Xinhai Revolution in Shanghai; The picture above is the Nanjing Road after the Shanghai uprising, full with the Five Races Under One Union Flags then used by the revolutionaries. Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Nanjing Road ( is the main shopping street of Shanghai China, and is one of the world's busiest shopping streets Five races under one union ( Chinese: 五族共和 Pinyin: Wǔzú gōnghé, literally "five races together" was one of the major principles that
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and local Qing governors. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit Féng Guózhāng, ( courtesy: Huafu 華甫 or 華符 ( January 7, 1859 - December 12, 1919) a native of Hejian Yuan Shikai ( Courtesy Weiting 慰亭 Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 ( September 16, 1859 &ndash June 6,
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|This article contains Chinese text. Li Yuanhong ( Traditional Chinese: 黎元洪 Pinyin: Lí Yuánhóng courtesy Songqing 宋卿 1864 - June 3, 1928) was Huang Xing or Huang Hsing ( October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916) Chinese Revolutionary leader Militarist Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often |
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters. Mojibake is the happenstance of incorrect unreadable characters (garbage characters shown when Computer software fails to render a text correctly according to its associated A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese (
The Xinhai Revolution or Shinhai Revolution (Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnhài Gémìng), also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 and ended with the abdication of Emperor Puyi on February 12, 1912. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use The Wuchang Uprising of October 10 1911 started the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Puyi ( ( February 7, 1906 &ndash October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting The primary parties to the conflict were the Imperial forces of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911), and the revolutionary forces of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui). Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit The revolution is so named because 1911 is a Xinhai Year in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar. The Chinese sexagenary cycle ( is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles the ten Heavenly Stems (天干 tiāngān The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, incorporating elements of a Lunar calendar with those of a Solar calendar.
The immediate result of the revolution was not a republican form of government. Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty The provisional central government was weak and the country was still politically fragmented. The monarchy was briefly and abortively restored twice, and there was a period of military rule. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Though the revolution concluded on February 12, 1912, when the Republic of China formally replaced the Qing Dynasty, internal conflict continued to persist within China. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES A failed Second Revolution, the Warlord Era and the Chinese Civil War would all come to pass before the People’s Republic of China would come to be officially established on October 1, 1949. This article discusses history of the state which currently governs Taiwan Area. The Warlord era is the period in the History of the Republic of China, from 1916 to the late-1930s when the country was divided among military cliques, a division Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The issues surrounding the Xinhai Revolution are often a subject of politically-charged discussion, as the events that followed as a direct consequence of the Xinhai Revolution have roles in the histories of both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. The semi-documentary TV series Towards the Republic was banned in the PRC because of its portrayal of the Xinhai Revolution. Towards the Republic ( or For the Sake of The Republic as it is known in some countries is a 60-episode Chinese television series produced by CCTV Whether the Xinhai Revolution merely continued the corrupt practices of the hated Qing Dynasty in another form is also matter of contention. Nevertheless, the Xinhai Revolution was the first attempt to establish a republic in China that managed to successfully oust the previous government.
Today, the Xinhai Revolution is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day (Chinese: 雙十節). Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Double Ten Day ( is the National day of the Republic of China (ROC (commonly known as Taiwan since the 1970s and celebrates the start of the In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Macau topics. Many overseas Chinese also celebrate the anniversary, termed either "Double Ten Day" or "Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution", and events are usually held in Chinatowns across the world. A Chinatown is a section of an urban area with a large number of Chinese outside the majority-Chinese countries of Greater China.
The First Opium War is generally considered the beginning of modern Chinese history, ending a long period of self-imposed Chinese isolation. Self-Strengthening Movement ( c 1861–1895 was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions Huang Xing or Huang Hsing ( October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916) Chinese Revolutionary leader Militarist A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Li Yuanhong ( Traditional Chinese: 黎元洪 Pinyin: Lí Yuánhóng courtesy Songqing 宋卿 1864 - June 3, 1928) was Military uniforms comprises standardised Dress worn by members of the Armed forces of various nations The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the British East India Company and the Qing Dynasty in China from 1839 Some Chinese officials and intellectuals became convinced that China needed to adopt the technologies and commercial practices of Western countries if it was to remain a sovereign nation. From the 1860s to the 1890s, the Qing dynasty instituted reforms known as the The Self-Strengthening Movement, which aimed to achieve these goals. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Self-Strengthening Movement ( c 1861–1895 was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions However, the defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society also needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. The First Sino-Japanese War ( 日清戦争 Romaji: Nisshin Sensō ( 1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a war fought between Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Some of the problems with feudal society were illustrated in the banned 1905 manhua book, Journal of Current Pictorial. Manhua ( are Chinese Comics originally produced in China. Possibly due to their greater degree of artistic freedom of expression and closer international ties Journal of Current Pictorial (Chinese 時事畫報 was a Manhua magazine published in 1905
After 1895, non-government circles became more concerned with national affairs, leading to some calls from intellectuals for more far-reaching reforms. The Hundred Days' Reform ( or) was a failed 104-day national cultural political and educational reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898 undertaken by the young Guangxu Some, including Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, advocated imitating the improvements shown by Japan and Russia regarding how best to work the political and social systems under the imperial power. > Kang Youwei Liang Qichao ( Chinese: 梁啟超 Liáng Qǐchāo; Courtesy: Zhuoru, 卓如 Pseudonym: Rengong, 任公 ( February In 1898, the Guangxu Emperor instituted several reforms. The Guangxu Emperor (光緒帝 (14 August 1871&ndash14 November 1908 born Zaitian (載湉 was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty This reformation would eventually be termed the Hundred Days' Reform due to its short duration; it ended in a coup d'etat by conservatives in the dynasty 103 days later. The Hundred Days' Reform ( or) was a failed 104-day national cultural political and educational reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898 undertaken by the young Guangxu Though some of the reformers were exiled, there were still some who advocated a constitutional monarchy similar to that of the United Kingdom, allowing the imperial family to remain in the political system, but shifting the focus of political power to the democratic government. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
After the strike of Boxer Rebellion and the Eight-Nation Alliance, the Qing government led by the Empress Dowager Cixi started to carry out the reforms advocated by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao in the Hundred Days' Reform. The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy. The Boxer Rebellion, or Boxer Movement, was an uprising by members of the Chinese Society of Right and Harmonious Fists against foreign influence The Eight-Nation Alliance ( was an alliance of 8 nations ( Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Empress Dowager Cixi 1 ( ( November 29 1835 – November 15 1908) popularly known in China as the The Hundred Days' Reform ( or) was a failed 104-day national cultural political and educational reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898 undertaken by the young Guangxu Among the changes, the one with the greatest influence was the abolishment of the imperial examination on September 2, 1905. The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The government started building modern colleges, and there were 60,000 of these by the time of the Xinhai Revolution. After the abolishment, traditional literati found they could no longer attempt to get government posts by merely succeeding in the examination, drastically changing the political environment.
The Qing government announced an outline of the Constitutionalism campaign on September 1, 1906. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Constitutionalists with high social status from each province urged the government to form a cabinet. In May 1911, the prime minister of the newly formed cabinet was announced to be Prince Qing. Yìkuāng the Prince Qīng ( Simplified Chinese: 庆亲王奕劻 Wade-Giles:Prince Ch'ing (February 1836 - January 1918 was a Manchu noble of the late Moreover, 9 of the 13 members of the cabinet were Manchu, while 7 of them were from the imperial family. The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in All of this came as a disappointment to the constitutionalists. As a result, constitutionalists from different provinces changed their tack, supporting revolution instead of constitutionalism in a campaign to save the nation.
In the last years of the Qing dynasty, the old-fashioned armies from the Eight Banners had lost their strength. The Beiyang Army ( meaning "North Western Army" was a powerful Western-style Chinese military force created by the Qing Dynasty government The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakūn gūsa, In Chinese: 八旗 baqí were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed The quelling of Taiping Rebellion mainly relied on township forces (the militias of the local elite). The Taiping Rebellion or Rebellion of Great Peace was a large-scale Revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing Government in China After the first Sino-Japanese War, as a response to the datedness of the troops, the Qing government had planned to form 36 modern regiments to replace the old ones. The First Sino-Japanese War ( 日清戦争 Romaji: Nisshin Sensō ( 1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a war fought between Of the 36 regiments, 6 were to form the Beiyang Army controlled by Yuan Shikai. The Beiyang Army ( meaning "North Western Army" was a powerful Western-style Chinese military force created by the Qing Dynasty government Yuan Shikai ( Courtesy Weiting 慰亭 Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 ( September 16, 1859 &ndash June 6, To foster new officers, many military schools were built in each province. Some new regiments appointed many overseas students to be officers; In contrast, Beiyang regiments rarely employed overseas students.
The conflict between the Manchu and the Han Chinese had been nearly forgotten in the middle of the Qing dynasty due to the long period of peace under the Qing government. The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. However, with the decline of the Qing government, the Manchu-Han problem began to surface again after the Taiping Rebellion. The Taiping Rebellion or Rebellion of Great Peace was a large-scale Revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing Government in China After 1890, writings concerning repulsion with the Manchus began to resurface. Books left over from the last years of Ming dynasty guided the influential intellectuals of the period. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Many revolutionaries even promoted their cause by taking advantage of such ideas. Although some revolutionaries, like Sun Yat-sen, mentioned political and economic reform, rather than ethnic revolution, the main revolutionary forces in the early part of the 20th century were full of ideas of "Manchu repulsion". Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often After the overthrow of the Qing government, the slogan of revolution was changed from "expelling the Manchus" to "harmony among different races" in an attempt to unify the country, which was then in fragments.
