Sun Lu-t'ang standing in San Ti Shi
|Also known as||Xíng yì quán; Hsing I Ch'üan|
|Hardness||Non-competitive, or forms competition only|
|Country of origin||China|
|Creator||Yue Fei (attributed)|
|Parenthood||disputed, possibly military spear techniques or Shaolin kung fu|
Xingyiquan (Chinese: 形意拳; pinyin: Xíng yì quán; Wade-Giles: Hsing I Ch'üan) is one of the major "internal" (nèijiā) Chinese martial arts. Sun Lu-t'ang (Sūn Lùtáng 孫祿堂 1861-1932 was a renowned master of Chinese Neijia (internal martial arts and was the progenitor of the syncretic art of Sun style The term " nèijiā " usually refers to Wudangquan or the internal styles of Chinese martial arts, which Sun Lutang identified in the 1920s as China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Yue Fei’s biographies Yue Fei Biography A biography of Yue Fei was written 60 years after his death by his grandson the poet and historian Yue Ke (岳柯 This is an article about a particle accelerator For uses of spear, see Spear or Spear (disambiguation. Shaolin Kung Fu refers to a collection of Chinese martial arts that claim affiliation with the Shaolin Monastery. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Wade-Giles (ˌweɪdˈʤaɪlz) sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and Transcription) for the Mandarin The term " nèijiā " usually refers to Wudangquan or the internal styles of Chinese martial arts, which Sun Lutang identified in the 1920s as Kung fu and wushu are popular terms that have become synonymous with Chinese Martial arts. Xingyiquan translates approximately to "Form/Intention Boxing", or "Shape/Will Boxing", and is characterised by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power.
Its origins are traceable to the 18th century. There is no single organisational body governing the teaching of the art, and several variant styles exist.
A Xingyiquan fighter uses coordinated movements to generate bursts of power intended to overwhelm the opponent, simultaneously attacking and defending. Forms vary from school to school, but include barehanded sequences and versions of the same sequences with a variety of weapons. These sequences are based upon the movements and fighting behaviour of a variety of animals. The training methods allow the student to progress through increasing difficulty in form sequences, timing and fighting strategy.
Although the exact origin of Xingyiquan is uncertain, the earliest written records of Xingyiquan can be traced to the 18th century to Ma Xueli of Henan Province and Dai Longbang of Shanxi Province. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China. Legend, however, credits the invention of Xingyiquan to the renowned Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) general Yue Fei. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Yue Fei’s biographies Yue Fei Biography A biography of Yue Fei was written 60 years after his death by his grandson the poet and historian Yue Ke (岳柯 According to the book Henan Orthodox Xingyi Quan written by Pei Xirong (Chinese: 裴锡荣) and Li Ying’ang (Chinese: 李英昂), Xingyi Master Dai Longbang "于乾隆十五年为“六合拳”作序云：“岳飞当童子时，受业于周侗师，精通枪法，以枪为拳，立法以教将佐，名曰意拳，神妙莫测，盖从古未有之技也。"
". Xingyiquan ( is one of the major "internal" ( Nèijiā) Chinese martial arts. . . wrote the Preface to Six Harmonies Boxing in the 15th reign year of the Qianlong Emperor . Emperor Qianlong (Chinese 乾隆 Qiánlóng, Wade-Giles' Ch'ien-Lung', Mongolian Tengeriig Tetgesen Khaan, born Hongli (弘历 September Inside it says, '. . . when [Yue Fei] was a child, he received special instructions from Zhou Tong. History Mention in Yue family memoirs Tutelage Despite being literate giving him a chance to become a scholar young Yue Fei chose the military Extremely skilled in spearfighting, he used the spear to create fist techniques and established a skill called Yi Quan [意拳]. Meticulous and unfathomable, this technique far outstripped ancient ones. "
Throughout the Jin, Yuan and Ming Dynasties few had his art, one of them being Ji Gong [Ji Longfeng]. This is an article for the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234 For other Chinese dynasties whose names are also rendered "Jin" in Pinyin, see Jin Dynasty The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led After Yue Fei's death, the art was lost for half a millennium. Then, during the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Shaanxi Province's Zhongnan Mountains, Yue Fei's boxing manual was discovered by Ji Longfeng (also known as Ji Jike) of neighbouring Shanxi Province. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China.
