As a contemporary artistic medium, wood is used in traditional and modern styles, and is an excellent medium for new art. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Wood is used in forms of sculpture, craft, and decoration including chip carving, wood burning, and marquetry. Chip carving is a style of Wood carving in which Knives are used to remove small chips of wood from the project surface in a single Pyrography is the art of decorating wood or other materials with burn marks resulting from the controlled application of a heated object such as a poker. Marquetry is the Craft of covering a structural carcass with pieces of veneer forming decorative patterns designs or pictures Wood offers a fascination, beauty, and complexity in the grain, that often shows even when the medium is painted.
A person who begins woodcarving is challenged to learn to work with the fiber and grain. Hardness and fragility vary with the species of wood. This is a list of Woods, in particular those commonly used in the Timber and Lumber trade In general, wood tends to break in the "split direction", the direction in which the fibers separate. In the composition of work, one must work with and around this. Each direction of cut feels and works differently. Sharp tools are essential in allowing the artist's sense to shape the material.
Planks of wood are said to be quarter-sawn when the growth rings are more or less at right angles to the thickness. Dendrochronology (from Greek grc δένδρον dendron, "tree" grc χρόνος khronos, "time" and grc -λογία If the growth rings are more parallel to the width, then the plank is said to be slab-cut. While slab-cut planks are seasoning, they tend to cup in a direction so as to "straighten" the growth rings. 
Seasoned wood never completely stabilizes, but continues to swell and shrink with seasonal humidity and temperature variations. Any design concept using wood must allow for the particulars of this dimensional variation. Warped wood may be described as bent, twisted, or cupped, or some combination of those modes.
Here are just a few commonly used hardwood and softwood species; many more may be found in List of woods. The term hardwood is used to describe Wood from broad-leaved angiosperm Trees mostly Deciduous, but not necessarily in the case of tropical Softwood is a generic term used in Woodworking and the Lumber industries for Wood from Conifers (needle-bearing trees from the order Pinales This is a list of Woods, in particular those commonly used in the Timber and Lumber trade Each has its own character.
See Woodworking joints and Adhesives. Joinery is that part of Woodworking that involves joining together pieces of wood to create furniture structures toys and other items Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together
The grain and figure of the wood interact with the shape of the piece to make interesting visual and tactile effects. The surface texture may be manipulated by sanding, scraping, scorching, weathering, or leaving it just as it came from the shaping. Processes such as sanding or rasping have one sort of effect, while cutting (planing, chiseling, gouging, or other carving) leaves the surface with a distinctively clear and fresh appearance, particularly if the tool is well-sharpened. Some finishing processes may leave a corduroy effect, where the lines of harder late wood contrast with the often paler, softer, early wood. Corduroy is a Textile composed of twisted fibers that when woven lie parallel (similar to Twill) to one another to form the cloth's distinct pattern a "cord Dendrochronology (from Greek grc δένδρον dendron, "tree" grc χρόνος khronos, "time" and grc -λογία Dendrochronology (from Greek grc δένδρον dendron, "tree" grc χρόνος khronos, "time" and grc -λογία
Each tool used to shape wood usually leaves a signature, or distinctive set of marks. For example, it is easy to tell a cut made by a band saw from that of a circular saw or a hand saw. A band saw uses a blade consisting of a band of toothed metal and may be powered by wind water steam electrical motor or animal power The circular saw is a Metal disc or Blade with Saw Teeth on the edge as well as the Machine that causes the disk to In Woodworking and Carpentry, hand saws, also known as "panel saws" are used to cut pieces of Wood into different shapes If a smooth surface is desired, then planes, scrapers, or sandpaper are useful for "erasing" toolmarks. A card scraper (also known as a cabinet scraper is a Woodworking shaping and finishing tool Abrasive Paper is a form of Paper where an Abrasive material has been fixed to its surface Sometimes it is more interesting to leave the tool marks showing. Some centuries-old violin scrolls, for instance, still carry the tool marks of the master that made them, working rapidly and efficiently. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member
The texture and appearance of wood grain may be enhanced and preserved by the use of an appropriate coating process, either transparent, such as varnish or opaque, like paint. Varnish is a transparent, hard protective finish or film primarily used in Wood finishing but also for other materials Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid The finish coats may also help seal the surface, reducing the adverse effects of humidity or sunlight. Other pieces may benefit from the use of unsealed, weathered material such as barn wood or driftwood. Driftwood is Wood that has been washed onto a shore or beach of a sea or river by the action of winds tides waves or man
Working with wood has a lot to do with "cutting away the stuff that doesn't look like the object in mind. Woodworking is the process of building making or carving something using Wood. " Saws, rasps, chisels, gouges and knives are all useful, and must be well sharpened to work effectively and safely. A saw is a Tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials A rasp is a Woodworking tool used for shaping wood It consists of a point or the tip then a long steel bar or the belly then the heel or bottom then the tang A chisel is a Tool with a characteristically shaped Cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on For the unconsolidated sediment formed by rock shearing in fault zones see Fault gouge and Shale Gouge Ratio. Whittling is the art of carving shapes out of raw Wood with a Knife. Sharpening is the process of creating or refining a sharp edge of appropriate shape on a tool or implement designed for cutting Dull tools are actually more dangerous than sharp ones; excessive force used on a dull edge can lead to slips and injury.