The main revolutionary organizations were the Revive China Society (興中會), Hua Xing Hui (華興會), Guang Fu Hui (光復會), and the Tongmenghui (中國同盟會), which was founded later. Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often The President of the Republic of China ( is the Head of state of the Republic of China (ROC (commonly known as Taiwan since the 1970s REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Xingzhonghui ( translated as the Revive China Society or the Society for Regenerating China, was founded by Dr The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit As well as these, Gong Jin Hui (共進會) and Wen Xue She (文學社) were also important organizations.
Tongmenghui launched their project in Huanan (華南), while Guang Fu Hui was active in Jiangsu (江蘇), Zhejiang (浙江) and Shanghai (上海). ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country Zhejiang ( is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Hua Xing Hui mainly worked in Hunan(湖南) and Gong Jin Hui in the Yangtze River(長江) area. ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning The Tongmenghui, founded later on, was a loose organization distributed across the country. The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit
The main leaders of the organizations were Sun Yat-sen (孫中山), Huang Hsing (黃興), Sung Chiao-jen (宋教仁), Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei (蔡元培), Zhao Sheng (趙聲), Zhang Binglin (章炳麟) and Tao Cheng Zhang (陶成章). Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often Huang Xing or Huang Hsing ( October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916) Chinese Revolutionary leader Militarist Song Jiaoren ( ( 5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Chinese republican revolutionary political leader and a founder of the Life Zhang was born with the given name Xuecheng (學乘 in Yuhang, Zhejiang to a scholarly family
The main political aim of the revolutionaries was to overthrow the rule of the Qing government, rebuild a Han Chinese government and construct a republic. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. The Revive China Society, founded in 1894, aimed to "expel the Manchus, restore the Han and found a united government". The Hua Xing Hui, founded in 1904, proposed "expelling the Manchus and restoring the Han". The Tongmenghui, founded in 1905, advocated "expelling the Manchus, restoring the Han, founding a republic and equally dividing the land ownership", which referred to the Three Principles of the People (三民主義, Nationalism, Democracy, and Socialism) promoted by Sun Yat-sen. The Three Principles of the People, also Translated as Three People's Principles, or collectively San-min Doctrine, is a Political Philosophy The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often
However, when the revolutionary parties promoted their political view, "expelling the Manchus and restoring the Han" became the main element, since the anti-Manchurian emotions of the people were the easiest to arouse. The more important point was that nationalism could cohere with different kinds of power to overthrow the government. As for what kind of social system and revolution should be held after the demise of the Qing government, most people treated this as an issue that should only be considered after the overthrow.
During the 1890s, many people began to advocate for a violent revolution to ultimately overthrow the Qing Dynasty, and establish a republic similar to France and United States. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The earliest revolutionaries generally gathered abroad, and the majority of them were students and young overseas Chinese. The earliest revolutionary organizations were established outside of China also. Yang Quyung's Furenwen Society was created in Hong Kong in 1890, while Sun Yat-sen's Revive China Society was established at Honolulu in 1894, with the main purpose of fundraising to pay for the cost of the revolution. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often The Xingzhonghui ( translated as the Revive China Society or the Society for Regenerating China, was founded by Dr Honolulu is the Capital and most populous Census-designated place (CDP in the U In 1895, these two organizations were combined in Hong Kong, and continued to use the name of Revive China Society. In the same year on October 26, the first uprising was held in Guangzhou, but was unsuccessful. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Guangzhou ( Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹; Yale: Gwóngjàu) is the Capital and a Sub-provincial city Yang and Sun were forced to flee abroad. Sun Yat-sen was kidnapped by agents from the Qing government the next year in London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. This incident became an international headline, and Sun became famous on the international stage. Yang Quyung was assassinated in 1901, by Qing agents in Hong Kong. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders
In 1900, the Boxer Rebellion broke out in northern China. The Boxer Rebellion, or Boxer Movement, was an uprising by members of the Chinese Society of Right and Harmonious Fists against foreign influence The inability for the Qing Government to solve the incident drastically lowered the image of the government. After it signed the Boxer Protocol, Chinese intellectuals felt even more about the crisis that China was facing. The Boxer Protocol was an Unequal treaty signed on September 7, 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance Beginning after the First Sino-Japanese War, China began to send more students abroad, particularly to Japan, which at its height had 20,000 Chinese students. The First Sino-Japanese War ( 日清戦争 Romaji: Nisshin Sensō ( 1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a war fought between For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Most of them were sponsored by the government. The revolutionary thoughts spread across the students, and those who advocate revolution established all kinds of organizations and publications to preach for a democratic revolution. Among these students, Zhang Binglin, Zou Rong and Chen Tianhua were very active in Japan. Life Zhang was born with the given name Xuecheng (學乘 in Yuhang, Zhejiang to a scholarly family Zou Rong (1885-1905 鄒容 Pinyin: Zōu Róng Wade-Giles: Tsou Jung Many of the students later returned to China, and became the backbone of revolutionary organizations inside the country.
When the Russo-Japanese War began in Manchuria in 1904, the Qing Government decided to abandon certain territories for these two countries to fight over, while China stayed "neutral". The Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争 Romaji: Nichi-Ro Sensō Русско-японская война Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna;, 10 February 1904 – 5 September Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast The neglectful attitude of the Qing Government toward Chinese territory led to more calls for a revolution. The main ones were Huaxinghui, led by Huang Xing which was established in Changsha, 1904, with members like Huang Xing, Liu Kuiyi and Song Jiaoren, mainly youngsters from Hunan, as well as Guang Fu Hui, established by Tao Chenzhang, Cai Yuanpei October in Shanghai, 1904, consisted of members like Qiu Jin and Zhang Binglin, mainly youngsters from Zhejiang; there were also other all kinds of minor revolutionary organization such as Lizhi Xuehui in Jiangsu, Gongchanghui in Sichuan, Yiwenhui and Hanzhudulihui in Fujian, Yizhihui in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui in Anhui and Qunzhihui in Guangzhou. Huang Xing or Huang Hsing ( October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916) Chinese Revolutionary leader Militarist Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the Song Jiaoren ( ( 5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Chinese republican revolutionary political leader and a founder of the ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Qiū Jǐn (秋瑾 ( November 8, 1875 - July 15, 1907) was a Chinese anti- Qing Empire revolutionary feminist and writer Zhejiang ( is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. These organizations may not be connected, and majority of them were regionally influenced, but they generally had a common aim: to overthrow the Manchus, and restore the Hans to create a republic similar to United States. The anti-Manchurian stream was beneficial for the revolution, and many revolutionary sought to use aid from these societies, e. g. , Hua Xin Hui and the Ge Lao Hui, Guang Fu Hui and Qing Ban, Revive China Society and Shahehui all had close relations; Sun Yat-sen himself was a member of Hongmen Zhigongtang. The Tiandihui ( Yale Cantonese: tin1 dei6 wui2 Vietnamese: Thiên Địa Hội literally "Heaven and Earth Society" is a Fraternal
Sun Yat-sen successfully united the Revive China Society, Hua Xin Hui, and Guang Fu Hui in the summer of 1905 to establish Chinese Tongmenghui on 10 August 1905 in Tokyo. The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. They called for: "Get rid of Manchus and restore China, establish the Republic and equalize the land. " in Min Bao b[›] to state the view. Tongmenhui was active on publicizing their thoughts, and pushed forward to awaken the public. The democratic Min Bao and the royalist Xinmincong Bao began to unfold intense debates, and it became the base of the revolution. Even though Tongmenhui was divided again at one point (members disapproved Sun Yat-sen's refusal to accept financial support from the Japanese government, Guang Fu Hui withdrew. Sun Yat-sen and Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin re-established headquarters in southern Pacific; Huang Hsing continued to support Sun Yat-sen), it still had crucial impacts on the revolution.
In February 1906, Ri Zhi Hui convened a conference which many revolutionary leaders, like Sun Wu, Zhang Nanxian, He Jiwei and Feng Mumin, attended. Ri Zhi Hui emphasized the spread of new knowledge and revolutionary thoughts among students, new armies and other organizations. It later became Tongmenhui's establishment in Hubei.
In July 1907, several members of Tongmenhui in Tokyo advocated a revolution in the area of Yangtze River. Liu Quiyi, Jiao Dafeng, Zhang Boxiang and Sun Wu established Gong Jin Hui. The nature and outline of Gong Jin Hui were essentially the same as Tongmenhui, but it does not belong to Tongmenhui directly. Gong Jin Hui was one of the leading organizations in the Wuchang Uprising.
On 30 January 1911, Zhengwu Xueshe was renamed as Wen Xue She, and Jiang Yiwu was chosen as the leader. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Wen Xue She was organized by the young men in the new armies, and its main purpose was to infiltrate into the new armies, and to secure the military armaments. Wen Xue Hui was another of the leading organization in the Wuchang Uprising.
The strength of the Xinhai Revolution consisted of many factors, including students and intellectuals that returned from abroad, as well as participants of the organizations, overseas Chinese, soldiers of the news armies, local gentry, farmers and others.
The newly emerged intellectuals consisted mainly of overseas students and students of the new schools. After the abolition of the imperial examination, the Qing Government established many new schools and encouraged students to study abroad. Many young people went into new schools or went abroad to study. Most people went in to Japan in particular for military studies.