Dr. Yang Jwing-Ming argues that aspects of Xingyiquan (particularly the animal styles) are identifiable as far back as the Liang Dynasty at the Shaolin Temple. Liang Dynasty ( 梁[[wikt 朝|朝]] Pinyin: Liáng cháo (502-557 also known as Southern Liang Dynasty (南梁 was the third of Southern dynasties  Yue Fei, therefore, did not strictly invent Xingyiquan, but synthesised and perfected existing Shaolin principles into his own style of gongfu which he popularised during his military service. Nonetheless, according to Yang, Yue Fei is usually identified as the creator because of his considerable understanding of the art (as shown in the work The Ten Theses of Xingyiquan, credited to Yue) and his cultural status as a Chinese war hero.
Other martial artists and historians of Chinese martial arts, such as Miller, Cartmell, and Kennedy, hold that this story is largely legendary; while xingyiquan may well have evolved from military spear techniques, there is no period evidence to support that Yue Fei was involved or that the art dates to the Song dynasty. Tim Cartmell is a Martial artist, creator of the syncretic style Shen Wu and author and translator of a number of texts on martial arts These authors point out that the works describing Yue Fei's role or attributed to him long postdate his life (some being as recent as the Republican era), and that it was common practice in China to attribute new works to a famous or legendary personage, rather than take credit for one's self. This article discusses history of the state which currently governs Taiwan Area. One source claims that the author of the "preface" is unknown, since no name is written on the manuscript. Most practitioners just assume it was written by Dai Longbang. Some martial researchers believe that it was actually written in Shanxi during the final years of the 19th century. ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China.  In addition, historical memoirs and scholarly research papers only mention Zhou Tong teaching Yue archery and not spear play. History Mention in Yue family memoirs Tutelage Despite being literate giving him a chance to become a scholar young Yue Fei chose the military  Yue historically learned spear play from Chen Guang (陈广), who was hired by the boy’s paternal grandfather, Yao Daweng (姚大翁). 
With the late Ming-era and Ji Longfeng, evidence for the art's history grows firmer. Ji Longfeng's contributions to the art are described in the Ji Clan Chronicles (姬氏族谱; pinyin: Ji Shi Jiapu). Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Like the Preface, the Chronicles describes Xingyiquan as a martial art based on the combat principles of the spear. The Chronicles, however, attributes this stylistic influence to Ji himself, who was known as the "Divine Spear" (神槍; pinyin: Shén Qiāng) for his extraordinary skill with the weapon. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use
The master who taught Xingyiquan to Ma Xueli is conventionally identified as Ji Longfeng himself. However, the traditions of the Ma family itself say only that Xueli learned from a wandering master whose name is unknown. Ji Longfeng referred to his art as Liu He, The Six Harmonies.
The Preface identifies Cao Ji Wu as a student of Ji Longfeng and the master who taught Xingyiquan to Dai Longbang. However, other sources identify Dai's teacher variously as Li Zheng or Niu Xixian.
Xingyiquan remained fairly obscure until Li Luoneng (also known as Li Nengran) learned the art from the Dai family in the 19th century. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar It was Li Luoneng and his successors—which include Guo Yunshen, Li Cunyi, Zhang Zhaodong, Sun Lutang, and Shang Yunxiang—who would popularise Xingyiquan across Northern China. Sun Lu-t'ang (Sūn Lùtáng 孫祿堂 1861-1932 was a renowned master of Chinese Neijia (internal martial arts and was the progenitor of the syncretic art of Sun style Sun Lutang exchanged knowledge with Fu Chen Sung, who subsequently took this branch of h'sing yi ch'uan to southern China. Fu Chen Sung ( Chinese 傅振嵩 (1881-1953 was a third-generation Baguazhang instructor from Henan, who founded a significant style of that art
Xingyiquan features aggressive shocking attacks and direct footwork. The linear nature of Xingyiquan hints at both the military origins and the influence of spear technique alluded to in its mythology. Despite its hard, angular appearance, cultivating "soft" internal strength or qi is essential to achieving power in Xingyiquan. Hard and soft in Martial arts refer to the way techniques deal with the Force of an attack Nèi Jìn or Nèi Jìng (內勁 is the Chinese term for the "internal power" associated with Chinese martial arts. In traditional Chinese culture, qi (zh [[wikt氣 氣]] Pinyin qì, Wade-Giles ch'i Jyutping
