|Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|State Party||Russian Federation|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||2004 (28th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Wrangel Island (Russian: о́стров Вра́нгеля, ostrov Vrangelya) is an island in the Arctic Ocean, between the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major Chukchi Sea (Чуко́тское мо́ре is a Marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. The East Siberian Sea ( Russian: ru Восто́чно-Сиби́рское мо́ре is a Marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. Wrangel Island lies astride the 180° meridian. This article is about the geographical concept For other uses of the word see Meridian. The International date line is displaced eastwards at this latitude to avoid the island as well as the Chukchi Peninsula on the Russian mainland. The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Peninsula or Chukotsk Peninsula ( Russian: Чукотский полуостров at about 66° N 172° W is the northeastern The island is about 125 km (78 miles) wide and 7,300 sq. km (2,800 sq. miles) in area. The highest point on the island is Sovetskaya Mountain (1,096 meters, or 3,596 feet).
The closest land to Wrangel Island is tiny and rocky Herald Island located 60 km to the east. Herald Island or Gerald Island (Остров Геральд is a small isolated Russian island in the Chukchi Sea, 60 km to the east of Wrangel Island
Wrangel Island belongs administratively to the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of the Russian Federation. Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Чуко́тский автоно́мный о́круг tr Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
The rocky island has a weather station and two permanent Eskimo fishing settlements on the southern side of the island (Ushakovskoye and Starry), and is a breeding ground for polar bears (having the highest density of dens in the world), seals, and lemmings. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Eskimos or Esquimaux are Indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia ( Russia) across General Donn Albert Starry (1925-) is a retired United States Army four star general who served as Commanding General United States Army Training and Doctrine Command The polar bear ( Ursus maritimus) is a Bear native to the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding seas Pinnipeds ("fin-feet" lit "winged feet" or fin-footed mammals are a widely distributed and diverse group of semi-aquatic marine Mammals comprising Lemmings are small Rodents usually found in or near the Arctic, in tundra Biomes Together with the Voles and Muskrats they make During the summer it is visited by many types of birds. Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs.
During the last ice age, mammoths lived on Wrangel Island. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets A mammoth is any Species of the Extinct Genus Mammuthus. These Proboscideans are members of the elephant family and It has been shown that mammoths survived on Wrangel Island until 1700 BC, which is the most recent survival of all known mammoth populations. However, due to limited food supply, they were much smaller in size than the typical mammoth.
Its flora includes 417 species of plants, double that of any other arctic tundra territory of comparable size and more than any other Arctic island. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. In physical Geography, tundra is an area where the Tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons For these reasons, the island was proclaimed the northernmost World Heritage Site in 2004. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
Wrangel Island has a severe polar climate. Regions with a polar climate are characterized by a lack of warm summers (specifically no month having an average temperature of 10 °C or higher The region is blanketed by masses of dry and cold Arctic air for most of the year. Warmer and more humid air can reach the island from the south-east during summer. Dry and heated air from Siberia comes to the island periodically. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving
Winters are prolonged and are characterized by steady frosty weather and high northerly winds. During this period the temperatures usually stay well below freezing for months. In February and March there are frequent snow-storms with wind speeds of 140 km/h or above.
The short summers are cool but comparatively mild as the polar day generally keeps temperatures above 0°C. The midnight sun is a phenomenon occurring in Latitudes north and nearby to the south of the Arctic Circle and south and nearby to the north of the Some frosts and snowfalls occur, with fog being commonplace. Frost is the solid deposition of Water vapor from saturated air Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground Warmer and drier weather are experienced in the center of the island because the interior's topography encourages foehn winds. A foehn wind or föhn wind is a type of dry downslope wind which occurs in the lee of a mountain range
Average relative humidity is about 82%.