In the 1900s, going to Japan was mainstream in China. Before the Xinhai Revolution, there were over ten thousand Chinese students in Japan, and many of them had anti-Manchu sentiments. When Tongmenhui was established in Tokyo in 1905, 90% of the participants were Chinese students in Japan. Members of Tongmenhui who were in Japan for military study also organized the Zhangfutuan. These Chinese students in Japan contributed immensely to the Xinhai Revolution. Besides Sun Yat-sen, key figures in the Revolution such as Huang Hsing, Song Jiaoren, Hu Hanmin, Liao Zhongkai, Zhu Zhixin, and Wang Jingwei, were all Chinese students in Japan. Song Jiaoren ( ( 5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Chinese republican revolutionary political leader and a founder of the Hu Hanmin ( Traditional:胡漢民 Simplified: 胡汉民 born in Panyu, Guangdong, China, December 9, 1879; Liao Zhongkai (廖仲愷 (April 23 1877 - August 20 1925 Huiyang Guangdong Kuomintang leader and financier Wang Jingwei ( Traditional Chinese: 汪精衛 Simplified Chinese: 汪精卫 Pinyin: Wāng Jīngwèi Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei (
Abolishment of the imperial examination led to the appearance and rise of the new intellectual class. Those who had received western culture became leaders in the Xinhai Revolution.
Near the end of the Qing Dynasty, many secret organizations like Hong Men, Ge Lao Hui, Zhi Gong Tang, Sha He Hui and Hong Jiang Hui were the main strength on leading the public in the struggle to resist the Qing Government. The participants in these organizations included landowners, farmers, workers, merchants, soldiers, and civilians. The organizations, topped by landowners and gentry, generally promoted the ideas of "Resist Qing and restore Ming". The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led
The Chinese Revival Society and Ge Lao Hui, Guang Fu Hui and Qing Bang, Revive China Society and Shan He Hui were all closely connected; Sun Yat-sen himself was mentioned, was a member of the Hong Men. Before 1908, revolutionaries were focused on connecting and utilizing the organizations to prepare to launch uprisings through this organizations, making them the main source of strength for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty.
After the Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen recalled the days of searching for revolutionary strength and said "Literati were deeply into the search for honors and profits, were only considered lower class. In opposite, the organization of Shan He Hui were able to plant the ideas of resist Qing, and restore Ming. "
Assistance from overseas Chinese was important in the Xinhai Revolution. They supported and actively participated in the Tongmenghui, funding revolutionary activities, especially by Southeast Asian Chinese. Some of them even returned to their homeland to establish revolutionary organizations, and participated in many of the armed uprisings. In the first year of the Revive China Society based in Honolulu during November 1894, around 20 of the first members were overseas Chinese.
The contributions of overseas Chinese were one of the most important factors for the success in Xinhai Revolution. Of the "72 martyrs of Huanghuagang," 29 were overseas Chinese.
Beginning in 1908, the revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies. Revolutionary Frank Wu trained an army of rebels to attack an imperialist fortress. This set off many inspirations to rebel. The revolutionaries began to carry out revolutionary activities and propaganda. Because of the abolition of the imperial examination system, many young intellectuals joined the new armies and became their backbone.
Wen Xue Hui and Gong Jin Hui, two of the leading organizers of the Wuchang Uprising, established relations with the new armies very early.
From September to October 1907, the Qing Government set up some government apparatus for the gentry and businessman to participate in politics. The strength of gentry in local politics became apparent.
These people were originally supporters of constitutionalism. However, they were disappointed with the Qing Government when the first cabinets were all members of the Qing dynasty. After the Wuchang Uprising, these people began to call for revolution.
Besides Chinese and overseas Chinese, some of the supporters and participants of Xinhai Revolution were foreigners; the Japanese were the most active in participating Chinese revolution. Many of the revolutionary organizations were established and functioned in Japan; The Chinese Tongmenghui were brought together and established in Tokyo by Japanese supporters of the revolution. Some Japanese people even became members of Tongmenghui. In various uprisings, there were always Japanese who directly participated and some even lost their lives.
During the years 1895 to 1911, the Revive China Society and the later Tongmenghui launched ten uprisings. The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit Guang Fu Hui (Restoration Society) also launched several uprisings. These uprisings were short-lived, but they set up the possibility for a revolution in China.
In spring 1895, Revive China Society based in Hong Kong planned for the first Guangzhou Uprising, and Lu Haodong were assigned the design of the flag. The Xingzhonghui ( translated as the Revive China Society or the Society for Regenerating China, was founded by Dr The Blue Sky with a White Sun ( serves as the design for the party Flag and Emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT the canton of the Flag On 26 October 1895, Yang Quyun and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang and Lu Haodong to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year However, the details of their plans were leaked to the government. The Qing Government began to arrest revolutionaries including Lu Haodong, who ended up being executed. The first Guangzhou uprising declared its failure. Sun Yat-sen and Yang Quyun were wanted by the Qing Government. Under the pressure from Qing Government, the government of Hong Kong forbade the entrance of these two people for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile, promoting the Chinese revolution and engaging in fundraising for revolutionary expenses in Japan, the United States and Britain.
In 1900, the Boxer Rebellion unfolded in China, and the north was in anarchy. The Boxer Rebellion, or Boxer Movement, was an uprising by members of the Chinese Society of Right and Harmonious Fists against foreign influence The revolutionaries, therefore, decided to prepare for a military uprising. In June, Sun Yat-sen along with Zhen Sholiang, Chen Shaobai, Yang Quyun and several Japanese people, such as Miyazaki Toten, Heiyama Shu and Ryohei Uchida, arrived in Hong Kong from Yokohama, but were declined for entrance by the British authority. was a Japanese ultranationalist political theorist Pan-Asianist, and martial artist, active in the pre-war Empire of Japan. is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, located in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshū and is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area With the support of a Japanese organization, Sun Yat-sen went to Taiwan via Shimonoseki on September 25, and gained the promised support of an uprising in Guangzhou by Japanese officers after meeting the Japanese governor. is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. It is at the southwestern tip of Honshū, facing the Tsushima Strait and also Kitakyushu Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Sun Yat-sen as a result established commanding center for the uprising. On October 8, Sun Yat-sen ordered Zhen Shiliang and others to launch an uprising in Huizhou Sanzhoutian, also known as the Huizhou Uprising, Genji Uprising et cetera. Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses The revolutionary army developed into 20,000 men at initial stage, but the Japanese officers changed their attitude and refused to support the revolution as promised. This uprising again ended up as a failure. Revolutionaries, such as Shi Jian and Yamada Ryusei, were killed as a result. Sun Yat-sen was deported from Taiwan back to Japan.
On May 1907, the Revolutionary Party, along with Xu Xueqiu, Chen Yunshen, Chen Yongpo and Yu Jichen of Shan He Hui, launched the Huanggang Uprising and captured Huanggang city. Xu Xueqiu, Chen Yunsen served to help the Chinese Singaporeans to join Tongmenghui. The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit After the unfold of the uprising, Qing Government immediately repressed the revolution with force. Around 200 revolutionaries were killed, and the Huanggang Uprising which spanned six days again failed.
In the same year, Sun Yat-sen sent assistants to Huizhou in Guangdong to echo the Huanggang Uprising. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Huizhou administers 5 county-level divisions, including 2 districts and 3 counties. Guangdong ( EFEO: Kouangtong; Pinyin Guǎngdōng; Postal map spelling: Kwangtung) is a province on the On June 2, Deng Zhiyu and Chen Chuan gathered up few members of Shan He Hui to intercept Qing arms in Qiniu Lake, 20 km away from Huizhou. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks They killed several Qing soldiers and attacked Taiwei on the 5th. Qing Army escaped in disorder and the revolutionaries took the opportunity and captured several towns. They defeated the Qing Army once again in Bazhiyie. Many organizations echoed after the uprising, and the troops increased to 200 men at its height. The Qing Army hastily shifted more troops to repress the uprising. The revolutionaries fought nimbly which exhausted the Qing Army. However, after the failure of Huanggong Uprising, the revolutionaries here lost the hope of reinforcement and was dismissed in Lianhuaxu. Part of the revolutionaries exiled to Hong Kong while majority retreated into Rofu mountain areas.
On July 6, 1907, Xu Xilin of Guang Fu Hui led for an uprising in Anqin, Anhui. Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Anhui (in Chinese: 安徽 Ānhuī) is a province of the People's Republic of China. Xu Xiling at the time was the manager of police office as well as the supervisor of the police school. At the graduation ceremony, he assassinated the Qing governor and led the students such as Chen Boping to fight with Qing Army. They were defeated after four hours of struggle, and Xu Xilin was executed after being arrested. Qiu Jin was apparently involved in the uprising and was executed as well. Qiū Jǐn (秋瑾 ( November 8, 1875 - July 15, 1907) was a Chinese anti- Qing Empire revolutionary feminist and writer
On August, three counties in Guangdong Qinzhou (Belongs to Guangxi at present) resisted the government for heavy taxation. Guangxi (or Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region;) is a Zhuang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Sun Yat-sen sent Wang Heshun there to assist them and captured the county on September. After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Qinzhou, which they were unsuccessful. The eventually retreated to the area of Shiwandashan while Wang Heshun returned to Vietnam. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially
In December, Sun Yat-sen sent Huang Mintang to monitor Zhennanguan. With the assist of echoed defenders, the revolutionaries captured the cannon tower in Zhennanguan. Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing and Hu Hanmin personally went to the tower to command for the battle. Qing Government sent 4,000 men to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into mountain areas. After the failure of Zhennanguan Uprising, Qing Government attempt to chase after Sun Yat-sen in Vietnam, and Sun was forced to move to Singapore, and did not step into Chinese mainland until the Wuchang Uprising. The Wuchang Uprising of October 10 1911 started the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment
On February 1908, Huang Xing launched from the base in Vietnam and attacked Qinzhou and Lianzhou in Guangdong. The struggle continued for 14 days and was known as the Qinzhou, Lianzhou Uprising.