The goal of the Xingyiquan fighter is to reach the opponent quickly and drive powerfully through them in a single burst — the analogy with spear fighting is useful here. This is achieved by coordinating one's body as a single unit and the intense focusing of one's qi. In traditional Chinese culture, qi (zh [[wikt氣 氣]] Pinyin qì, Wade-Giles ch'i Jyutping
Efficiency and economy of movement are the qualities of a Xingyiquan fighter and its direct fighting philosophy advocates simultaneous attack and defence. There are few kicks except for extremely low foot kicks (which avoids the hazards of balance involved with higher kicks) and some mid-level kicks, and techniques are prized for their deadliness rather than aesthetic value. Xingyiquan favours a high stance called Sāntǐshì (三體式), literally "three bodies power," referring to how the stance holds the head, torso and feet along the same vertical plane. A common saying of Xingyiquan is that "the hands do not leave the heart and the elbows do not leave the ribs. " Another characteristic common to many styles of XingYi is a stance called "Dragon Body". This is a forward stance similar to a bow stance with a straight line from the head to the heel of the back foot and the front foot perpendicular to the ground. This is not so much a separate stance or technique in itself as a principle of movement to provide power to techniques.
The use of the Santishi as the main stance and training method originated from Li Luoneng's branch of Xingyi. Early branches such as Dai family style do not use Santi as the primary stance nor as a training method.
Xingyiquan uses the five classical Chinese elements to metaphorically represent five different states of combat. In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Wu Xing ( or the Five Phases, usually translated as five elements, Also called the "Five Fists" or "Five Phases," the Five Elements are related to Taoist cosmology although the names do not literally correspond to the cosmological terms. Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Cosmology (from Greek grc κοσμολογία - grc κόσμος kosmos, "universe" and grc -λογία -logia) is study
Xingyiquan practitioners use the Five Elements as an interpretative framework for reacting and responding to attacks. This follows the Five Element theory, a general combat formula which assumes at least three outcomes of a fight; the constructive, the neutral, and the destructive. Xingyiquan students train to react to and execute specific techniques in such a way that a desirable cycle will form based on the constructive, neutral and destructive interactions of Five Element theory. Where to aim, where to hit and with what technique—and how those motions should work defensively—is determined by what point of which cycle they see themselves in.
Each of the elements has variant applications that allow it to be used to defend against all of the elements (including itself), so any set sequences are entirely arbitrary, though the destructive cycle is often taught to beginners as it is easier to visualise and consists of easier applications. Some schools will teach the Five Elements before the Ten Animals because they are easier and shorter to learn.
|Splitting||劈||Pī||Metal||Like an axe chopping up and over. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use|
|Pounding||炮||Pào||Fire||Exploding outward like a cannon while blocking.|
|Drilling||鑽||Zuān||Water||Drilling forward horizontally like a geyser.|
|Crossing||橫||Héng||Earth||Crossing across the line of attack while turning over.|
|Crushing||崩||Bēng||Wood||Arrows constantly exploding forward.|
It is perhaps unfortunate that the names used for the elements are used as fundamental names for applications of energy or jìn (勁), since it can be confusing to describe the "heng jin contained within pi quan". The jìn referred to by the five element names are not the only ones, there are many others.
Xingyiquan is based on twelve distinct animal forms (形; pinyin: xíng). Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Present in all regional and family styles, these emulate the techniques and tactics of the corresponding animal rather than just their physical movements. Many schools of Xingyiquan have only small number of movements for each animal, though some teach extended sequences of movements. Once the individual animal forms are taught, a student is often taught an animal linking form (shi'er xing lianhuan) which connects all the taught animals together in a sequence. Some styles have longer, or multiple forms for individual animals, such Eight Tiger Forms Huxing bashi.