|Record maximum temperature (°C)||1. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 5||-0. 2||0. 7||2. 2||11. 1||17. 4||18. 2||16. 7||11. 9||5. 3||1. 7||1. 1||18. 2|
|Mean daily maximum temperature (°C)||-19. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 2||-21. 1||-19. 8||-13. 3||-4. 1||3||5. 3||4. 5||0. 8||-5. 4||-11. 9||-18. 1||-8. 2|
|Mean daily temperature (°C)||-22. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 3||-25. 2||-24. 7||-18||-6. 7||0. 3||2. 4||2. 1||-0. 9||-8||-14. 8||-21. 3||-11. 4|
|Mean daily minimum temperature (°C)||-26. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 7||-28. 6||-27. 6||-21. 2||-9. 8||-1. 5||0. 6||0. 2||-2. 9||-10. 2||-18||-24. 7||-14. 2|
|Record minimum temperature (°C)||-42||-44. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 6||-45||-38. 2||-31. 5||-12. 3||-4. 9||-6. 5||-21. 4||-29. 8||-34. 9||-57. 7||-57. 7|
|Mean monthly precipitation (mm)||16||9||9||8||8||13||23||28||22||15||17||11||179|
Evidence for prehistoric human occupation was uncovered in 1975 at the Chertov Ovrag site. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to MODIS ( Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a payload scientific instrument launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.  Various stone and ivory tools were found, including a toggling harpoon. The toggling harpoon is an ancient Weapon and Tool used in Whaling to impale a Whale when thrown Radiocarbon dating shows the human inhabitation roughly coeval with the last mammoths on the island circa 1,700 B. Radiocarbon dating is a Radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring Radioisotope Carbon-14 (14C to determine the age of C. , though no direct evidence of mammoth hunting has been found.
A legend prevalent among the Chukchi people of Siberia tells of a chief Krachai or Krahay, who fled with his people (the Krachaians or Krahays) across the ice to settle in a northern land. Chukchi, or Chukchee (чукчи ( plural) ru чукча ( singular) are an Indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving  Though the story is mythical, the existence of an island or continent to the north was lent credence by the annual migration of reindeer across the ice, as well as the appearance of slate spear-points washed up on Arctic shores, made in a fashion unknown to the Chukchi.
In 1764 the Cossack Sergeant Andrejew claims to have sighted the island, called "Tikegen Land," and found evidence of its inhabitants, the Krahay. Year 1764 ( MDCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The island is named after Baron Ferdinand von Wrangel (1797–1870), who, after reading Andrejew's report and hearing Chukchi stories of land at the island's coordinates, set off on an expedition (1820–1824) to discover the island, with no success. Baron Ferdinand von Wrangel (Фердина́нд Петро́вич Вра́нгель Ferdinand Petrovich Vrangel; December 29, 1796 ( January Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Chukchi, or Chukchee (чукчи ( plural) ru чукча ( singular) are an Indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula In Mathematics and its applications a coordinate system is a system for assigning an n - Tuple of Numbers or scalars to each point Year 1820 ( MDCCCXX) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year 
In 1849, Henry Kellett, captain of HMS Herald, landed on and named Herald Island, and thought he saw another island to the west; thereafter it was indicated on British Admiralty charts as "Kellett Land. Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Sir Henry Kellett ( November 2, 1806 - March 1, 1875) was a British Naval officer and Explorer. Herald Island or Gerald Island (Остров Геральд is a small isolated Russian island in the Chukchi Sea, 60 km to the east of Wrangel Island " In August 1867, Thomas Long, an American whaling captain, "approached it as near as fifteen miles. Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Whaling is the hunting of Whales and dates back to at least 6000 BC I have named this northern land Wrangell [sic] Land . . . as an appropriate tribute to the memory of a man who spent three consecutive years north of latitude 68°, and demonstrated the problem of this open polar sea forty-five years ago, although others of much later date have endeavored to claim the merit of this discovery. "
