Xu Jingzong (許敬宗) (592-September 20, 672), courtesy name Yanzu (延族), formally Duke Gong of Gaoyang (高陽恭公), was a chancellor of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, and he, allied with Emperor Gaozong's wife Empress Wu (later known as Wu Zetian), was exceedingly powerful during most of Emperor Gaozong's reign. Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire regains Singidunum from the Avars. Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Events By Place Europe Wamba succeeds Reccaswinth as king of the Visigoths. A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name ( zì) is a given name to be used later in life The chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (唐朝宰相 was an office that was semi-formally designated for a number of high level officials at one time during the Chinese Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Background and life as Prince of Jin Li Zhi was born in 628 He was the ninth son of his father Emperor Taizong, and the third son of his mother Emperor Taizong's wife Wu Zetian ( (625 – December 16, 705 In 705 she was overthrown in a coup and Emperor Zhongzong was returned to the throne
Xu Jingzong was born in 592, during the reign of Emperor Wen of Sui. Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire regains Singidunum from the Avars. Background Yang Jian's clan was from Hongnong Commandery (弘農 roughly modern Sanmenxia, Henan) His ancestors had served as officials of the Southern Dynasties during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period for generations and claimed to be originally from Gaoyang Commandery (高陽, roughly modern Baoding) before moving south of the Yangtze River in light of Jin Dynasty's loss of the north. The Southern dynasties 南朝 ( nanchao in Pinyin: nán cháo comprise the Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang Dynasty and Chen This article is about the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. Baoding ( is a Prefecture-level city in Hebei province China. The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties Xu Jingzong's father Xu Shanxin (許善心) was serving as an emissary of Chen Shubao, the last emperor of Chen Dynasty, to Emperor Wen, whose Sui Dynasty then ruled the north, in 589, when Sui destroyed Chen to end the Southern and Northern Dynasties period and reunify China. Background Chen Shubao was born in 553 when his father Chen Xu was serving as a mid-level official under Emperor Yuan of Liang at Emperor Yuan's capital Chen Dynasty (陳朝 ( Pinyin: Chén cháo (557-589 was the fourth and the last of the Southern dynasties in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui Events By Place Europe October 17 — The Adige River overflows its banks flooding the church of St Emperor Wen was impressed with Xu Shanxin's profound sadness (rather than abject submission) at the fall of his state, and made him an official in his own administration.
Xu Jingzong himself was said to be knowledgeable of literature in his youth, and, after passing the imperial examination, was made a scribe at Huaiyang Commandery (淮陽, roughly modern Zhoukou, Henan). Zhoukou ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country He was soon made a low level official in the imperial administration of Emperor Wen's son Emperor Yang. Background Yang Guang was born in 569 during the reign of Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou. In 618, with virtually the entire Sui state engulfed by agrarian rebellions against Emperor Yang's rule, Xu Shanxin and Xu Jingzong were at Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu) with Emperor Yang and his other officials, when Emperor Yang was killed in a coup led by the general Yuwen Huaji. Events By Place Asia The Sui Dynasty ends and the Tang Dynasty begins in China. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Yangzhou administers 7 county-level divisions. ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country Background It is not known when Yuwen Huaji was born He was the oldest son of the Sui Dynasty official Yuwen Shu, a close associate of Yang Guang Yuwen was initially planning to spare Xu Shanxin, but after Xu Shanxin publicly refused to submit to him by dancing in his presence (then considered a sign of thanksgiving and submission), Yuwen executed him. Xu Jingzong submitted to Yuwen (by dancing) and was spared. His exact travels after Emperor Yang's death were not clear, although it is known that he later served the rebel ruler Li Mi the Duke of Wei as a secretary (along with the future Tang chancellor Wei Zheng), before eventually becoming a subject of Tang Dynasty, which emerged victorious from the civil wars near and after the end of Sui. Background Li Mi came from a line that was part of the nobility during successive dynasties Western Wei, Northern Zhou, and Sui Dynasty. Wei Zheng ( 580-643 Courtesy name Xuancheng (玄成 formally Duke Wenzhen of Zheng (鄭文貞公 was a Chinese politician and the lead editor The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by (Sui's last emperor, Emperor Yang's grandson Yang Tong, posthumously honored Xu Shanxin by posthumously creating him the Duke of Gaoyang -- a title that Xu Jingzong would eventually receive from Tang. During Emperor Yang's reign Yang Tong was born in 605 He was the second of three sons of Yang Zhao, Emperor Yang 's son and Crown prince. )