|Bear||熊||Xióng||In Xingyi, "the Bear and Eagle combine," meaning that the Bear and Eagle techniques are often used in conjunction with each other. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use There is a bird called the "Bear Eagle," which covers the characteristics of both forms. The Mountain Hawk-eagle or Hodgson's Hawk-eagle ( Nisaetus nipalensis earlier treated under Spizaetus) is a Bird of prey.|
|Snake||蛇||Shé||Includes both Constrictor and Viper styles. Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the Bird order Falconiformes and family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera A snake is an elongate Reptile of the suborder Serpentes Like all reptiles snakes are covered in scales.|
|Tiger||虎||Hǔ||features lunging open handed attacks mimicking the pounce of a tiger|
|Dragon||龍||Lóng||The only "mythical" animal taught. The tiger ( Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family the largest and the most powerful of the four " Big cats quot in the Genus The dragon is a Legendary creature of which some interpretation or depiction appears in almost every culture worldwide in some styles it is practised separately from tiger because they are said to clash.|
|Chicken||鷄||Jī||mimmicks the pecking movement of a chicken|
|Horse||馬||Mǎ||uses left to right movements similar to the tiger form but with closed fists. The chicken ( Gallus gallus, sometimes G gallus domesticus) is a domesticated Fowl which is traditionally believed to have descended from The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. mimicks the action of a rearing and stricking horse|
|Swallow||燕||Yàn||Follows the swift and random movements of the swallow by rotating position and circling the enemy with strong but quick foot movement. The swallows and martins are a group of Passerine Birds in the family Hirundinidae which are characterised by their adaptation to aerial|
|Goshawk||鷂||Yào||This can mean 'Sparrowhawk,' though the more common word for "Sparrowhawk" used to be Zhān (鸇), which has fallen from use over the years. The Goshawk ('ɡɔːshɔːk Accipiter gentilis; from OE góshafoc 'goose-hawk' is a medium-large Bird of prey in the family Accipitridae The Chinese word for "Goshawk" covers both the Goshawk and the Sparrowhawk. The Goshawk ('ɡɔːshɔːk Accipiter gentilis; from OE góshafoc 'goose-hawk' is a medium-large Bird of prey in the family Accipitridae The Eurasian Sparrowhawk ( Accipiter nisus) is a small Bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which includes many other diurnal raptors such|
|Crocodile||鼍||Tuó||The animal it is meant to represent is the Yangtze River alligator. A monkey is any member of either the New World monkeys or Old World monkeys two of the three groupings of Simian Primates the third group being Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Cranes are large long-legged and long-necked Birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. The Chinese Alligator or Yangtze Alligator ( Alligator sinensis) is one of two known living species of Alligator, a genus in the family Sometimes referred to as a water-skimming insect, or water lizard. the movements of a yangtze river alligator have been compared to those of a pig crossed with a dragon|
|This is a flycatcher native to Asia. The Asian Paradise-flycatcher ( Terpsiphone paradisi) also known as the Common Paradise-flycatcher, is a medium-sized Passerine Bird. Due to the rarity of this character it may be translated as Ostrich, Dove, Hawk or even Phoenix. The Chinese for this animal is a single character (𩿡), not two (as written); this character is not in the earlier versions of the Unicode standard so not all computers are capable of displaying it. . For further information on this character, check the Unihan database for complete data on this character.|
|Turtle||龜||Guī||Some schools will teach this in combination with Tuó, considering them to be the same animal. Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish Turtles are Reptiles of the Order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the Crown group Chelonia) most of|
Xingyiquan has three main developmental branches:
However, the identification of three separate branches is tenuous because of the extensive cross-training that occurred across their lineages. The Wildcat ( Felis silvestris) sometimes Wild Cat or Wild-cat, is a small felid native to Europe, the western part of Asia This suggests that the branches did not evolve in isolation, thus diluting any major differences between them.
Schools of the Shanxi branch have a narrower stance, lighter footwork and tend to be more evasive. Schools of the Hebei branch emphasise powerful fist and palm strikes, with slightly different evasive footwork. Schools of the Henan branch are typically the most aggressive of the three.
The Henan branch is known as the Muslim branch because it was handed down within the Muslim community in Luoyang to which its founder, Ma Xueli, belonged. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. Henan branch is sometimes referred to by practitioners as Xinyi LiuHe Quan instead of simply Xingyiquan This may be attributed to the fact that the Muslim community of China was historically a very closed culture in order to protect themselves as a minority, thus retaining the older addition to the name of Xingyi. LiuHe means "Six Harmonies" and refers to the six harmonies of the body (hips, feet, knees, elbows etc. ) that contribute to correct posture. This is not to be confused with the separate internal art Liuhebafa. Note The art may be spelled in different ways for exampleLiu He Ba Fa (Mandarin ChineseLok Hap Baat Faat (Cantonese Chineseand abbreviated as LHBF
Both the Shanxi and Hebei branches use a Twelve Animal system with Five Elements while the Henan branch uses Ten Animals. Depending on the lineage, it may or may not use Five Elements. Due to the historical complexity and vagueness of the lineages, it is uncertain which branch would constitute the "authentic" Xingyiquan.
