Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles. Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, anaerobic endurance and size of Skeletal muscles There Physical strength is the ability of a person or animal to exert Force on physical objects using muscles. Skeletal muscle is a type of Striated muscle, which usually attaches to tendons It uses the force of gravity (in the form of weighted bars, dumbbells or weight stacks) to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction. A muscles contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a Muscle fibre generates tension through the action of Actin A muscles contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a Muscle fibre generates tension through the action of Actin Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement.
Weight training differs from bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting and strongman, which are sports rather than forms of exercise. Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing Muscle hypertrophy. Weightlifting, also called Olympic weightlifting or Olympic-style weightlifting, is a sport in which participants attempt a maximum weight single lift of a barbell Powerlifting is a strength Sport, consisting of three events the squat, the Bench press, and the Deadlift. In the 19th century the term strongman referred to an exhibitor of strength (before strength sports were codified into Weightlifting, Powerlifting etc Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Weight training, however, is often part of the athlete's training regimen.
Strength training is an inclusive term for all types of exercise devoted toward increasing muscular strength and size (as opposed to muscular endurance, associated with aerobic exercise, or flexibility, associated with stretching exercise like yoga or pilates, though endurance and flexibility can improve as a byproduct of training). Endurance (also called sufferance) is the ability for humans to exert themselves through aerobic or Anaerobic exercise for relatively long periods of time Aerobic exercise refers to Exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body Flexibility refers to the absolute range of movement in a Joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece Asana ( Sanskrit आसन sitting down < आस to sit down) is a body position typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended Pilates, pronounced /pɪˈlɑtiz/ is a Physical fitness system developed in the early 20th century by Joseph Pilates in Germany Weight training is one type of strength training and the most common, seen by all but specialists as synonymous with strength training. The difference between weight training and other types of strength training is how the opposition to muscular contraction is generated. Resistance training uses elastic or hydraulic forces to oppose muscular contraction, and isometric exercise uses structural or intramuscular forces (e. Resistance training has two different sometimes confused meanings - a more broad meaning that refers to any training that uses a resistance to the force of muscular contraction (better For the mechanical technology see Hydraulic machinery and Hydraulic cylinder Hydraulics is a topic of science and Engineering Isometric exercise or "isometrics" are a type of Strength training in which the Joint angle and Muscle length do not change during contraction g. doorways or the body's own muscles).
Hippocrates explained the principle behind weight training when he wrote "that which is used develops, and that which is not used wastes away. The history of strength training started with the ancient Greeks The kettlebell or girya ( Russian гиря is a traditional Russian Cast iron weight looking somewhat like a cannonball with Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos ( ca. 460 BC – ca " Progressive resistance training dates back at least to Ancient Greece, when legend has it that wrestler Milo of Croton trained by carrying a newborn calf on his back every day until it was fully grown. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Milo or Milon of Croton (late 6th century BC was a famous ancient Greek athlete A calf (kɑːf plural calves, /kɑːvz/ is the young of various species of Mammal. Another Greek, the physician Galen, described strength training exercises using the halteres (an early form of dumbbell) in the 2nd century. Galen ( Greek: Γαληνός Galēnos; Latin: Claudius Galenus, Aelius Galenus, Claudius Aelius Galenus, or This article concerns an ancient sports object For halteres as used in insect anatomy see Halteres.
Another early device was the Indian club, which came from ancient Persia where it was called the "meels. Indian clubs belong to a category of Exercise (and Juggling) equipment that was popular in the late 19th and early 20th century in " It subsequently became popular during the 19th century, and has recently made a comeback in the form of the clubbell.
The dumbbell was joined by the barbell in the latter half of the 19th century. Early barbells had hollow globes that could be filled with sand or lead shot, but by the end of the century these were replaced by the plate-loading barbell commonly used today. Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles 
The 1960s saw the gradual introduction of exercise machines into the still-rare strength training gyms of the time. An exercise machine is any Machine used in Exercise. These range from simple spring-like devices to computerized electromechanical rides to recirculating-stream swimming The word γυμνάσιον (gymnasion was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual Education of young men (see Gymnasium Weight training became increasingly popular in the 1980s, following the release of the bodybuilding movie Pumping Iron, and the subsequent popularity of Arnold Schwarzenegger. ---- Pumping Iron is a 1977 Documentary film about the run-up to the 1975 Mr Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor Since the late 1990s increasing numbers of women have taken up weight training, influenced by programs like Body for Life; currently nearly one in five U. Body for Life is a 12-week diet and Exercise program and also an annual physique transformation competition S. women engages in weight training on a regular basis. 
The basic principles of weight training are essentially identical to those of strength training, and involve a manipulation of the number of repetitions (reps), sets, tempo, exercise types and weight moved to cause desired increases in strength, endurance, size or shape. Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, anaerobic endurance and size of Skeletal muscles There The specific combinations of reps, sets, exercises and weight depends upon the aims of the individual performing the exercise; sets with fewer reps can be performed with heavier weights.
In addition to the basic principles of strength training, a further consideration added by weight training is the equipment used. Types of equipment include barbells, dumbbells, pulleys and stacks in the form of weight machines or the body's own weight in the case of chin-ups and push-ups. A barbell is a piece of Exercise equipment used in Weight training, Weightlifting and Powerlifting. A weight machine is an Exercise machine used for Weight training that uses gravity as the primary source of resistance and a combination of Simple machines The chin-up (also known as a chin) is a strength training exercise designed to strengthen the Latissimus dorsi muscle. Different types of weights will give different types of resistance, and often the same absolute weight can have different relative weights depending on the type of equipment used. For example, lifting 10 kilograms using a dumbbell requires significantly more force than moving 10 kilograms on a weight stack due to the use of pulleys.