It is not clear what Xu Jingzong's activities were initially after becoming a subject of Tang Dynasty (then under the reign of Emperor Gaozu), but it is known that in 621, by which time Tang had prevailed over most, but not all, of its rivals in its campaign to reunify China after Sui's collapse, Xu was set to be sent to Lian Prefecture (漣州, roughly modern Huai'an, Jiangsu) to serve as its prefect's chief advisor, when Emperor Gaozu's son Li Shimin the Prince of Qin, hearing that he was literarily talented, kept him in the capital to serve as a member of his literary staff at a mansion where he retained the best literary talent and served them with the best food and wine. Background and early career Li Yuan's seventh-generation ancestor was Li Gao, the founder of the Sixteen Kingdoms state Western Liang. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Persia. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Huai'an administers 8 county-level divisions, including 4 districts and 4 counties. ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country Emperor Taizong of Tang ( January 23, 599 &ndash July 10 649) personal name Lǐ Shìmín ( was the second emperor of the (Xu also carried the title of census officer of Song Prefecture (宋州, roughly modern Shangqiu, Henan) during this time, but appeared to not report to Song Prefecture at all. Shangqiu ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country )
In 634, eight years after Li Shimin had succeeded Emperor Gaozu as emperor (as Emperor Taizong), Xu Jingzong was made an imperial scholar responsible for editing imperial history, as well as a mid-level official at the legislative bureau of government (中書省, Zhongshu Sheng). Events By Place Oswald of Northumbria defeats Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd in the Battle of Heavenfield and In 636, after Emperor Taizong's wife Empress Zhangsun died, the officials were observing a period of mourning and rotating in watching her casket, when Xu, seeing that the official taking that particular shift, Ouyang Xun, was exceedingly ugly in appearance, burst out in laughter, and was accused by the imperial censor for disrespect. Events By Place Byzantine Empire August 20 — Battle of Yarmuk: Khalid ibn al-Walid 's victory against the Empress Zhangsun (長孫皇后 personal name unknown ( 601 - July 28, 636) formally Empress Wendeshunsheng (文德順聖皇后 literally "the Ouyang Xun ( 557-641 Courtesy name Xinben (信本 was a Confucian Scholar and Calligrapher of the early Tang Dynasty He was demoted to the post of military assistant of the commandant at Hong Prefecture (洪州, roughly modern Nanchang, Jiangxi). Nanchang ( is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsi is a southern province of the People's Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River Eventually, he was recalled to the capital to be in charge of imperial supplies and continued to also serve in the role of editing imperial histories. In 643, he assisted the chancellor Fang Xuanling in editing and then submitting imperial histories for Emperors Gaozu's and Taizong's reigns and, for his contribution to the project, was created the Baron of Gaoyang, given an award of silk, and promoted to be the acting deputy head of the examination bureau of government (門下省, Menxia Sheng). Events By Place Europe Rothari King of the Lombards, issues the Lombard law code Fang Xuanling (房玄齡 (579–648 formal name Fang Qiao (房喬 but went by the Courtesy name of Xuanling formally Duke Wenzhao of Liang (梁文昭公 He was also soon made a junior advisor to Emperor Taizong's crown prince Li Zhi. Crown Princess redirects here for the ship see Crown Princess (ship. Background and life as Prince of Jin Li Zhi was born in 628 He was the ninth son of his father Emperor Taizong, and the third son of his mother Emperor Taizong's wife
In 645, Emperor Taizong was on the campaign against Goguryeo when the chancellor Cen Wenben, who was in charge of the legislative bureau and writing his edicts, died suddenly. Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Byzantines recapture Alexandria from the Arabs Asia Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula, southern Manchuria, and Cen Wenben (岑文本 ( 595 - May 10, 645) Courtesy name Jingren (景仁 formally Viscount Xian of Jiangling (江陵憲子 Emperor Taizong had left Li Zhi at Ding Prefecture (定州, roughly modern Baoding, Hebei), to be in charge of logistics, assisted by a number of officials led by the chancellor Gao Shilian, and Xu was a member of Li Zhi's staff there. Baoding ( is a Prefecture-level city in Hebei province China. ( Postal map spelling: Hopeh) is a northern province of the People's Republic of China. Gao Shilian (高士廉 ( 576 - February 14, 647) formal name Gao Jian (高儉 but went by the Courtesy name of Shilian formally  After Cen's sudden death, Emperor Taizong summoned Xu to the front and put him in charge of writing the edicts, and made him acting deputy head of the legislative bureau. After Emperor Taizong had a major victory over the main Goguryeo forces, he had Xu draft an edict announcing the victory, and he praised Xu for the beauty of the language that Xu used. (Despite the victory, however, Emperor Taizong's campaign would eventually end in failure, as he was unable to capture Anshi (安市, in modern Anshan, Liaoning) against the fierce defenses by the Goguryeo general later known in Korean popular stories as Yang Manchun. ( is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. Yang Manchun is the name given to the Goguryeo commander of Ansi fortress in the 640s. ) Later, at Xu's suggestion, staff members of Li Zhi's older brother and predecssor as crown prince, Li Chengqian (who was deposed in 643 in light of discoveries that he had plotted to overthrow his father), who had been long banned from civil service, had their eligibility restored. Li Chéngqián (李承乾 (619?- January 5, 645) Courtesy name Gaoming (高明 formally Prince Min of Hengshan (恆山愍王
In 649, Emperor Taizong died, and Li Zhi succeeded him (as Emperor Gaozong). Events By Place Europe Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. As part of the reshuffling of the imperial government, the minister of ceremonies, Yu Zhining was made chancellor, and Xu took over Yu's post as minister of ceremonies. Yu Zhining (于志寧 (588-665 Courtesy name Zhongmi (仲謐 formally Duke Ding of Yan (燕定公 was a chancellor of the Chinese Around this time, however, he was accused of improperly accepting an excessive amount of bride price to give his daughter in marriage to a son of Feng Ang (馮盎), a powerful regional official and chieftain of the local people in modern Guangdong, and, for this perceived impropriety was demoted to the post of prefect of Zheng Prefecture (鄭州, roughly modern Zhengzhou, Henan). Guangdong ( EFEO: Kouangtong; Pinyin Guǎngdōng; Postal map spelling: Kwangtung) is a province on the Zhengzhou ( formerly called Zhengxian is a Prefecture-level city, and the capital of Henan province, People's Republic of China. Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country In 652, he was recalled to the capital to serve as the minister of armory supplies, and in 655 was restored to his old post of minister of ceremonies. Events By Place Europe Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards. Events By Place Europe November 15 — Northumbrian king Oswiu defeats Mercian king Penda in the
Meanwhile, Emperor Gaozong's wife Empress Wang had lost her favors with the emperor, who now favored Consort Wu, and he wanted to depose Empress Wang and replace her with Consort Wu. Empress Wang (王皇后 personal name unknown (d 655? was an Empress of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. Wu Zetian ( (625 – December 16, 705 In 705 she was overthrown in a coup and Emperor Zhongzong was returned to the throne The chancellors -- except Li Ji -- were all opposed, with the harshest opposition coming from Chu Suiliang, Han Yuan, and Lai Ji. Li Shiji (李世勣 (594- December 31, 669) né Xu Shiji (徐世勣 later known in the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Tang as Li Ji Chu Suiliang (褚遂良 (597-658 Courtesy name Dengshan (登善 formally Duke of Henan (河南公 was a chancellor of the Chinese Han Yuan (韓瑗 (606-659 Courtesy name Boyu (伯玉 formally Duke of Yingchuan (潁川公 was an official of the Chinese dynasty Lai Ji (來濟 (610-662 was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong. Xu became an ally of Consort Wu, along with the other officials Li Yifu, Cui Yixuan (崔義玄), and Yuan Gongyu (袁公瑜). Li Yifu (李義府 (614-666 was a chancellor of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong. Xu tried to get the most powerful of the chancellors, Emperor Gaozong's uncle Zhangsun Wuji, to join their party as well, but Zhangsun, while not outwardly opposing Consort Wu's ascension, repeatedly showed implicit disapproval and refused to join Consort Wu's cause. Zhangsun Wuji (長孫無忌 (d 659 Courtesy name Fuji (輔機 formally Duke of Zhao (趙公 was a chancellor of the Chinese He further repeatedly rebuked Xu, drawing Xu's resentment. Later in 655, despite severe opposition from Chu, Han, and Lai, Emperor Gaozong deposed Empress Wang and her ally Consort Xiao and replaced Empress Wang with Consort Wu. Consort Xiao, imperial consort rank Shufei (蕭淑妃 personal name unknown (d (Empress Wang and Consort Xiao were later cruelly killed at Empress Wu's instigation. ) During the controversy change of empresses, Xu publicly endorsed the move, stating that it was no one else's business if the emperor wanted to change empresses, and it was partly due to Xu's words that Emperor Gaozong's resolve was hardened, and he further demoted Chu out of the capital. In addition, once Empress Wang was deposed, Xu submitted a petition to have honors posthumously given to her father Wang Renyou (王仁祐) rescinded.