On April 1908, another uprising was launched in Yunnan Hekou. Huang Mingtan led 200 men from Vietnam and attacked Hekou on 30 April 1908. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The defenders in Hekou echoed for the mutiny, and Huang Xing joined in to command. The fighting continued until the 26th when Qing Army captured Hekou, and part of the revolutionary army retreated back to Vietnam. In 1910, Huang Xing, Hu Hanmin and Ni Bingzhang of the New Army stirred for a mutiny of New Army in Guangzhou, but the Qing Government known their plan beforehand and the mutiny was unsuccessful.
On 13 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several backbones of Tongmenhui such as Zhao Shen, Huang Hsing, Hu Hanmin, and Deng Zeru, gathered up for a conference in the Malayas. The Huanghuagang Uprising ( also known as the "329" Guangzhou Uprising, was led by Huang Xing. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Having experienced countless failures in previous uprisings, they were there to discuss for a decisive battle in Guangzhou against the Qing Government.
On 27 April, Zhao Shen and Huang Hsing unfold the uprising in Guangzhou. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated The revolutionaires had intense combat with the Qing Army in the streets, but were eventually outnumbered and lost. The 72 remains later collected by members of Tongmenhui were interred together at Huanghuagang.
The revolutionary activities in Malaya refers to the activities related to the Xinhai Revolution that took place in what is now Malaysia and Singapore. British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Singapore Outside of China, the Malaya region at the time had the most Chinese population, and many of these Oversea Chinese had strong financial capability. Thus, Sun Yat-sen traveled to Malaysia various times and called for the support of revolution from the local Chinese residents. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Many of them responded with great support, and as a result, Malaya was one of the main centre for revolutionary activities in the late Qing era.
Literature Society and Gong Jin Hui were revolutionary organizations of the newly surged modern intellectuals. The Wuchang Uprising of October 10 1911 started the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment The New Army were the potential strength to launch the revolution, and these two revolutionary organizations consistently work with the soldiers in the new armies. In March , new armies in Wuhan established their local organizations of Literature Society. Gong Jin Hui mainly focused on developing members in 32nd New Army. By the time Wuchang Uprising unfolded, there were more than 5000 soldiers that joined these two organizations, one third of the new armies in total.
On May 9, the Qing Government enforced several policies on nationalizing the railroads, and announced their plan on taking away the Yuehan Railway and Chunhan Railway, which was built by civilians. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of This action violently dissatisfied the people of Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan and Guangdong, and they launched a movement on protecting the roads, and it was particularly active in Sichuan.
On June 17, the civilian organizations in Sichuan established the "Sichuan Railroad Protection Society", and elected the head of the local Assembly Pu Dianjun as the president, and his assistant Ro Run as the vice president. Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat They posted notices, made speeches around, and even went to Beijing to protest. Through August 5 to September, these civilians held several demonstrations and strikes. Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. On September 7, the Qing Governor of Sichuan Zhao Erfeng arrested the leader of the Railroad Protection Society, and shut down the corporation and the Society. Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Zhao Erfeng (趙爾豊 1845 – 1911 style name: 季和 was a Qing official and Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner The result of this move was the massive demonstration in the Governor's office, in which Zhao ordered the soldiers to quell the protestors where 30 civilians were killed. On September 8, the member of the Society along with the local Ge Lao Hui and Tong Meng Hui organized an uprising, and besieged the provincial capital. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz The nearby counties followed the uprising soonly after, and the total participants grew to 200,000. On September 25, Wu Yuzhang, Wang Tianjie and other members of Tong Meng Hui led an another successful uprising in Rong county. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Upon realizing that Chengdu was besieged as a result of the mass uprising, the Qing Government was terrified and immediately ordered Duan Fang to take the new armies in Hubei to go into Sichuan to suppress the revolution
The new armies of Hubei was originally the "Hubei Army" trained by Zhang Zhidong, and many of the officers had been sent to Japan with government funding to study abroad, so the revolutionaries were active among these officers. Zhang Zhidong ( Chinese:張之洞 Pinyin: Zhāng Zhīdòng Wade-Giles: Chang Chih-tung Courtesy Xiàodá (孝達 Pseudonyms 。After the onset of the Railroad Protection Movement, Duan Fang led the new armies of Hubei and went into Sichuan to suppress the rebellions. At this point, the new armies in Wuhan were mostly transferred into Sichuan, and the defense of Wuhan was hollow. The revolutionaries decided that this was the perfect time for the uprising.
On September 24, the Literature Society and Gong Jin Hui convenned a conference in Wuchang along with 60 representatives from the new armies. Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. During the conference, they established the headquarter for the command of the uprising. The leaders of the two organizations, Jiang Yiwu and Sun Wu were elected as the commander and the chief of staff. Liu Gong of the Gong Jin Hui was in charge of the department of political preparations. The command post was set in Wuchuang while the preparation post was set in Hankou. The date of the uprising was decided to be on October 6, 1911. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year It was later postponed to October 16 due to insufficient preparations. Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western
On October 9, Sun Wu of the Gong Jin Hui had an accident while producing explosives in the Russian Concession of Hankou. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Sun Wu was injured, and the Russian police came for an investigation. Sun Wu and others managed to escape, but the documents and banners for the uprising were taken away by the police along with several suspects. After being informed about this incident, the Qing Viceroy of Huguang Duan Zheng ordered curfew in the entire city to track down and arrest the revolutionaries. Jiang Yiwu of the Literature Society decided to launch the uprising that night as a result, and sent mails to each of the battalions of the new armies. However, the command post was revealed by the Qing Government and several members were arrested and executed on the morning of October 10. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated
Squad leader Xiong Bingkun and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer. Company commander Wu Zhaolin acted as the Provisional chief commander of the uprising while Xiong acted as the staff officer. Around 8 p. m. on October 10, the first shot of Wuchang Uprising was fired, and the sapper battalion of the new armies led the first wave and captured the armory in Chuwantai. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Other groups of new armies that were affected by the revolutionary organizations mostly echoed after altogether. Wu Zhaolin and Xiong Binkun led the rebels and attacked the viceroy's office, and with the assistance of the South Lake Artillery, the revolutionaries captured the office before the morning of the next day. The Qing Viceroy of Huguang Duan Zheng escaped.
In the morning of October 11, the revolutionaries gathered for a conference to discuss on the establishment of the military government, as well as the selection of the provincial governor. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed The conference came to a final decision on selecting Li Yuanhong as the governor, which the constitutionists strongly supported. Part of the revolutionaries agreed due to the absence of Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren and other crucial leaders.
The entire city of Wuchang was captured by the revolutionaries by the morning of October 11. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed In the evening that day, they established the tactical headquarters, and with its assistance, they announced the establishment of the Military Government of Hubei of Republic of China, and also made other related announcements such as the new national title, "Republic of China", abolishing the Qing emperor's title and used the Huangdi Era, which is at the time the year of 4609. Huangdi, or the Yellow Emperor, is a Legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is considered in Chinese mythology to be the The Military Government established the tactics, military, politics and foreign affairs department. They used the Qing Government's Politic Department as the office building, and used the Banner of 18 stars as the military flag. The Tactics department announced to the entire nation the "The Telegram of the Announcement to the Nation", "Notices to All Provinces" and other documents under the name of the Military Government.
On October 12, the Revolutionaries Hu Yuzhen, Qiu Wenbin and others led the new armies in Hanyang and unfolded their uprising, and captured the city of Hanyang; revolutionary Zhao Chenwu led the other new armies and captured Hankou. Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. The three main cities of Wuhan were then all under the control of the revolutionaries.
After the successful Wuchang Uprising, the Qing Government sent the Beiyang Army south to assault Hankou, reinstating Yuan Shikai to stabilize the Beiyang Army, since Yuan was the head of the Beiyang system. Yuan Shikai ( Courtesy Weiting 慰亭 Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 ( September 16, 1859 &ndash June 6, The revolutionaries lost the battle in Hankou: around ten thousand were killed over forty-nine days of fighting. However, they held on to the city of Wuchang, and because of this, fifteen provinces announced their independence during these seven weeks. Local political activists led the uprising in most newly independent provinces, only in few places it was the revolutionaries who led the uprising.
On October 22, two members named Jiao Dafeng and Chen Zuoxin of the Hunan Gong Jin Hui led an armed group formed of party members and part of the new armies to unfold the uprising in Changsha. Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus They captured the city and killed the Qing general in the city. Then, they announced the establishment of Hunan Military Government of the Republic of China, and announced their position against the Qing Government. At the same day, the Shaaxi Tong Meng Hui member Jing Meijiu, Jing Wumu and others along with Ge Lao Hui launched the uprising, and captured Xi'an after two days of struggle. They established the Qinlong Fuhan Military Government, and elected Zhang Fengxiang, member of the Yuanrizhi Society and officier of the new armies, as the military governor.
