|Created by:||J.R.R. Tolkien|
|Setting and usage:||Fantasy world of Middle-earth|
|Category (purpose):||constructed languages|
languages of Middle-earth
|Category (sources):||a priori language, but relative to other languages of Middle-earth|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting Middle-earth refers to the fictional lands where most of the stories of author J A constructed or artificial language known colloquially or informally as a conlang is a Language whose Phonology, Grammar An artistic language ( artlang) is a Constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure Fictional languages are by far the largest group of Artistic languages Fictional languages are intended to be the languages of a fictional world and are often designed with The Languages of Arda are artificial languages invented by J R In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, Taliska was the language spoken by the Bëorian (First and Hadorian (Third Houses of the Atanatári In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, Adûnaic ("language of the west" was the language of the Men of Númenor during the Second Age This is the article about constructed languages For other uses of the term "a priori" see A priori. The Languages of Arda are artificial languages invented by J R ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages ISO 639 -3 (ISO 639-32007 is an international standard for Language codes The standard describes three‐letter codes for identifying languages In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's|
Westron, or the Common Speech, is an artificial language developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. An artificial language is a Language created by a person or a group of people for a certain purpose usually when this purpose is hard to achieve by using a Natural In Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, Westron is the closest thing to a universal language in Middle-earth, at least at the time during which The Lord of the Rings is set. Middle-earth refers to the fictional lands where most of the stories of author J Tolkien's Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7 is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F A universal language is a hypothetical historical or mythical language said to be spoken and understood by all or most of the world's populationor in some circles is said to be understood Middle-earth refers to the fictional lands where most of the stories of author J The Lord of the Rings is an epic "Westron" is an invented English word, derived from West, not a word from the language itself. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
The Westron speech is derived from contact between the Adûnaic tongue of Númenor, and the languages of the western coastlands of the continent of Middle-earth, when the Númenóreans began to establish trade outposts and forts there. In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, Adûnaic ("language of the west" was the language of the Men of Númenor during the Second Age Númenor (ˈnuːmɛnɔɹ is a Fictional place in J R R Tolkien 's writings which the author intended to be an allusion to the legendary Atlantis. It was soon realized that these languages were (mostly) closely related to the Bëorian/Hadorian (Marachian) languages which had stood at the basis of Adûnaic itself, and as such it was relatively quickly adopted by both the Númenóreans themselves and the coastal peoples. See also House of Bëor Haleth Marach House of Bëor Biography Hador also called in Sindarin Lórindol ('Goldenhead' IPA: ˈhadɔr lɔːˈrindɔl because he had fair blond hair was See also Folk of Marach Haleth Bëor House of Marach Most of these peoples were indeed of related kin to the Edain and would later form most of the population of Gondor and Arnor. Adan redirects here Adan is also the name of a governorate of Yemen. Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J R R Tolkien 's writings described as the greatest realm of Men in the west of Middle-earth by the end of the In the fictional Legendarium of J R R Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador
From these early trade outposts and forts Westron spread throughout Eriador and neighbouring lands (where the action of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings take place), with the notable exception of Mordor. Eriador (the "Lone Lands" is a large region in J R R Tolkien 's fictional world of Middle-earth. The Hobbit or There and Back Again is an award-winning fantasy In J R R Tolkien 's Fictional universe of Middle-earth, Mordor (from Sindarin Black Land and Quenya Land of Shadow The peoples of Rhovanion did not come into contact with the Númenóreans at this time and kept their own languages, which were nonetheless closely related. In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, Rhovanion or Wilderland was a large region of northern Middle-earth. Peoples that spoke unrelated languages, such as the Gwaithuirim (forefathers of the Dunlendings), the Men of the White Mountains and the Drûg, were shunned by the Númenóreans and indeed often became enemies of Númenor. In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, Dunland was a place in north-west Middle-earth, the land of the Men called Dunlendings The race of Men in J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth books such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to The White Mountains, a loose translation of the Sindarin Ered Nimrais "Whitehorn Mountains" is a fictional Mountain range in J In J R R Tolkien 's Legendarium, the Drúedain are a fictional race of Men which were counted amongst the Edain.