Traditionally, Xingyiquan is an armed art, students would train initially with the spear, progressing to shorter weapons and eventually empty-handed fighting. Xingyiquan emphasises a close relationship between the movements of armed/unarmed techniques. This technical overlap aims to produce greater learning efficiency.
Weapon diversity is great, the idea being that an experienced Xingyi fighter would be able to pick up almost any weapon irrespective of its exact length, weight and shape.
Since the validity of lineages are often controversial, this list is not intended to represent any lineage. Names are presented in alphabetical order using pinyin romanisation. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use
|Cao Jiwu||曹繼武||Reported to have won first place in the Imperial Martial Examinations - sometime in the 17th or 18th century.|
|Chu GuiTing||褚桂亭||Chu GuiTing||One of disciples of Li Cunyi. Chu Guiting was born in in Danzhou town Renqiu County Hebei Province on 26th July 1892 He mastered Xingyi, Bagua and Taiji.|
|Dai Longbang||戴龍邦||First student of the art from the Dai family.|
|Fu Chen Sung||Chief instructor of baguazhang at the Nanjing Central Goushu Institute|
|Guo Yunshen||郭雲深||A legendary tale reports him as having been incarcerated for killing a man, and when confined to a prison cell only being able to practice Beng quan. Fu Chen Sung ( Chinese 傅振嵩 (1881-1953 was a third-generation Baguazhang instructor from Henan, who founded a significant style of that art Bāguàzhǎng is one of the major " internal " (aka Nèijiā) Chinese martial arts. Guo Yunshen (郭雲深 1822 - 1898 was a famous Xingyiquan master|
|Hong Yixiang||洪懿祥||Founder of the Tang Shou Tao school in the 1960's|
|Ji Longfeng||Ji Jike (姬際可)||Founder (or rediscoverer depending on how legendary you consider the Yue Fei tale. Hung I-Hsiang ( Wade-Giles) or Hong Yixiang ( Hanyu Pinyin) (洪懿祥 1925-1993 was a Taiwanese martial artist who specialized Tang Shou Tao (唐手道 Hanyu Pinyin: Tang Shou Dao, lit "Chinese Hand Way" is a system of Chinese internal martial arts training Yue Fei’s biographies Yue Fei Biography A biography of Yue Fei was written 60 years after his death by his grandson the poet and historian Yue Ke (岳柯 )|
|Li Luoneng||李洛能||Li Nengran||Nicknamed "Divine Fist Li. "|
|Li Tian Ji||李天骥||Li LongFei (李龙飞)||Author of "The Skill of Xingyiquan". Was the first Chairman of the Chinese Wushu Administration under Communist China. Helped to preserve Xingyiquan during the Cultural Revolution.|
|Li Cunyi||李存义||Li Cunyi||Famous Boxer. One of disciples of Guo Yunshen|
|Ma Xueli||馬學禮||Founder of the Henan or Muslim branch.|
|Song Shirong||宋世榮||Founder of the Song Family Style.|
|Sun Lutang||孫祿堂||Sun Fuquan||Author of several books on internal arts. Sun Lu-t'ang (Sūn Lùtáng 孫祿堂 1861-1932 was a renowned master of Chinese Neijia (internal martial arts and was the progenitor of the syncretic art of Sun style|
|Zhang Junfeng||張俊峰||Founded a major school in Taiwan in the 1950's. Chang Chun-Feng ( Wade-Giles) or Zhang Junfeng ( Hanyu Pinyin) (張俊峰 1902-1974 was a well-known Chinese|
|Zhang Zhaodong||張兆東||Zhang Zhankui|
A variety of texts have survived throughout the years, often called "Classics", "Songs" or "Theories".
A simplified version of Xingyiquan was taught to Chinese infantry during the Second Sino-Japanese War for close quarters combat. The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the Close Quarters Battle ( CQB) or close quarters combat ( CQC) is a type of fighting in which small units engage the enemy with personal weapons at very This included armed techniques such as bayonet and sabre drills alongside unarmed techniques. 
