refers to all people with significant amounts of both African and Amerindian ancestry.
The first zambos were initially the offspring of escaping shipwrecked slaves, as well as plantation slave escapees, who ventured into various Central American, South American and Caribbean jungles seeking refuge in remote Amerindian communities to hide and escape capture by colonial authorities. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Jungle usually refers to a dense Forest in a hot climate such as a Tropical rainforest. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism An example would be on the island of Hispaniola (the present day Haiti & the Dominican Republic), in which some escaped slaves encountered the few remaining Tainos on the island. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with The Taínos were pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. Racial mixing occurred on the island and today Afro-Amerindians make up a small percentage of the populations of both Haiti and the Dominican Republic. These Amerindians — themselves under threat from encroaching European colonizers — were sympathetic to the plight of the fleeing slaves and welcomed them into their communities, offered them food and sanctuary, and in many cases also their daughters as wives. As in the United States during slavery, there are instances in Latin American history of Africans and Amerindians joining together and forming free renegade encampments to fight their European colonizers and slaveholders. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In Latin America, these primarily African settlements of runaways, or Maroons, were called quilombos. Maroons redirects here and may refer to Queensland state rugby league team. A quilombo (from the Kimbundu word kilombo) is a Brazilian Hinterland settlement founded by Quilombolas, or The most famous of all quilombos is the legendary Palmares in Brazil, which at the height of its flourishing had a population of over 30,000. Palmares, or Quilombo dos Palmares, was a collaboration of around ten Quilombos (or Mocambos) that grew from 1605 onwards in colonial The word "Zambo" later became a racist word used to describe individuals of African descent.
The history behind the African ancestry of the Garifuna is usually attributed to escaping shipwrecked slaves, whereas for the zambos of north-western South America, the Lobos of Mexico and most other Zambos in general are attributed to escaping plantation slaves.
Officially, zambos represent small minorities in the northwestern South American countries of Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. A small but noticeable number of zambos resulting from recent unions of Amerindian women to Afro-Ecuadorian men are not uncommon in major coastal cities of Ecuador. An Afro-Ecuadorian is a member of an Ethnic group in Ecuador who are descendants of black African slaves brought by the Spanish during their conquest of Ecuador For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Prior to the rural to urban migration, the Amerindian and Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicities were mostly constrained to the Andes region and province of Esmeraldas respectively. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Esmeraldas is a province in northwestern Ecuador. The capital is Esmeraldas. The communities that exist in Brazil, mainly along the northwestern region of the country, are known as Cafuzos. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
In Honduras, they are known as Garifunas, and while Zambos can also be found in other Caribbean and Central America countries such as the Dominican Republic, Belize, and Nicaragua, their history and origins are not linked to that of the Garifuna. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. The Garinagu (singular Garifuna) are an ethnic group of mixed ancestry who live primarily in Central America. The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with Belize (bəˈliːz formerly British Honduras, is a country in Central America. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America In Mexico, where they were known as Lobos (literally meaning wolf), they formed a sizeable minority in the past. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The great majority of Lobos have now been absorbed into the much larger Mexican Mestizo population and can only be found in tiny communities scattered around the southern coastal states including Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, and Veracruz where the country's Afro-Mexicans reside. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin Michoacán formally Michoacán de Ocampo (from Nahuatl Michhuacān "place of the fishermen" is one of the 31 constituent states The State of Guerrero is a state in the southern meridional region of Mexico. The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), in Spanish phonemically /oa'xaka/ named for its largest city, is one of the Campeche is the name of both a state in Mexico and its capital city Quintana Roo (kinˈtana ˈro is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. Yucatán is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that constitute the republic of Mexico.
Culturally, Mexican Lobos followed Amerindian traditions rather than African influences, as is also the case in Bolivia where the Afro-Bolivian community has absorbed and retained many aspects of Amerindian cultural influences such as dress and use of the Aymara language. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Aymara ( Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
These populations of mixed Amerindian and African ancestry are generally marginalized and discriminated against, with color bias being pervasive throughout much of Latin America. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Beyond the pockets of these specifically identified ethnic communities, in Latin American nations with large populations of people of African descent, the percentage of those with Amerindian ancestry is relatively high (though not as a ratio of the make up of the individuals). Such is the case in nations such as El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, and Brazil. El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
Long-standing problems of race and class discrimination in Latin America confront Latin Americans of African and Amerindian ancestry to varying degrees, depending on their membership in or identification with a specific Afro-Amerindian ethnic group such as those mentioned above, or the degree to which their ancestry is expressed in their physical characeristics. Generally, those with dark skin and frizzy hair tend to be among the region's poorest and most disenfranchised. For instance, in 1998, when Hurricane Mitch battered the northeast coast of Honduras, the nation's Garifuna communities were among the hardest hit, yet because of a history of racism and discrimination, they were virtually ignored by government relief efforts. Hurricane Mitch was one of the deadliest and most powerful Hurricanes on record in the Atlantic basin with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph (285 km/h List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that
Miscegenation in Spanish colonies