The term Westron is used as a translation of the original name Adûni. In Sindarin the language was called Annúnaid (Westron), or Falathren (Shore-language). Sindarin is an Artificial language developed by J R R Tolkien. The alternate term "Common Speech" translates the Westron term Sôval Phârë, of identical meaning.
In The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, Westron was presented as having been completely translated by English. This had certain important implications: first of all, proper names with derivations somewhat evident to speakers of Westron had been translated, to preserve the effect. Thus, names like "Baggins", "Bagshot Row", "Peregrin", "Rivendell", etc. are presented as not the actual names. For example, Meriadoc Brandybuck's actual name is supposed to have been Kalimac Brandagamba, short Kali (meaning jolly, gay). Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a Fictional character from J 'Meriadoc', short 'Merry', is designed to maintain the reference to merriness contained in the original name. Likewise Peregrin Took's actual name was Razanur Tûk, short Razar (name of a small apple). Biography Pippin was the only hobbit who had not yet reached his 'coming of age' when the Fellowship set out (being eight years younger than Merry while Frodo himself was 50 'Peregrin', short 'Pippin' contained both the actual meaning of the full name (traveler, stranger) and the reference to an apple. Sam Gamgee (shortened from Samwise Gammidgy) was actually named Ban Galpsi, short for Banazir Galbasi. The ending of the 'true' Hobbit name Bilbo was also changed: in Westron it was Bilba, but Tolkien changed this to -o because -a is usually a female ending in English, whereas it was a male ending in Westron. Bilbo Baggins is the protagonist of The Hobbit and also makes an appearance in The Lord of the Rings, two of the most well-known of
Placenames and other features were also presented as having been translated from an original form: Rivendell (Sindarin Imladris, "cloven valley") was actually called Karningul, and Bag End was actually called Labin-nec, after Labingi, the real form of Baggins. Rivendell ( Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a Fictional realm created by J Sindarin is an Artificial language developed by J R R Tolkien. The Shire is a region of J R R Tolkien 's fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works In J R R Tolkien 's Fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Baggins family is known to be a remarkable and rich Hobbit family In some cases the explanations became quite involved, such as the river Brandywine (Sindarin Baranduin, "golden-brown river") was actually called Branda-nîn, a punning Westron name meaning "border-water", which was later punned again as Bralda-hîm, meaning "heady ale". In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, the Baranduin or Brandywine River is a river of Middle-earth
The translation went one step further by also changing all languages akin to Westron. Rohirric, the language of the Rohirrim was translated by Old English, as Rohirric is an archaic relative of Westron (since the Edain from whose speech Westron is derived were related to the ancestors of the Rohirrim) much as Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an archaic relative of English. In the fictional world of Middle-earth by J R R Tolkien, Rohirric (also Rohirian and Rohanese, see below is the language of the Rohirrim In J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth, the Rohirrim were a Horse people, settling in the land of Rohan, named after them Similarly, the tongue of Dale, from which came the names of the Dwarves of Durin's house, was translated by Old Norse, a language related to Old English and modern English as Dalish was related to Rohirric and Westron. Minor places in Middle-earth#Place Name -->;Place name description1 Further description prefix with This article is about characters in JRR Tolkien's legendarium Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age
This utter translation of Westron by English was taken so far that some sources that should give actual Westron have been turned to English too. For instance, in Moria, an illustration of the runic text on Balin's gravestone is given. The text is said to mean "Balin son of Fundin, Lord of Moria" in both Khuzdul and Westron, but while the first part of the inscription is in Khuzdul, the second part is actually plain English, just written in certar. Khuzdûl is the language of the Dwarves in J R R Tolkien 's fiction of Middle-earth The Cirth (" Runes " are the letters of an Artificial script which was invented by J
Outside the context of the story, it is clear that most of the "original" forms in Westron or other languages were devised by Tolkien long after the English "translations" were chosen. Several of the Westron forms given above were not published in Tolkien's lifetime. Tolkien never worked out Westron to the same extent as Quenya and Sindarin or even Adûnaic. Quenya 'kwɛɲa is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi, "those who speak with voices" because when Sindarin is an Artificial language developed by J R R Tolkien.