Xingyiquan forms have been adapted to fit the needs of modern practitioners of the competitive sport of Wushu. Wushu, also known as modern wushu or contemporary wushu, is both an exhibition and a full-contact Sport derived from traditional Chinese martial arts The style is relatively rare in competitions because all wushu practitioners must compete in several mandatory events, which make Xingyi a secondary priority in wushu circles.
Ancient Chinese texts, the source of Xingyiquan knowledge, often contain characters whose meanings are obscure or have disappeared completely from the language. Specialised terms which describe historically-specific concepts (names of ancient weapons for example) are commonly interpreted with regards for their closest, modern linguistic equivalent. The results can be problematic, producing translations which are linguistically correct but inconsistent within a fighting or martial context.
Jargon from other martial arts seems to have entered the Xingyiquan vocabulary through cross-training. For example, some schools refer to a training method of "Xingyi Push Hands" - a term more commonly in use in training Taijiquan - which may be called by other schools "Five Elements Fighting"
The recognised founder of Baguazhang, Dong Hai Chuan, was reputed to have fought Guo Yunshen with neither able to defeat the other - though it is possible that they were training together. Pushing hands, ( 推[[wiktionary 手|手]] Wade-Giles t'ui1 shou3 Pinyin tuī shǒu is a name for two-person training routines Bāguàzhǎng is one of the major " internal " (aka Nèijiā) Chinese martial arts. It would have been controversial at the time for Dong Hai Chuan to have studied under Guo Yunshen, since Dong Hai Chuan was the older of the two. The most neutral viewpoint would be to say that they trained together, which may explain the stylistic similarities between Baguazhang and the Xingyiquan Monkey. Frantzis argues that this encounter never took place and that Guo and Dong had little contact with each other. Bruce Kumar Frantzis (born March 1949 New York City) is a writer of books on Tai chi, Chi gong, Meditation, and energetic healing therapies Frantzis argues that a Xingyiquan-Baguazhang exchange was more likely to have occurred in Tianjin c. ( Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is the second largest city in northern coastal China. 1900 where Xingyi masters Li Cunyi and Zhang Zhaodong, Bagua master Cheng Tinghua, and four other Xingyi and Bagua teachers lived together (Frantzis, 1998, p. 179). It is stated in Sun Lutang's autobiography that the legendary fight between Guo Yunshen and Dong Hai Chuan never happened. The book states that the truth of the matter is that Guo Yunshen actually fought one of his older Xingyi brothers and lost. Sun Lutang was a student of both Guo Yunshen and Cheng Tinghua so this stance on the subject seems to be one of the most accurate. On another note there are claims that the fight did happen from very credible masters that have knowledge of specific, original forms both empty handed and weapons that were invented by Dong Hai Chuan himself. They claim that the two masters agreed to a draw, realizing that both arts were equally on par with each other and always had mutual respect for the other. They claim that the friendship developed two new arts BaguaXingyi and Xingyibagua. Both arts were a fusion of the two with more emphasis on the art that is stated first in the name. A person had to decide which art he had more interest in and resonated in them more. Xingyibagua for the student more interested in Xingyi and BaguaXingyi for the student more interested in Pa Kua (Bagua).
Treating the story of Dong Hai Chuan and Guo Yunshen as allegory, however, reveals a common training protocol among xingyiquan and baguazhang practitioners. Often, because baguazhang requires significantly more time for a practitioner's skill to mature, it is acceptable to learn xingyiquan first or simultaneously. Such a practitioner develops a tactical vocabulary that is more readily apparent than the core baguazhang movements.
The founder of Yiquan, Wang Xiangzhai studied under Guo Yunshen, and similarities in techniques between these arts can be seen. Yi quan, also known as dacheng quan, is a Martial art system which was founded by the Chinese Xingyiquan master Wang Xiangzhai 王薌齋 (1885-1963 also known as Nibao Zhenghe Yuseng, was a Chinese The primary standing postures of Yiquan trains separately what xingyiquan santishi (三體式) trains simultaneously. Yi quan, also known as dacheng quan, is a Martial art system which was founded by the Chinese Xingyiquan master
These may be available in the original Chinese.