|William Stewart Halsted|
The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905. John Singer Sargent (January 12 1856 &ndash April 14 1925 was the most successful portrait painter of his era During his career he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than From left to right: Welch, Halsted, Osler, Kelly. It is said that Halsted's difficult personality prompted Sargent to paint him in colors that would fade in time. Of note:Sargent's careful depiction of Halsted's short, stubby.
|Born||September 23, 1852|
New York City
|Died||September 7, 1922|
William Stewart Halsted (September 23, 1852 – September 7, 1922) is considered the most innovative, influential and important surgeon America has ever produced. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The City of New York Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
William Stewart Halsted was born on 1852 in New York City. The City of New York His mother was Mary Louisa Haines and his father William Mills Halsted, Jr. The family was relatively well-to-do, with a nice house on Fifth Avenue, thanks to the father's successful business, Halsted, Haines and Company. Halsted was educated at home by tutors until the age of ten, when he was sent to boarding school in Monson, Massachusetts. He didn't like his new school and even ran away at one point. He was then sent to Andover where he graduated in 1869. He entered Yale College in 1870. At Yale, Halsted excelled in athletics. He was captain of the football team, played baseball and rowed crew. He even scored the first touch-down in the Yale-Eton football game, the first football game played with 11 players on each side. Halsted was, however, a poor student. Indeed, it is said that there is no record of him ever checking out a book from the Yale library!
Halsted entered Columbia University College of Physicians Surgeons in New York in 1874. He excelled in medical school and after three years, in 1877, he graduated at or near the top of his class. He then joined New York Hospital as house physician, where he introduced the hospital chart which tracks the patient's temperature, pulse and respirations. It was at New York Hospital that Halsted met his closest friend, the pathologist William H. Welch.
Halsted then went to Europe to observe the great European surgeons and scientists, including Chiari, Zuckerkandl, Schneck, Billroth, Braun, Wöelfler, Mikulicz, Kölliker, Stoehr, von Bergmann, Volkmann, Schede, and Esmarch. He returned to New York in 1880 and for the next 6 years would lead an extraordinarily vigorous and energetic life. He operated at multiple hospitals, including Roosevelt Hospital, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Charity Hospital, Emigrant Hospital, Bellevue Hospital and Chambers Street Hospital. He was an extremely popular, inspiring and charismatic teacher. As a surgeon he was characterized as bold, daring, original and indefatigable. In 1882 he performed one of the first gallbladder surgeries in the United States (a cholecystotomy performed on his mother on the kitchen table at 2 A. M. !). He also performed one of the first blood transfusions in the United States. He had been called to see his sister after she had given birth. He found her moribund from blood loss, and in a bold and daring move withdrew his own blood, transfused his blood into his sister, and then operated on her to save her life. At that time, of course, they had no knowledge of blood groups and matching blood.
Halsted's career and life forever changed on October 11, 1884. He read a report, from a student of Sigmund Freud, describing the anesthetic power of cocaine when cocaine is instilled into the eye. Halsted realized that cocaine may be a great local anesthetic, the solution to a terrible problem in the early days of surgery. Having learned the scientific method when he was in Europe, Halsted, together with his students and fellow physicians, began to experiment with cocaine. They injected each other's nerves and showed that cocaine when injected into a nerve can produce safe and effective local anesthesia. They all became addicted, and they all died except for Halsted and his colleague Dr. Richard Hall. Halsted was sent to Butler Sanatorium in Providence, Rhode Island. In an attempt to cure him, Halsted's addiction was converted from cocaine to morphine at Butler. After being discharged from Butler in 1886, Halsted moves to Baltimore, Maryland to join his friend William Welch at the soon to be opened Johns Hopkins Hospital. At Johns Hopkins, Halsted was a fundamentally changed man. Gone was the gregarious risk-taker. At Johns Hopkins he was slow, methodical, and careful. And unbeknownst to almost all, he remained a morphine addict until his death in 1922.
William S. Halsted was named the first chief of the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital when it initially opened in May 1889. Johns Hopkins University|Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|Greenspring StationThe Johns Hopkins Hospital is a Teaching hospital in Baltimore Maryland He was named Surgeon-in-chief in 1890 and promoted to Professor of Surgery in 1892. At Johns Hopkins, Halsted is accredited with starting the first formal surgical residency training program in the United States.