On October 23, Lin Sen, Jiang Qun, Cai Hui and other members of the Jiangxi Tong Meng Hui plotted the new armies in Jiujiang to revolt. Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - After they achieved victory, they announced their independence. The Jiujiang Military Government was established the next day, electing Ma Yubao of the new armies as the military governor.
On October 29, Yan Xishan of the new armies along with Yao Yijie, Huang Guoliang, Wen Shouquan, Zhao Daiwen, Nan Guixin and Qiao Xi led an uprising in Taiyuan. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II They managed to kill the Qing Governor of Shanxi Lu Zhongqi, and announced the establishment of Shanxi Military Government, Yan Xishan as the military governor.
On October 30, Li Genyuan of the Yunnan Tong Meng Hui united together with Cai E, Ruo Peijing, Tang Jiyao and other officers of the new armies, and launched an armed rebellion. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. They captured Kunming the next day, and established the Yunnan Military Government, electing Cai E as the military governor.
On October 31, Tong Meng Hui in Nanchang led the new armies to participate in the local uprising and succeeded. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse They established the Jiangxi Military Government and elected Li Liejun as the military governor.
On November 3, Shanghai Tong Meng Hui, Guang Fu Hui and merchants led by Chen Qimei, Li Pingsu, Li Xie and Song Jiaoren organized armed rebellion in Shanghai. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. They recruited various squads, and managed to receive support from local police officers. The rebels captured the Jiangnan Workshop on the 4th, and captured Shanghai soon after. On November 8, they established the Shanghai Military Government of the Republic of China, and elected Chen Qimei as the military governor. Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration
On November 4, Zhang Bailin of the revolutionary party in Guizhou led an uprising along with the new armies and students in the military academy. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani They immediately captured Guiyang, and established the Dahan Guizhou Military Government, electing Yang Jinchen and Zhao Dequan as the chief and vice governor. During the same day, the revolutionaries in Zhejiang urged the new armies in Hanzhou to launch the uprising with the reinforcements arrived from Shanghai and laid siege on Hanzhou. Zhu rei, Wu Enyu, Lu Gongwang of the new armies and Wang Jinfa of the dare-to-die squads captured the military supplies workshop. Another dare-to-die squads led by Chiang Kai-shek and Yin Zhirei along with others captured most of the government offices. On November 5, Hanzhou was in the control of the revolutionaries, and constitutionist Tang Shouqian was elected as the military governor. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany)
On November 5, Jiangsu constitutionists and gentry urged the Qing Governor Cheng De to announce independence, and established the Jiangsu Revolutionary Military Government, Cheng himself as the governor. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Members of the Anhui Tong Men Hui also launched the uprising on that day, and laid siege on the provincial capital. The consitutionists persuaded Zhu Jiabao, Qing Governor of Anhui to announce independence. On November 8, the Anhui politics department presented Anhui's independence to the public, and elected Zhu Jiabao and Wang Tianpei as the chief and vice military governor. Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration
On November 6, the Guangxi politics department made the decision to separate away from the Qing Government, announcing Guangxi's independence. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with The original Qing Governnor Shen Bingdan remains in position. However, it was taken away by a general named Lu Rongting through mutiny.
On November 9, members of the Fujian Tong Men Hui along with Sun Daoren of the new armies launched an uprising against the Qing Army. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all The Qing viceroy Song Shou committed suicide, and on November 11, the entire Fujian province was in the hand of the revolutionaries. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare The Fujian Military Government was established, and Sun Daoren was elected as the military governor.
Near the end of October, Chen Jiongming, Deng Keng, Peng Reihai and other members of the Guangdong Tong Meng Hui organized local militias to led the uprising in Huazhou, Nanhai, Sunde and Sanshui of the Guangdong province. Chen Jiongming (1878-1933 was a revolutionary figure in the early periods of the Republic of China. On November 8, after being persuaded by Hu Hanmin, general Li Huai and Long Jiguang of the Guangdong Navy agreed to support the revolution. Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration The Qing viceroy of Liang-guang was forced to discuss with the local representatives on the matters of Guangdong's independence. Liangguang ( also spelled Liang-guang) is a term referring to the province of Guangdong and autonomous region (formerly province of Guangxi on the southern They decided to announce Guangdong's independence the next day. On November 9, Chen Jiongming captured Huizhou. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all At the same day, Guangdong announced its independence, and established a military government. They elected Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming as the chief and vice governor.
On November 13, persuaded by revolutionary Din Weifen and several other officers of the new armies, the Qing Governor of Shandong Sun Baoqi agreed to separate away from the Qing Government and announced Shandong's independence. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St
On November 17, Ningxia Tong Men Hui launched the Ningsha Uprising, and established the Ningsha Revolutionary Military Government on the 17th. Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Ningxia ( Postal map spelling: Ningsia full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region ( is a Hui autonomous region of the People's Republic
On November 21, Guanganzhou organized the Dahanshubei Military Government. Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. The Xichuan Military Government was established in Chongqin the very next day. Two days on the 27th, the Hubei Army in Xichuan rebelled against the Qing Army. During the same day, the Dahan Xichuan Military Government was established, headed by revolutionary Pu Dianjun.
On November 8, plotted and supported by the Tong Meng Hui, Xu Shaozhen of the new armies announced the uprising in Molin Pass, 30 km away from Nanjing City. Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei and other generals decided to form a united army under Xu to strike Nanjing together. On November 11, the united army headquarter was established in Zhenjiang. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Between November 24 and December 1, under the command of Xu Shaozhen, the united army captured Wulongshan, Mufushan, Yuhuatai, Tianbao City and many other strongholds of the Qing Army. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican On December 2, the Nanjing City was captured by the revolutionaries. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire At this point, the vast areas in south of Yangtze River is now held by the revolutionaries. The capture of Nanjing was especially important in stablizing the situation in the southern China.
During the Uprising a relief expedition of foreigners from Shaanxi province was headed up by English explorer Arthur de Carle Sowerby. ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Arthur de Carle Sowerby ( 8 July 1885– 16 August 1954) was British Naturalist, explorer, Writer, and Publisher The expedition's task was to rescue and lead to safety as many foreign missionaries as possible. Setting out in December 1911 they trekked to Xi'an. UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the After a number of hair-raising experiences they were successful, returning to safety and Peking in early 1912. 
On 1 November, the Qing Government appointed Yuan Shikai as the prime minister of the imperial cabinet. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Overseas Chinese and domestic critics believed that Yuan was qualified to be president. They advocated that the revolutionaries should convince Yuan to change his position, and then he would be selected as the first president of the republic. On 9 November, Huang Xing told Yuan it is hoped that he would step up and resist the imperial reign. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Huang Xing or Huang Hsing ( October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916) Chinese Revolutionary leader Militarist On November 16, Sun Yat-sen telegrammed the revolutionary government and informed his agreement to select Yuan as the president. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published
On November 1911, the revolutionary group in Wuchang led by Li Yuanhong came together with the revolutionary group in Shanghai led by Chen Qimei and Chen Dequan to prepare for the establishment of a Central government. Chen Qimei ( (1878-1916 was born on January 17 1878 in Wuxing, Zhejiang, China, Chinese revolutionary activist uncle of Chen Guofu and On November 9, Li Yuanhong under the title of "Head of Wuchang Military Government" telegrammed all the independent provinces and requested them to send representatives to Wuchang for conference on the matters of establishing the Central Government. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Two days later however, Chen Qimei and Chen Dequan telegrammed the provinces to come to Shanghai for the conference. On November 15, the provincial representatives met at Shanghai, in which Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian all participated. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. The revolutionary group in Wuchang insisted on moving the conference to Wuchang. Because the first uprising was held in Wuchang, a majority of the provincial representatives had already arrived in Wuhan. Tong Meng Hui leaders, such as Huang Xing and Song Jiaoren, were also stationed in Wuhan. The Shanghai revolutionary group yielded at last, agreeing that the provincial representatives should meet at Wuhan and set the conference date to be November 30 in Hankou. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats However, they requested that each province should leave a representative in Shanghai for communication purposes.
By November 21, most provincial representatives were arrived in Wuchang. Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. On November 30, they convened the first conference at the British concession in Hankou. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Twenty-four representatives from the fourteen provinces participated, and they elected Tan Renfeng as the speaker. The conference decided that before the establishment of the Provisional Government, the Military Government of Hubei will act for Central Military Government's authority. On December 2, the representatives decided to frame the organization outline of the Provisional Government, and elected Lei Fen, Ma Junwu, Wong Zenting to prepare the draft. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Ma Junwu 馬君武 (1881 in Guilin – 1940 in Guilin) was a celebrated scientist and educator in China and first president of Guangxi University. The conference passed the outline the very next day, which consisted three chapters and twenty-one clauses. All participating provincial representatives signed the paper and made the announcement. In the announcement, they made the decision on establishing the Provisional Government in Nanking; they also confirmed the administration system to be republic. It was also announced that the provincial representatives will meet in Nanking in seven days, and if Provisional Government receive the participation from more than ten provinces, they will convene the election for the Provisional president.