In late 655, Xu also proposed that the crown prince Li Zhong (born of Consort Liu, who was of low birth, and therefore proposed as crown prince by Empress Wang (who was herself sonless) in 652 as she hoped that he would be grateful) be deposed and replaced with Empress Wu's oldest son Li Hong. Li Zhong (李忠 ( 643 - January 6, 665) Courtesy name Zhengben (正本 formally Prince of Yan (燕王 was a Events By Place Europe Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards. Li Hong (李弘 ( 652 - May 25, 675) formally Emperor Xiaojing (孝敬皇帝 literally "the filial and alert emperor" with the In 656, Emperor Gaozong agreed and demoted Li Zhong to the title of Prince of Liang, creating Li Hong crown prince instead. Events By Place Europe Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Asia The Battle of
In 657, following Empress Wu's directions, Xu and Li Yifu accused Han and Lai (who were still chancellors at this point but had basically lost power) of conspiring with Chu to rebel. Events By Place Asia The Chinese Tang Dynasty under Emperor Gaozong of Tang defeats a Turkish army Han, Lai, and Chu were all made prefects of distant prefectures and ordered to be permanently banished from the capital. Later that year, Xu was made Shizhong (侍中) -- the head of the examination bureau and a post considered one for a chancellor. In 658, he was made Zhongshu Ling (中書令), the head of the legislative bureau and also a post considered for a chancellor; he was also promoted to the greater title of Duke of Gaoyang. Events By place Europe The Union of Slavic Tribes falls apart after King Samo 's death
By 659, Empress Wu, with her powers firm, began to seek further vengeance against those she felt had slighted her, and her prime target was Zhangsun and Yu. This article is about a year Events By Place Europe Ealdormen in Mercia rebel against Northumbrian rule and At that time, a man named Li Fengjie (李奉節) had accused the low level officials Wei Jifang (韋季方) and Li Chao (李巢) of conspiracy, and Emperor Gaozong put Xu and Xin Maojiang in charge of the investigations. Xin Maojiang (辛茂將 (d January 3, 660) was an official and general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor Xu used various interrogation tactics, including torture, to cause Zhangsun to be implicated, and Xu, citing the example of Yuwen Huaji, informed Emperor Gaozong that Zhangsun was about to rebel and should be immediately expelled from the capital. Emperor Gaozong, after some hesitation, agreed without once meeting with Zhangsun to get his side of the story, exiling him to Qian Prefecture (黔州, roughly modern southeastern Chongqing). Chongqing ( Postal map spelling: Chungking; Wade-Giles: Ch'ung-ch'ing) is the largest and most populous of the People's Republic of China Xu then implicated Chu (who had died earlier, in 658), Han, Lai, and Yu in the alleged plot as well. Chu's posts were posthumously removed, and Han, Lai, and Yu were removed from their posts. Chu's sons Chu Yanfu (楮彥甫) and Chu Yanchong (楮彥沖) were killed on their way to exile. Several of Zhangsun's relatives were also exiled. Later that year, Xu revised the rankings of various clans, promoting Empress Wu's Wu clan to the highest rank. In fall 659, Emperor Gaozong further ordered Li Ji, Xu, Xing, Ren Yaxiang, and Lu Chengqing to investigate Zhangsun's plot again. Ren Yaxiang (任雅相 (d March 9, 662) was an official and general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor Lu Chengqing (盧承慶 (595-670 Courtesy name Ziyu (子餘 formally Duke Ding of Fanyang (范陽定公 was an official of the Chinese Xu, in response, sent Yuan to Qian Prefecture to force Zhangsun to commit suicide. Also apparently at Xu's suggestion, Emperor Gaozong ordered the executions of Han and Empress Wang's uncle Liu Shi (who had also been exiled). Liu Shi (柳奭 (d 659 Courtesy name Zishao (子邵 was a chancellor of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, during the reign of
In 662, Emperor Gaozong made Xu an advisor to the new crown prince as well as de facto chancellor of the first class, while continuing to exercise actual authority over the legislative bureau. Events The regent Grimuald usurps the kingship of the Lombards, driving Perctarit into exile and killing Godepert. Later that year, partially at Xu's instigation, fellow chancellor Xu Yushi was removed from his post, on the account that Xu Yushi had failed to report on his son Xu Ziran (許自然)'s causing damage to private property, merely punishing Xu Ziran himself by caning him. Xu Yushi (許圉師 (d 679 formally Duke Jian of Ping'en (平恩簡公 was briefly a chancellor of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, during