Halsted’s surgical residency program consisted of an internship period (the length was left undefined and individuals advanced once Halsted believed they were ready for the next level of training). Internship was followed by 6 years as assistant resident and then 2 years as house surgeon. Halsted’s first resident was Frederick J. Brockway who started in May 1889 but dropped out of the program in October 1890 to teach anatomy. Halsted went on to train many of the academic surgeons of the time including Harvey Cushing and Walter Dandy. Harvey Williams Cushing ( April 8, 1869 - October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of Brain surgery Walter Edward Dandy ( April 6, 1886 -- April 19, 1946) was an American Neurosurgeon and scientist
He is also well known for his many other medical and surgical achievements. As one of the first proponents of hemostasis and investigators of wound healing, Halsted pioneered the modern surgical fundamental principles of absolute control of bleeding, accurate anatomical dissection, complete sterility, exact approximation of tissue in wound closures without excessive tightness, and gentle handling of tissues. Hemostasis (or Haemostasis refers to a process whereby bleeding is halted in most animals with a closed Circulatory system. Wound healing, or wound repair, is the body's natural process of regenerating dermal and epidermal tissue. In short, he is the father of "safe" surgery. The first radical mastectomy for breast cancer was performed by Halsted. Radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure in which the breast underlying chest muscle (including Pectoralis major and Pectoralis minor) and Lymph nodes Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men Other achievements include the introduction of the surgical glove, advances in thyroid, biliary tree, hernia, intestinal, and arterial aneurysm surgeries. The thyroid is one of the largest Endocrine glands in the body A hernia is a protrusion of a tissue, structure or part of an organ through the muscular tissue or the membrane by which it is normally contained An aneurysm (or aneurism) is a localized blood-filled dilation (balloon-like bulge of a blood vessel caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall
Though raised a Presbyterian, Halsted was agnostic by adulthood. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the  
Achievements, Personal events, Historical background.
- March 16 - Joseph Lister publishes series of articles in The Lancet on the "Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery" describing the use of carbolic acid (phenol) on surgical wounds to reduce the incidence of gangrene. Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a In modern medical practice general anaesthesia ( AmE: anesthesia) is a state of total unconsciousness resulting from General anaesthetic drugs Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English The City of New York Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Joseph Lister 1st Baron Lister, OM, FRS ( 5 April 1827 &ndash 10 February 1912) was an English surgeon This article is about the journal For other uses of the term "lancet" see Lancet (disambiguation. " Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery " is a paper regarding Antiseptics written by Joseph Lister in 1867. Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Please do not add warnings to this page about the pictures Wikipedia is not censored for taste and has a guideline preventing such warnings - WikipediaNo disclaimers in articles
- Graduates from Phillips Academy Andover
- Captain of first American 11-player football team
- This is played against Eton College, two years prior to the first annual Yale-Harvard football game. Phillips Academy (also known as Phillips Andover or PA or simply Andover) is a co-educational University preparatory school for boarding Football is the word given to a number of similar Team sports all of which involve (to varying degrees kicking a Ball with the foot in an attempt to score a Eton College, or just Eton, is a world-famous British Independent school for boys founded in 1440 by King Henry VI.
- Other sports: rowing, gymnastics, baseball (shortstop). GB coxless pair of Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn at Henley Royal Regatta 2004 Gymnastics is a Sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength agility and coordination Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball fielding position between second and Third base.
- Graduates Yale University
- A multi-sport athlete, Halsted is a mediocre student. A sportsperson ( British and American English) or athlete (principally American English is any person who participates regularly in a Sport.
- Does show not any interest in medicine until senior year, when his interest is piqued by Gray's Anatomy and a physiology textbook by John C. Henry Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body (or Gray's Anatomy as it has commonly been shortened is an English-language Human anatomy Textbook Dalton.
- Enrolls in Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York
- Halsted is assigned to assist John C. Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, abbreviated P&S, is a graduate school of Columbia University located on the health sciences campus in the Dalton himself and anatomist and surgery professor Henry B. Sands as a mentor.
- October - Begins internship at Bellevue Hospital despite having completed only two years of medical school. Bellevue Hospital Center, founded in 1736 is the oldest Public hospital in the United States
- July to October - Serves as house physician at New York Hospital
- November - Begins training in Vienna under Theodor Billroth
- Appointments at several hospitals, including Bellevue and Roosevelt Hospital. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Christian Albert Theodor Billroth ( 26 April 1829 at Bergen auf Rügen in the Kingdom of Prussia. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center is a 1076-bed full-service community and tertiary care hospital serving New York City’s Midtown West, Upper West Side and
- First emergency blood transfusion, performed on sister
- Upon discovering his sister nearly dead from a postpartum hemorrhage, Halsted boldly draws his own blood and injects it into his sister, saving her life. Blood transfusion is the process of transferring Blood or blood-based products from one person into the Circulatory system of another Obstetrical hemorrhage refers to heavy bleeding during Pregnancy, labor, or the Puerperium.