Instead of attending to Nanking's assembly, Song Jiaoren and Chen Qimei gathered the provincial representatives in Shanghai instead and held an assembly in the headquarter of Jiangsu Educational Society on December 4. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. The assembly voted and came to a decision to telegram Sun Yat-sen to return to China to direct the main political operation. They also elected Huang Xing and Li Yuanhong as the chief and vice generalissimo of the military government, and the chief generalissimo will be in charge of the Provisional Government. Huang Xing declined the position while Li Yuanhong opposed to his offered position as well as he did not want to be put below Huang Xing. When proceeded to the discussion on the national flag, the representatives from Hubei proposed the banner of 18 stars, the Fujian representatives proposed the Blue Sky with a White Sun banner and the Zhejiang representatives proposed for the banner of five stars. The Blue Sky with a White Sun ( serves as the design for the party Flag and Emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT the canton of the Flag At the end, it was decided that the national flag would be the banner of Five Races Under One Union, the Iron Blood banner would be the flag of the land force while the Blue Sky with a White Sun banner would be the flag of the navy as the compromise proposal. Five races under one union ( Chinese: 五族共和 Pinyin: Wǔzú gōnghé, literally "five races together" was one of the major principles that
On December 11, the representatives from seventeen provinces arrived in Nanking from Shanghai and Hankou, and they continued on the discussion of the matters regarding the establishment of the Central Government. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office On December 14, the representatives from the provinces met in Nanking, and decided to hold a presidential election in terms of the "Provisional Government Organization Outline". Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people However, the representatives were divided into two factions of Li Yuanhong and Huang Xing, and the situation was to be at a deadlock. It came to a relief the next day when the representatives was informed that Yuan Shikai was willing to support the republic. As a result, they decided to halt the presidential election and wait for Yuan's movement.
On December 25, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Shanghai from Marseilles. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ Due to Sun's prestige, most revolutionary organization displayed their support for him and Sun was therefore the popular choice for the president. Even the constitutionist and conservatives believed that Sun would be the ideal choice for president before Yuan Shikai turn against the monarchy. On December 28, the preparation for the presidential election was held in Nanking and the actual election was held the next day. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of According to the first article of the "Provisional Government Organization Outline", the Provisional President was to be elected by representatives from provinces of China; the one that receives more than 2/3 of the votes will be elected. As for the voting, each province were limited to have one vote only. 45 representatives from seventeen provinces participated in this election, and Sun Yat-sen received 16 valid vote out of 17, and was elected as the first president of the Republic of China.
On 1 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen announced the establishment of Republic of China in Nanking, and inaugurated as the Provisional president. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting In the "Inaugural Announcement of Provisional President", the unity of Chinese races as one was greatly emphasized. On 2 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen informed all provinces on the abolishment of the Yin calendar, and replaced it with the Yang calendar. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting The Republic of China Era was announced, and 1912 was the First Year of Republic of China Era. On January 3, the representatives recommended Li Yuanhong as the Provisional vice president, and approved Sun Yat-sen's proposed candidates of the cabinet ministers. Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was officially established. Under the Provisional Government, it divided into ten branches in which Huang Xing was appointed as the Minister of the Land Force at the same time as the Chief of Staffs, Huang Zhongying as the Minister of the Navy, Wang Chonghui as the Minister of the Foreign Affairs, Wu Tingfang as the Minister of the Judiciary, Chen Jingtao as the Minister of the Finance, Cheng Dequan as the Minister of the Internal Affairs, Cai Yuanpei as the Minister of the Education, Zhang Jian as the Minister of the Business and Tang Soqian as the Minister of the Communications. Huang Xing or Huang Hsing ( October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916) Chinese Revolutionary leader Militarist Ng Choy (伍才 referred to otherwise as Wu Tingfang based on 伍廷芳 Pinyin: Wŭ Tíngfāng Wade-Giles: Wu T'ing-fang (born 1842 in Singapore died Other than those, there were further appointments such as Hu Hanmin as the Secretary of the President, Song Jiaoren as the Director-general of Law-making and Huang Fushen as the Director-general of Printing. Hu Hanmin ( Traditional:胡漢民 Simplified: 胡汉民 born in Panyu, Guangdong, China, December 9, 1879; Song Jiaoren ( ( 5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Chinese republican revolutionary political leader and a founder of the On January 11, the representatives from the provinces convenned an assembly, in which they passed the resolution to use "Organizational Outline of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China" as the outline of the nation, Nanking as the Provisional capital, and the five-color banner (red-yellow-blue-white-black) as the national flag to symbolize the unity of the five major races of China. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles On January 28, the representatives from the provinces established a Provisional senate, and the each participating province were given a seat as the senator. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted They elected Lin Sen, Chen Taoyi and the chief and vice speaker of the senate. Lin Sen ( Chinese: 林森 Pinyin: Lín Sēn (1868 – August 1, 1943) Courtesy name Zichao (子超 sobriquet Changren (長仁 On March 11, 1912, Sun Yat-sen signed and announced the "Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China". Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often After the victory in Xinhai Revolution, the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China, led by Sun Yat-sen, framed the Provisional Constitution
After the Wuchang Uprising, the dominant foreign powers in China remained indifferent, hoping to see which side would fulfill their best interest.
On 14 October, Qing Government appointed Yuan Shikai, who was previously dismissed and sent home, as the Governor of Huguang and in charge of the Beiyang Army to attack Wuhan. Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces After the Beiyang Army captured Hankou on 2 November, Yuan Shikai halted the advance and secretly began to negotiate peace with the revolutionaires in the south. Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 He returned to Beijing with his guards afterwards. Yuan was appointed the Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet in November, and was recognized and supported by foreign nations.
On 26 November, Yuan asked Herbert Goffe, the British consul in Hankou, to announce the three conditions for peace negotiation: Armistice, abdication of the Qing Emperor, and selection of Yuan as the president. Events 43 BC - The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian" later "Caesar Augustus" On 1 December, both sides signed the armistice pact, and the Wuhan region was under a ceasefire for three days starting at 08:00 on 3 December until 08:00 on 6 December. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Peace negotiations commenced as the ceasefire came into effect on 3 December. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French
Yuan Shikai selected Tang Shaoyi as his representaive on 8 December, and on the very next day, Tang left Beijing for Wuhan to negotiate with Li Yuanhong or his representaive for the situation. Táng Shàoyí ( Chinese:唐绍仪 changed to 唐绍怡 to avoid taboo of Puyi 's name later restored Wade-Giles: T'ang Shao-i Courtesy Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. On the same day, representatives from provinces formally chosen Wu Tingfang as the representative on the peace negotiation matters for the militia forces. Ng Choy (伍才 referred to otherwise as Wu Tingfang based on 伍廷芳 Pinyin: Wŭ Tíngfāng Wade-Giles: Wu T'ing-fang (born 1842 in Singapore died
With the intervention of foreign powers, Tang Shaoyi and Wu Tingfang began to negotiate for settlement at British concession in Shanghai. They made an agreement on that Yuan Shikai will force Qing Emperor to abdicate in exchange for the support of southern provinces to select Yuan as the president of the Republic. Considered that the new republic regime could possibly be defeated with a civil war or foreign invasion, Sun Yat-sen agreed to Yuan's request on unifying China under Yuan Shikai's Peking government. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state
On 1 January 1912, Nanking Provisional Government was formally established, and Sun Yat-sen was inducted as the Provisional president. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting On 11, 17, and 19 January, the Nanking Government requested three times for the recognition of foreign powers, but received no response. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. On 2 January, after Yuan was informed that Sun Yat-sen was inducted as the president, he canceled the peace negotiation. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire.
On 16 January, while returning to his residence, Yuan Shikai was ambushed by a bomb attack organized by Tong Meng Hui in Tientsin, Peking. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Yuan's guards suffered heavy losses while Yuan was not seriously injured. He sent a message to the revolutionaries the next day to pledge his loyalty, and asked them to not organize any more assassination attempts against him.
On 20 January, Nanking Provisional Government officially delivered the perquisites conditions to Yuan Shikai on the abdiction of the Qing Emperor. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. On 22 January, Sun Yat-sen made an announcement that if Yuan Shikai supported the abdiction, he would resign and leave the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. After Yuan received this promise, he sped up the process of forcing Qing Emperor's abdiction. He threatened Empress Longyu that if the revolutionaires comes to Peking, the lives of royal family could not be preserved. Yehenara Empress Xiao Ding Jing (孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏 is better known as the Empress Dowager Longyu (隆裕皇后 (given name Jingfen 靜芬 (1868 - 1913 But if they agree to abdicate, they will receive perquistites conditions.
On 25 January, incited by Yuan Shikai, 47 Beiyang Army generals led by Duan Qirui telegramed the imperial apparatus together, announcing that the revolutionaries have accepted the perquistites condition on royal family. Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞 ( Wade-Giles Tuan Ch'i-jui (1864 &ndash November 2, 1936) was a Chinese Warlord and politician commander They requested the royal family to announce abdiction and led the republic take over because the revolution had spread across all provinces in the country and the Beiyang Army are struggling due to lack of reinforcement as they claimed. With the pressure, Qing Government convened an imperial conference on January 29 to discuss on the matter. Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. On 3 February, Empress Longyu gave Yuan Shikai full permission to negotiate the condition for the abdiction of the Qing Emperor. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states
On 6 February, the senate of Nanking passed the resolution of "Perquisites Condition" and the "Imperial Edict for Abdiction". Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio The prequistites conditions included:
Other than the perquisites conditions for Qing Emperor's abdication, there were seven regulations on the treatment of the royal family and Mongol tribes.