George W. DeLong, commanding USS Jeanette, led an expedition in 1879 attempting to reach the North Pole, expecting to go by the "east side of Kellett land," which he thought extended far into the Arctic. George Washington DeLong ( August 22, 1844 – October 31, 1881) was a United States Navy officer and ill-fated explorer Detailing and Fitting In March Congress authorized the detailing of naval officers on the voyage and Lt Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is subject to the caveats explained below defined as the point in the northern His ship became locked in the polar ice pack and drifted eastward within sight of Wrangel before being crushed and sunk. Sea ice is formed from Ocean water that freezes Because the Oceans consist of Saltwater, this occurs at about -1 The first known landing on Wrangel Island took place on August 12, 1881, by a party from the USRC Corwin, who claimed the island for the United States . Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1881 ( MDCCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1790 as an armed Maritime law enforcement The expedition, under the command of Calvin L. Hooper, was seeking the Jeannette and two missing whalers in addition to conducting general exploration. For other uses see Whalers. A whaler is a specialized kind of ship designed for Whaling, the catching and/or processing of It included naturalist John Muir, who published the first description of Wrangel Island. Natural history is the Scientific research of Plants or Animals leaning more towards the Observational than Experimental methods John Muir ( April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was a Scottish -born American Naturalist, author and early
In 1911, a group of Russians made a landing on the island, and in 1914, the survivors of the ill-equipped Canadian Arctic Expedition, organized by Vilhjalmur Stefansson, were marooned there for nine months after their ship, the Karluk, was crushed in the ice pack. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Vilhjalmur Stefansson (Vilhjálmur Stefánsson (November 3 1879 &ndash August 26 1962 was a Canadian Arctic explorer and ethnologist The Karluk was a Ship used for an expedition to the Arctic in 1913 led by Vilhjalmur Stefansson and captained by Robert Bartlett. The survivors were rescued by the American motorized fishing schooner King & Winge after Captain Robert Bartlett walked across the Chukchi Sea to Siberia to summon help. The King & Winge was one of the most famous ships ever built in Seattle Captain Robert Abram Bartlett ( August 15, 1875 - April 28, 1946) was a Newfoundland navigator and Arctic Chukchi Sea (Чуко́тское мо́ре is a Marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
In 1921 Wrangel Island would become the stage for one of history's tragedies when Stefansson sent five settlers (one Canadian, three Americans, and one Inuit) in a speculative attempt to claim the island for Canada. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The explorers were handpicked by Stefansson based upon their previous experience and academic credentials. Steffanson considered those with advanced knowledge in the fields of geography and science for this expedition. The initial group consisted of Allan Crawford of Canada, and Fred Maurer, Lorne Knight and Milton Galle of the US. In 1923, the sole survivor of this expedition, the Inuk Ada Blackjack, was rescued by a ship that left another party of 13 (American Charles Wells and 12 Inuit). Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting Ada Blackjack, (1898-1983 was an Inuit woman who lived for two years as a Castaway on uninhabited Wrangel Island in northern Siberia In 1924, the Soviet Union removed the members of this settlement and established the settlement that survives to this day on the island. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
In the 1930s, Wrangel Island became the scene of a bizarre criminal story when it fell under the increasingly arbitrary rule of its appointed governor Konstantin Semenchuk, who controlled the local populace and his own staff through open extortion and murder. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. He forbade the local Eskimos to hunt walruses, which put them in danger of starvation, while collecting food for himself. Eskimos or Esquimaux are Indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia ( Russia) across The walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered Marine mammal with a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the Arctic Ocean and He was then implicated in the mysterious deaths of some of his opponents, including the local doctor. The subsequent Moscow trial in June 1936 sentenced Semenchuk to death for "banditry" and violation of Soviet law . Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
During and after World War II many German SS POWs and the remnants of Andrey Vlasov's renegade Russian army were imprisoned and died on Wrangel Island. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including General Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov or Wlassow (Андрéй Андрéевич Влáсов &mdash August 2 1946 was a Russian former Soviet A prisoner who later emigrated to Israel, Efim Moshinsky, claims to have seen Raoul Wallenberg there in 1962. Raoul Wallenberg (August 4 1912 &ndash July 17 1947? was a Swedish Humanitarian of the prominent Swedish Wallenberg family who worked in Budapest 
According to some U. S. individuals, including the group State Department Watch, eight arctic islands currently controlled by Russia, including Wrangel Island, are claimed by the United States. However, according to the U.S. Department of State, no such claim exists. The 1990 USSR/USA Maritime Boundary Treaty, which has yet to be approved by the Russian Duma, does not address the status of these islands.