- Halsted implies knowledge of blood rejection possibility.
- Performs one of first operations for gallstones in U. In Medicine, gallstones (choleliths are Crystalline bodies formed within the body by accretion or concretion of normal or abnormal Bile component S. , performed on mother
- Visiting his mother in Albany, he finds her exhibiting Charcot's triad (fever, right upper quadrant pain, jaundice). Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County.
- Papers describe blood transfusions, autotransfusions, saline infusions
- Among the first to suggest the replacement of blood during surgery as well as autotransfusion and intravenous saline for use in shock, although these ideas forgotten for dozens of years before becoming the standard of care. Radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure in which the breast underlying chest muscle (including Pectoralis major and Pectoralis minor) and Lymph nodes Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men Autotransfusion is a process when a person receives their own blood for a transfusion instead of banked donor blood
- Use of cocaine for local anesthesia demonstrated by Carl Koller
- Begins cocaine research, developing the nerve block and other local anesthesia techniques. Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant Local anesthesia is any technique to render part of the body insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness Karl Koller (born December 3 1857 in Schüttenhofen, Bohemia (now Susice, Czech Republic) died March 21 1944 in New York New York Regional nerve blockade, or more commonly nerve block, is a general term used to refer to the injection of Local anesthetic onto or near Nerves for temporary Local anesthesia is any technique to render part of the body insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness
- Halsted and colleagues develop severe cocaine addiction. Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is physical and psychological dependency on the regular use of Cocaine.
- He only publishes one paper on the topic, in the New York Medical Journal
- Halstead's writing is indubitably stained by the evidence of intoxication.
- Attempts detoxification from cocaine
- Pupil Harvey Cushing never suspects the cocaine habit. Detoxification, or detox for short is the removal of Toxic substances from the body Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant Harvey Williams Cushing ( April 8, 1869 - October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of Brain surgery Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant
- This period between fighting cocaine addiction and beginning Johns Hopkins marks an abrupt personality change for Halsted from bold and vivacious extrovert to diffident, anti-social introvert. The trait of Extraversion-Introversion is a central dimension of human personality. The trait of Extraversion-Introversion is a central dimension of human personality.
- In later years, Halsted becomes addicted to morphine, also unsuspected by nearly everyone. Medical uses Morphine can be used as an analgesic in hospital settings to relieve pain in Myocardial infarction pain in This was revealed in a book by William Osler: The Inner History of Johns Hopkins Hospital. Sir William Osler 1st Baronet ( July 12, 1849 &ndash December 29, 1919 Age 70 was a Canadian Physician.
- Johns Hopkins Hospital opens
- Contemporaries here include William H. Welch, William Osler, Howard Kelly, Franklin Mall, William Howell, and John Jacob Abel. Johns Hopkins University|Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|Greenspring StationThe Johns Hopkins Hospital is a Teaching hospital in Baltimore Maryland William Henry Welch ( April 8, 1850 - April 30, 1934) was an American physician and medical school administrator Sir William Osler 1st Baronet ( July 12, 1849 &ndash December 29, 1919 Age 70 was a Canadian Physician. Howard Atwood Kelly ( February 20, 1858 &ndash January 12, 1943) was a distinguished American gynecologist, born at William Peter Howell (born December 29, 1869, Penrith New South Wales. John Jacob Abel ( May 19, 1857 – May 26, 1938) was a significant American biochemist and pharmacologist.
- Invention of surgical gloves
- Head operating room nurse and wife-to-be Caroline Hampton develops dermatitis from chemicals used to disinfect hands for surgery. Dermatitis is a Blanket term meaning any " Inflammation of the skin" (e
- This prompts Halsted to hire the Goodyear Rubber Company to manufacture thin gloves that will not interfere with necessary sensitivity. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling.
- Halsted only later realizes the impact of gloves on antisepsis. Antiseptics (from Greek αντί - anti, '"against" + σηπτικός - septikos, "putrefactive" are antimicrobial
- Publishes inguinal hernia repair method at the same time as Edoardo Bassini. | Edoardo Bassini ( April 14, 1844 - July 19, 1924) was an Italian Surgeon who was born in Pavia.