On February 12, 1912, after being compelled and persuaded by Yuan Shikai and other ministers, Emperor Xuantong Puyi and his mother Empress Longyu accepted the prerequisite terms for the royal family, issuing an imperial edict announcing the abdication of Xuantong. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting Puyi ( ( February 7, 1906 &ndash October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor Yehenara Empress Xiao Ding Jing (孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏 is better known as the Empress Dowager Longyu (隆裕皇后 (given name Jingfen 靜芬 (1868 - 1913 Yuan Shikai was authorized by the Qing court to arrange the provisional republican government.
This imperial edict of abdication was drafted by Zhang Jian, and was approved by the Provisional senate. But in the edict, the text "immediate authorization for Yuan Shikai to arrange Provisional republican government" was added by the subordinates of Yuan. From this point on, the Republic of China officially began and replaced the Qing Dynasty, which had reigned over China for 268 years.
The Provisional senate selected Yuan as the Provisional president after the emperor's abdiction. On 10 March 1912, Yuan Shikai sworn as the second Provisional president of the Republic of China in Peking. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting Sun Yat-sen visited the senate on April 1 and announced the removal of his Provisional president status. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Upon until now, the world powers began to recognize Republic of China. Yuan Shikai used mutiny in Peking as an excuse to move the capital of Republic of China back from Nanking to Peking. ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles
Yuan was insistent on a centralized government, which prevents certain revolutionary from attempting to separate away from the central government and establish individual provincial independence. At the same time, Yuan negotiated with the world powers and to a certain extent preserved Chinese sovereignty over Mongolia and Tibet. Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European
In 1911 the Manchu Qing dynasty was overthrown and by the end of 1912 the last Manchu troops were escorted out of Tibet. The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama returned to Tibet in January, 1913 from Sikkim, where he had been residing. Thubten Gyatso ( February 12, 1876 – December 17, 1933) was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people according to Tibetan Buddhism. Sikkim ( Nepali:, also Sikhim) is a Landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas It is the least populous state in India The new Chinese government apologised for the actions of the Qing dynasty and offered to restore the Dalai Lama to his former position. He replied that he was not interested in Chinese ranks and was assuming spiritual and political leadership of Tibet. 
The period from this point until 1928 was known simply as the "Beiyang Period". The government of Republic of China during this period was called the Beiyang Government. The Beiyang government ( or Warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai
In February 1913, China announced parliamental election according to the Provisional constitution for the first time. Kuomintang had the most seats, and Song Jiaoren was designated as the prime minister of the cabinet. However, Song was assassinated in Shanghai on 20 March 1913. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Yuan Shikai was believed as the plotter. Sun Yat-sen launched the Second Revolution on July to attack Yuan with armed forces, but was defeated by Yuan. This article discusses history of the state which currently governs Taiwan Area. Yuan Shikai later attempted to restore monarchy, but ended up a failure. After Yuan's death, China entered the Warlord Era. The Warlord era is the period in the History of the Republic of China, from 1916 to the late-1930s when the country was divided among military cliques, a division Sun Yat-sen organized several governments in Guangzhou to "protect" the Provisional constitution, and China was divided up as north and south.
The Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Manchu Government and 2000 years of monarchy. The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in Throughout Chinese history, old dynasties had always been replaced by new dynasties. The Xinhai Revolution however, was the first to overthrow a monarchy completely in an attempt to establish a new political system — a Republic. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The Xinhai Revolution established the first democratic republic in Asia — the Republic of China. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The laws of the democratic republic were damaged separately by the Beiyang warlords, and at one time a monarchy was back in place for a short period of time. The term Beiyang ( Chinese: 北洋 Pinyin: Běiyáng Wade-Giles: Peiyang meaning 'Northern Ocean' originated toward the end of the Qing Dynasty However the popular system of the republic could not be overturned.
The Chinese revolutionaries at the time did not have a streamlined idea of ruling. As a result, they followed the American Constitution, American political system and implemented a presidential republic. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature This continued despite social limitations and despise of the provisional constitution enforced by government rulers. At one time, Sun Yat-sen modified the constitution to limit Yuan Shikai's power, while Yuan Shikai later annulled the constitution to proclaim himself emperor. During the early years of the Republic of China, democracy was not fully fledged. However it was the first time China had attempted to form a republic, which enforced the spread of democratic ideas in China.
Long after the success of the Xinhai Revolution, the idea of monarchy and totalitarianism did not disappear in China, and at one time maintained its social influence. Even though the Communist Party of China claimed to have created the "people's democratic dictatorship" in 1949 with the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the true democracy (e. The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the "People's democratic dictatorship" ( is a phrase incorporated into the Constitution of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES g. the separation of power in the United States) was never fully implemented by the Beiyang Government, the Nanjing Government led by the Nationalist Party, or the Government of the People's Republic of China. Separation of powers, a term ascribed to French Enlightenment Political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, is a model for the Governance
After each province echoed the successes of the Xinhai Revolution, China entered a long stage of turmoil and separation. Other than the time period after the Second Revolution where Yuan Shikai briefly unified the nation, the rest of the Chinese regimes were unable to unify China. For example, the Nationalist Government claimed itself the head of a unified China while it was only able to receive taxation from five provinces. This article discusses history of the state which currently governs Taiwan Area. It was not until 1950 that the Communist Party of China was able to re-unify China. The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the The long separation and war were destructive to the economic development of China and the modernisation of its infrastructure.
The influence of Xinhai Revolution on Chinese society were not as wide as commonly perceived. Even though the Xinhai Revolution were often claimed to be the "Capitalist Revolution of China", but China at the time actually lacked a powerful capitalist class, and the participants of the revolution were not mostly capitalists. The success of the revolution did not enforce the further development of the capitalist class, and in addressing the change of the traditional society, the Xinhai Revolution only ended the rule of the Manchu, but on the local gentries and old Han bureaucrats, they mostly gained status by changing their position in the revolution, and stabilized their position in the society. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in
The Xinhai Revolution did have the effect of its Western counterparts that restructured the social structure. The participants of Xinhai Revolution were mostly military personnel, old type bureaucrats and local gentries. These kind of people still hold the regional power after the Xinhai Revolution. The Chinese civilians did not participate in the Xinhai Revolution, therefore after the Xinhai Revolution, the essential changes for the condition of survival did not occur.
The separation by the warlords, chaos caused by the wars and militant politics led to the decease of the strength in traditional gentries and bureaucrats. In replacements, the personnel with military background and local outlaws, began to rise.
Xinhai Revolution did not essentially change issues such as the sharp rise of population since the 18th century, the annexation of land near the end of Qing Dynasty and the oppression and economical invasion from the Western powers.
Revolutionary organizations before the outburst of the Xinhai Revolution were mainly based in Han Chinese ideology. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. The creation of the Republic of China under the motto of "Rid of Tartars", often it only refers to the eighteen provinces which are dominated by the Han Chinese (This is evident from the 18-star banner used in Wuchang Uprising); the Northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet were all excluded. Northeast China ( is a geographical region of China. It is separated from Russia largely by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers from Inner Mongolia ( Mongolian:, Öbür mongɣul; occasionally romanized to Nei Mongol is the Mongol Outer Mongolia (Ar Mongol Manchu: Tulergi Monggo) was the main part of the Bogdo Khanate of Mongolia which proclaimed its independence on 29 December 1911 Xinjiang ( Uyghur: شىنجاڭ Shinjang;; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang; Turkish: Sincan, Sincan Uygur Özerk Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European After the outburst of the Xinhai Revolution, the authority of the Qing Dynasty lowed significantly, and were unable to look after its frontiers. The Western powers took advantage of this situation and supported the independence movements by the ethnicities of the frontiers, such as Russia supporting the Independence of Outer Mongolia (including Tannu Uriankhai), and these regions began the process of breaking away from China. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Tannu Uriankhai ( Traditional Chinese: 唐努烏梁海 Simplified Chinese: 唐努乌梁海 Hanyu Pinyin: Tángnǔ Wūliánghǎi is a historical region
In 1910, the Qing Government sent Zhao Erfeng along with two thousand men to station in Lhasa, which resulted in the Dalai Lama fleeing to India. Zhao Erfeng (趙爾豊 1845 – 1911 style name: 季和 was a Qing official and Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner Lhasa, ( in English l̥ʰásə or in Tibetan; Chinese: 拉萨 Pinyin: Lāsà sometimes spelled Lasa, is the administrative capital of the The Qing Government cancelled the title of Dalai Lama once again. The Dalai Lama began to get in touch with the British, hoping to gain more independence for Tibet via the assistance from Britain and India. After the outburst of Xinhai Revolution, mutinies occurred in nearly every province, and Zhao Erfeng was killed in Xichuan during the Railroad Protection Movement. Xichuan County ( Chinese::淅川县 Pinyin: Xīchuān Xiàn is a county of Nanyang Henan, China. The stationed army in Tibet also took action and captured the representative of Qing Government in Tibet, but were defeated and sent back to inland China after the later clash with the Tibetan army. On January 1913, the Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa. Yuan Shikai telegramed and expressed his desire to restore Dalai Lama's title, and Dalai Lama in response, re-stated his full authority on the ruling of Tibet. Yuan Shikai ( Courtesy Weiting 慰亭 Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 ( September 16, 1859 &ndash June 6, Many Tibetans regarded this as their "Declaration of Independence". The effect of the inland China on Tibet lowered rapidly, and after "Rid of Han" incidents occurred in various places in Tibet. To prevent further army of inland China from entering Tibet, the Gexia Government began to purchase armfire from Britain, and majority of Tibetan Army were stationed in Xikong. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 This move led to the defense of northern Tibet to become unsupported, and because of the increase in military expenditures, the contradition in internal Tibet affairs increased rapidly. The Republic of China were involved in various wars, and applied mostly diplomatic strategies on Tibet, especially on laying emphasis on Tibet's sovereignty in the international stage. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Even though Britain did not support the full independence of Tibet, but the Gexia Government in Tibet held high hopes in regards to it. On 1914, the both sides made an agreement, in which the Gexia Government agreed to cede the "Special Region of the Northeast Frontier", known in present day as the Arunachal Pradesh region. Arunachal Pradesh (अरुणाचल प्रदेश   Aruṇācal Pradeś is the easternmost state of India Regarding this agreement, the Republic of China and the later establishyed People's Republic of China both refused to recognize it. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
The Chinese in Malaysia and Singapore were significantly involved in the revolution. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Singapore Although the revolutionary activities were aimed at changing the government in China, they had a profound influence on the Chinese population in the Malay Peninsula, such as a rise in nationalism and greater national unity, the emergence of new ideas, and the influence of party politics. The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral
When Sun Yat-sen inaugurated as the new president on December 29, 1911 in Nanking, many ethnic Chinese in Malaysia and Singapore who were previously moderates or monarchists began to support Sun. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles After the Wuchang Uprising, many Malay and Singaporean Chinese cut their queue of hair (a symbol of the Qing Dynasty). The Wuchang Uprising of October 10 1911 started the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Also，responding to Sun and Tongmenghui's urge, many Chinese there donated money to support the revolutionary movement. The Tongmenghui (中國同盟會 Pinyin: Tóngménghuì Wade-Giles: T'ung-meng Hui lit
In 1911，after the success of the revolution，nationalism became the main shared guiding principle between China and the Malay and Singaporean Chinese. Thousands of those young Chinese in Malay Peninsula went back to China to support the revolution. Also the revolution had contributed the anti-colonial sentiment among people. Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of Imperialism.