In 664, Emperor Gaozong, angry over Empress Wu's grip on power, secretly discussed with the chancellor Shangguan Yi the possibility of deposing her, but the discussions were discovered by Empress Wu, and Emperor Gaozong, in fear, blamed Shangguan for everything. Events By Place Asia Arab armies conquer Kabul. Kuo Wu Tsung of Tang comes to Japan Shangguan Yi (上官儀 (d January 4, 665) Courtesy name Youshao (游韶 formally Duke of Chu (楚公 was an official of the At Empress Wu's instigation, Xu Jingzong submitted an accusation stating that Shangguan, who had previously served on Li Zhong's staff, was conspiring with Li Zhong and the eunuch Wang Fusheng (王伏勝), who had also previously served on Li Zhong's staff and who had reported to Emperor Gaozong that Empress Wu had engaged in witchcraft. A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to Shangguan, his son Shangguan Tingzhi (上官庭芝), and Wang were executed, while Li Zhong was forced to commit suicide.
In 670, at Xu's request, Emperor Gaozong allowed him to retire. Events By Place Europe On the death of his brother Clotaire Childeric II becomes king of all of the Frankish kingdoms ( Austrasia He died in 672 and was buried near Emperor Taizong's tomb. Events By Place Europe Wamba succeeds Reccaswinth as king of the Visigoths.
Traditional historians, both during Xu Jingzong's own times and in posterity, criticized Xu severely. In the aftermaths of his death, one of the imperial officials in charge for awarding posthumous names, Yuan Sigu (袁思古), suggested giving him the unflattering posthumous name of Miu (繆, meaning "untrue"), stating that he deserved that posthumous name because he had given a daughter to Feng Ang's son in exchange for a large bride price, and because he had exiled his own son Xu Ang (許昂) to the modern Guangdong region. A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty nobles and sometimes others in some cultures after the person's death (Xu Jingzong, after his wife's death, had married his wife's servant girl Lady Yu as his new wife -- considered an improper act in those days due to the differences in social station -- not knowing that Xu Ang had been carrying on an affair with Lady Yu, an affair that they continued even after Xu Jingzong married her. When Xu Jingzong discovered this, he divorced Lady Yu and, accusing Xu Ang of a lack of filial piety, exiled him. ) Instead, Emperor Gaozong ordered further discussion, and at the suggestion of the minister of ceremonies, Yang Sijing (陽思敬), Xu was given the posthumous name of Gong (恭, usually meaning "alert," but also having the secondary meaning of "willing to learn from mistakes").
Later historians' criticism of Xu were often on his twisting of history as a historian. They pointed out that he was resentful of Feng Deyi, who was chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozu and early in the reign of Emperor Taizong, because Feng had witnessed the coup at Jiangdu and had popularized Xu's disgrace in a couplet that stated: "When Yu Shiji was killed, Yu Shinan kneeled and asked to die in his stead; when Xu Shanxin was killed, Xu Jingzong danced to avoid death. Feng Deyi (封德彝 (568-627 formal name Feng Lun (封倫 but went by the Courtesy name of Deyi formally initially Duke Ming of Mi (密明公 later Yu Shiji (虞世基 (d 618 Courtesy name Maoshi (懋世 or 茂世 was an official of the Chinese dynasties Chen Dynasty and Sui Dynasty Yu Shinan ( 558–638 Courtesy name Boshi (伯施 was a master of Calligraphy in early Tang Dynasty. " Later, after Feng's death and Xu was in charge of writing history, he wrote a highly critical biography of Feng in order to pay Feng back. Other instances of Xu's twisting of history that were noted included:
Generally, it was believed that Xu often altered the historical records of Emperors Gaozu's and Taizong's reigns based on personal likes and dislikes as well. It was, however, noted that Xu was a major contributor to many important imperially-commissioned works.