- Inguinal hernias had been previously associated with high mortality rates.
- Although infrequently performed, the Halsted II remains the gold standard today, with post-operative complication rates only slightly improved from Halsted's 7%. The gold standard is a monetary system in which a region's common media of exchange are paper notes that are normally freely convertible into pre-set fixed quantities of Gold
- Is appointed first Chief of Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital
- June 4 - Marries Caroline Hampton, niece of General Wade Hampton of South Carolina. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental Johns Hopkins University|Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|Greenspring StationThe Johns Hopkins Hospital is a Teaching hospital in Baltimore Maryland Wade Hampton III ( March 28, 1818 April 11, 1902) was a Confederate Cavalry leader during the American Civil War South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America.
- The married couple are described as opposites in appearance.
- A dandy garbed in European tailored suits and Parisian cobbled boots, Halsted is known to dress impeccably, even sending his dress shirts yearly to Paris to be laundered.
- Mrs. Halsted's style is described as austere.
- Halsted and wife never had children, but they did have Dachshunds, including Sisley (or Sisly,) Fritz, Nip and Tuck. The dachshund is a short-legged elongated Dog breed of the Hound family In 1915, he wrote that Nip had died just a few weeks after Sisly (MacCallum, 1930, p 120).
- They live separately in a three-story brick home in Baltimore: Halsted on the second floor, Caroline and canines on the third.
- Each summer they spend one month at High Hampton, Caroline's 2000-acre (8 km²) North Carolina family estate. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States
- Performs first successful subclavian artery ligation
- *First Johns Hopkins medical students, 15 men and 3 women, begin training
- This is due to the efforts of four young Baltimoreans--all women--who raised the money needed to open the school only on the condition that women be granted equal opportunity admission. Johns Hopkins ( May 19, 1795, Anne Arundel County, Maryland &ndash December 24, 1873 Equal opportunity is a term which has differing definitions and there is no consensus as to the precise meaning
- These women were university trustees' daughters: M. Carey Thomas, Mary Elizabeth Garrett, Mary Gwinn, and Elizabeth King. Martha Carey Thomas ( January 2, 1857 - December 2, 1935) was an American Educator, suffragist, and second President
- Garrett contributed an additional amount with additional strings: these established pre-requisites for medical school admission.
- Halsted elected president of the Maryland Medical Chirugical Society. Harvey Williams Cushing ( April 8, 1869 - October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of Brain surgery In Medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both Breasts partially or completely A hernia is a protrusion of a tissue, structure or part of an organ through the muscular tissue or the membrane by which it is normally contained The gold standard is a monetary system in which a region's common media of exchange are paper notes that are normally freely convertible into pre-set fixed quantities of Gold A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of Blood based on the presence or absence of inherited Antigenic substances on the Karl Landsteiner ( June 14 1868 &ndash June 26 1943) was an Austrian Biologist and Physician. Emil Theodor Kocher ( August 25, 1841 &ndash July 27, 1917) was a Swiss physician medical researcher and Nobel laureate for his The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature
- Halsted's gall-bladder is removed by former student Richard Follis
- Publishes The Operative Story of Goiter
- Develops choledocholithiasis, has complications post-operatively; dies in Baltimore, Maryland, September 7, 1922. Choledocholithiasis is the presence of Gallstones in the Common bile duct. Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Former students Heuer and Mont Reid perform operation.
- They use Halsted's own technique in closing the bile duct.
- Complications include a gastrointestinal hemorrhage and post-operative pneumonia, which was the cause of death. Gastrointestinal bleeding or gastrointestinal hemorrhage describes every form of Hemorrhage (loss of Blood) in the Gastrointestinal tract Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal
- Halsted's law - Transplanted tissue will grow only if there is a lack of that tissue in the host.
- Halsted's operation I - Operation for inguinal hernia.
- Halsted's operation II - Radical mastectomy for cancer of the breast.
- Halsted's sign - A sign for carcinoma of the breast.
- Halsted's suture - A mattress suture for wounds that produced less scarring.
- Halsted published 180 papers in his lifetime.
- Halsted is also known for inventing mosquito clamps.
- Halsted was responsible for the inclusion of temperature charts in medical records. A medical record, health record, or medical chart is a systematic documentation of a Patient 's Medical history and care.
- Halsted never joined the American College of Surgeons. The American College of Surgeons is an educational association of Surgeons created in 1913
- Halsted's Maryland address was 1201 Eutaw Place.