Before Sun Yat-sen began to unfold the revolution among the Malayas and Singapore, the local Chinese were very disorganized. There were often clashes among clans and Ancestral home. A clan is a group of People united by Kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor The Ancestral Home ( Dom Ojczysty) is a Political party in Poland, founded after the elections The disorganization obstructed the spread of revolutionary thoughts, and the clashes between the clans affected the economical growth of the Chinese society and halted the cooperation with different organizations.
While hosting the establishment ceremony of the Tong Meng Hui branch in Kuala Lumpur on 1906, Sun Yat-sen warned that the disorganization of the local Chinese will eventually led to the collapse of the Chinese society. Kuala Lumpur (ˈkwɑːləlʊmˈpʊər Malay /kwɑlɑlʊmpʊ/ and locally /kwɑləlʊmpɔ/ or even /kɔlɔmpɔ/ or often abbreviated as K Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Because of so, the Tong Meng Hui initiated different kinds of propaganda, such as magazines, night schools, dramatic performances, and allowed groups with different ancestral home to work together with Sun Yat-sen for the revolution. This allowed Chinese with different ancestral home to learn to understand each other and cooperate as a team to solve common difficulties. Through various connections, the team work of Chinese and the national citizen awareness began to increase and develop further.
One of the most important development was the spread of Standard Chinese in the schools of Malay Peninsula and Singapore. This targeted toward breaking the tradition of dialect lecture. As a result, this led to Chinese with different ancestral home to have a common language.
The revolutionary trend of Sun Yat-sen brougth new ideas to Malay Peninsula and Singapore, which clashed the old traditions of the Chinese society. The ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity spread non-stoppingly, and encouraged the establishments of all-girl schools. Women were allowed to participate in social activities as well as joining the revolution.
After the success of the revolution, the Nationalist Party was established in August 13, 1912. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. With the permission of the British colonial government, the Malaya branch of the Nationalist Party was established. Later, when the British authority recognized that the Nationalist Party was not meant to resist its rule, they granted permission on establishing another Nationalist Party branch in Singapore on December 18. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the The Nationalist Party continued to do legal activitiies in Malaya until 1925 when its registration was cancelled due to insufficient information provided as claimed by the local government. However, the Nationalist Party continued to be active in Malaya, and secretly remain existing. The activities of the Nationalist Party in Malaya and Singapore provided wide influences on the future Second Sino-Japanese War and the political movements in Malaya and Singapore. The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the
In the early years of Republic of China, the intellectuals in China and the participants of the Xinhai Revolution were excited on how successfully the revolution had been to overthrow the Manchu Dynasty, and had high hopes for the revolution. However, because democracy had not been enforced in reality after the Xinhai Revolution, people began to develop different perspectives. Sun Yat-sen mentioned the following in a mail to the Russian ambassador in 1921 "Now that our friends recognizes that: My resignation was a huge political mistake". Sun also urged in his will that "The revolution is not yet successful, the comrades still needs to strive for the future". The intellectuals at the time thought that political revolutions could not save China itself, and cultural reformation must be made in advance.
After the 1920s, the two dominant parties of Nationalist Party and Communist Party had higher evaluation on Xinhai Revolution. The Nationalist Party recognizes Sun Yat-sen as the Father of the Nation, and recognizes him as the leader that led the Xinhai Revolution to success. They have given Xinhai Revolution relatively high appraisal, stating the Xinhai Revolution as the beginning point of the modern history of China, and was the key element that enables China to develop into a democratic and modernized nation.
On the other hand, the Communist Party thought that the Xinhai Revolution merely overthrew the totalitarian rule of the Qing Dynasty. It did not advocate anti-Imperialism nor anti-Feudalism due to the claimed compromising and feeble nature of the bourgeois class, and therefore did not create a republic system. The land system were not reformed to equalize the distribution, and a deeper social revolution were not achieved. The revolution ended up yielding to the Western powers, and compromised with Yuan Shikai, who represented the old regime. At the same time however, they recognized that the Xinhai Revolution was a revolution that had great achievement for the initial stage, and set the basis for further revolutions. Liu Shaoqi was quoted "Xinhai Revolution inserted the concept of republic into common people". Liu Shaoqi ( (24 November 1898 12 November 1969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist Zhou Enlai pointed out that "Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing rule, ended the 2000 years of monarchy, and liberated the mind of people to a great extent, and opened up the path for the development of furture reovlution. Zhou Enlai ( (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976 was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from 1949 until his death in January 1976 This is a great victory". He Xiangning thought that "Xinhai Revolution was a great victory, it destroyed the 2000 years of monarchy, and spread the seed of the thoughts of a republic among the people, and promoted new development for the revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people". Later Marxist historians mainly recognized the Xinhai Revolution as the Chinese bourgeois revolution, which is the necessary revolution in the stage before a socialist revolution. These positive recognitions of Xinhai Revolution were both the main trend in Mainland China and Taiwan after the 1950s. Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia.
The change on the concept of positive nature of revolutions began in late 1980s and 1990s. Zhang Shizhao was quoted that "When talking about Xinhai Revolution, the theorist these days tends to over emphasize. The word ‘success’ was way overused". Chinese historians such as Li Zehou, Liu Zhaifu and others thought that China in the early 20th century were better off in preserving the gradual constitutional monarchist reformation than spreading a violent revolution. The former was said be better in ensuring China to develop steadily. The concept of constitutional monarchy advocated by Yuan Shikai, Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao and Yang Du were more suitable to the China at that time. Yuan Shikai ( Courtesy Weiting 慰亭 Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 ( September 16, 1859 &ndash June 6, > Kang Youwei Liang Qichao ( Chinese: 梁啟超 Liáng Qǐchāo; Courtesy: Zhuoru, 卓如 Pseudonym: Rengong, 任公 ( February The Taiwanese historians also began to re-examine some of the alleged "myths" of Xinhai Revolution, and began to re-evaluate the value of Xinhai Revolution and its effects.
Western scholars, Chinese specialists and historians have researched the Xinhai Revolution to a great extent. Famous Chinese specialist Fe Zhengqing evaluated the Xinhai Revolution as merely a "change of political system", which was "essentially a failure". Gao Muke thought that Xinhai Revolution was a revolution that was greater than all its leaders, and was a "revolution without a real leader".
Professor Nathaniel Petter of the Columbian University criticized the Xinhai Revolution and its attempt on building a republic:
The replica of American system of republic built by China in 1911 was absurd and ridiculous. The George Washington University ( GW or GWU) is a private coeducational university located in Washington D […] That system of republic was a major failure, because it had no basis in Chinese history, tradition, politics, system, nature, beliefs or habits. It was a foreign product, hollow, and was forcibly added on China. It was quickly removed as the time passed. It did not represent political thoughts, but comics of political thoughts, coarse and premature comics. […] This system of republic ended miserably, which meant it failed miserably. However, the failure was not on the system of the republic […] it was a whole generation.
^ a: Many of the Qing soldiers with Han background turned to support the revolution during the uprisings, so the actual casualties are hard to trace. This article discusses history of the state which currently governs Taiwan Area. The Republic of China (ROC (commonly known as Taiwan maintains a large and technologically advanced military establishment which accounted for Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era Xinhai Lhasa Turmoil refers to the racial clash in the Lhasa region of Tibet and various mutinies as a result of the Wuchang Uprising.
^ b: Clipping from Min Bao (People's Papers). Originally the publishing of Hua Xin Hui and was named "China of the Twentieth Century", it was renamed after the establishment of Tongmenhui.