- Halsted's students called him "The Professor. "
- Halsted's first resident was Frederick J. Brockway.
- Halsted's secretary's name was Miss Stokes.
- Halsted's gardener's name was Bradley.
- While at Andover, Halsted played the role of Hans in The Office Seekers.
- Halsted attended his 40 year Yale college reunion. "High school reunion" redirects here For other uses see High School Reunion.
- Halsted proposed Florence Sabin to the National Academy of Science. Florence Rena Sabin ( November 9 1871 &ndash October 3 1953) was an American medical scientist The National Academy of Sciences (NAS is a corporation in the United States whose members serve Pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science
- Halsted's hobbies included dahlia raising, astronomy, and collecting antique furniture and rugs. Dahlia is a Genus of bushy tuberous, Perennial plants native to Mexico, Central America, and Colombia. Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Antique furniture is the term for collectible interior furnishings of considerable age often its age rarity condition utility or other unique features makes the Furniture
- Halsted enjoyed bowling at the University Club in New York City. Bowling is a Game / Sport in which players attempt to score points by rolling a Bowling ball along a flat surface either into objects called pins
- Halsted bought eyeglasses, pens, and cigarette holders in huge quantities.
- Halsted smoked Pall Mall cigarettes. Pall Mall Cigarettes are a brand of cigarettes produced by R J
- Halsted shopped for fruit at the Lexington Market. Lexington Market is a historic market in downtown Baltimore, Maryland.
- Halsted's Yale roommate was Sam Bushnell.
- Halsted's favorite breakfast was coddled guinea hen eggs. Breakfast is the first meal of the day The word derives from the idea of break ing the '''fast''' of sleep The guineafowl (sometimes called guineahen are a family of birds in the same order as the Pheasants turkeys and other game birds and is native to
- Halsted had his shirts laundered in Paris, France
- Cameron, John. (1997). "Williams Stewart Halsted: Our Surgical Heritage". Annals of Surgery 225 (5): 445–458. doi:10.1097/00000658-199705000-00002. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
- Sherman, Irwing; et al (Sept 2006). "Personal recollections of Walter E. Dandy and his Brain Team". Journal of Neurosurgery 105: 487. doi:10.3171/jns.2006.105.3.487. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
- Nuland, Sherwin B. (1988). Doctors: the Biography of Medicine. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-394-55130-3.
- Who named it?. William Stewart Halsted. Retrieved on August 3, 2005.
- A Tribute to William Stewart Halsted, MD. William Stewart Halsted. Retrieved on August 18, 2005.
- Bryan, Charles S. (1999). "Caring Carefully: Sir William Osler on the issue of competence vs. compassion in medicine". Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings 12 (4): 277–284.
- Halsted, William S. (1885). "Practical comments on the use and abuse of cocaine". The New York Medical Journal 42: 294–195.
- Halsted, William S. (1887). "Practical Circular suture of the intestines; an experimental study". The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 94: 436–461. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences is an American general Medical journal. doi:10.1097/00000441-188710000-00010. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
- Halsted, William S. (1889). "Practical The radical cure of hernia". The Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 1: 12–13, 112.
- Halsted, William S. (1890-1891). "The treatment of wounds with especial reference to the value of the blood clot in the management of dead spaces". The Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports 2: 255–314. First mention of rubber gloves in the operating room.
- Halsted, William S. (1892). "Ligation of the first portion of the left subclavian artery and excision of a subclavio-axillary aneurism". The Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 3: 93–94.
- Halsted, William S. (1894-1895). "The results of operations for the cure of cancer of the breast performed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from June, 1899, to January, 1894". The Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports 4: 297.
- Halsted, William S. (1899). "The Contribution to the surgery of the bile passages, especially of the common bile-duct". The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 141: 645–654.
- Halsted, William S. (1925). "Auto- and isotransplantation, in dogs, of the parathyroid glandules". The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Baltimore 63: 395–438.
- Halsted, William S. (1909). "Partial progressive and complete occlusion of the aorta and other large arteries in the dog by means of the metal band". The Journal of Experimental Medicine, New York 11: 373–391.
- Halsted, William S. (1915). "A diagnostic sign of gelatinous carcinoma of the breast". Journal of the American Medical Association, Chicago 64: 1653.
- Burjet, W. C. , Ed. (1924). Surgical Papers by William Stewart Halsted. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
- MacCallum WG. (1930). William Stewart Halsted, surgeon. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
network: | |