Weight training also requires the use of 'good form', performing the movements with the appropriate muscle group, and not transferring the weight to different body parts in order to move greater weight (called 'cheating'). Form is a way of performing a movement to avoid injury and cheating. Failure to use good form during a training set can result in injury or a failure to meet training goals - since the desired muscle group is not challenged sufficiently, the threshold of overload is never reached and the muscle does not gain in strength. Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, anaerobic endurance and size of Skeletal muscles There
The benefits of weight training overall are comparable to most other types of strength training - increased muscle, tendon and ligament strength, bone density, flexibility, tone, metabolic rate and postural support. There are benefits and limitations to weight training as compared to other types of strength training.
Resistance training involves the use of elastic or hydraulic resistance to contraction rather than gravity. Resistance training has two different sometimes confused meanings - a more broad meaning that refers to any training that uses a resistance to the force of muscular contraction (better Weight training provides the majority of the resistance at the beginning, initiation joint angle of the movement, when the muscle must overcome the inertia of the weight's mass. After this point the overall resistance alters depending on the angle of the joint. In comparison, hydraulic resistance provides a fixed amount of resistance throughout the range of motion, depending on the speed of the movement. Elastic resistance provides the greatest resistance at the end of the motion, when the elastic element is stretched to the greatest extent.
Isometric exercise provides a fixed amount of resistance based on the force output of the muscle. Isometric exercise or "isometrics" are a type of Strength training in which the Joint angle and Muscle length do not change during contraction This strengthens the muscle at the specific joint angle at which the isometric exercise occurs, with some lesser gains in strength also occurring at proximal joint angles.  In comparison, weight training strengthens the muscle throughout the range of motion the joint is trained in, causing an increase in physical strength from the initiating through to terminating joint angle. Range of motion or ( ROM) as used in the Biomedical and Weightlifting communities is the measurement of the achievable distance between the flexed position A joint is the location at which two or more Bones make contact
Although weight training is similar to bodybuilding, they have different objectives. Bodybuilders compete in bodybuilding competitions; they train to maximize their muscular size and develop extremely low levels of body fat. "Adipose" redirects here For the Doctor Who monster see " Partners in Crime " In contrast, most weight trainers train to improve their strength and anaerobic endurance while not giving special attention to reducing body fat below normal. Weight trainers tend to focus on compound exercises to build basic strength, whereas bodybuilders often use isolation exercises to visually separate their muscles and to improve muscular symmetry. Symmetry generally conveys two primary meanings The first is an imprecise sense of harmonious or aesthetically-pleasing proportionality and balance such that it reflects beauty or
However, the bodybuilding community has been the source of many of weight training's principles, techniques, vocabulary, and customs. Weight training does allow tremendous flexibility in exercises and weights which can allow bodybuilders to target specific muscles and muscle groups, as well as attain specific goals.
Weight training can be one of the safest forms of exercise, especially when the movements are slow, controlled, and carefully defined. However, as with any form of exercise, improper execution can result in injury. When the exercise becomes difficult towards the end of a set, there is a temptation to cheat, i. e. to use poor form to recruit other muscle groups to assist the effort. This may shift the effort to weaker muscles that cannot handle the weight. For example, the squat and the deadlift are used to exercise the largest muscles in the body—the leg and buttock muscles—so they require substantial weight. The squat is a lower body exercise used in Strength training. The deadlift is a Weight training Exercise where one lifts a loaded Barbell (or in the case of the trapbar deadlift a loaded Trapbar) In common usage the human leg is the lower limb of the Body, extending from the Hip to the Ankle, and including the Thigh, the The buttocks (singular buttock) are rounded portions of the anatomy located on the posterior of the Pelvic region of the Apes including Humans Beginners are tempted to round their back while performing these exercises. This causes the weaker lower back muscles to support much of the weight, which can result in serious lower back injuries. "Back" redirects here For other uses please see Back (disambiguation. To avoid such problems, weight training exercises must be performed correctly. Hence the saying: "train, don't strain".
An exercise should be halted if marked or sudden pain is felt, to prevent further injury. However, not all discomfort indicates injury. Weight training exercises are brief but very intense, and many people are unaccustomed to this level of effort. The expression "no pain, no gain" refers to working through the discomfort expected from such vigorous effort, rather than to willfully ignore extreme pain, which may indicate serious soft tissue injuries. No pain no gain (or "No gain without pain") is an exercise Motto that came into prominence after 1982 when actress Jane Fonda began to produce
Discomfort can arise from other factors. Individuals who perform large numbers of repetitions, sets and exercises for each muscle group may experience a burning sensation in their muscles, which, contrary to popular belief, is not caused by lactic acid build-up. Lactic acid ( IUPAC Systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid) also known as milk acid, is a Chemical compound that plays a role These individuals may also experience a swelling sensation in their muscles from increased blood flow (the "pump"). True muscle fatigue is experienced as a marked and uncontrollable loss of strength in a muscle, arising from the nervous system (motor unit) rather than from the muscle fibers themselves. Muscle weakness (or "lack of strength" is a direct term for the inability to exert force with one's Muscles to the degree that would be expected given the individual's The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself A motor unit is a single α-motor neuron and all of the corresponding muscle fibers it innervates. Extreme neural fatigue can be experienced as temporary muscle failure. Some weight training programs actively seek temporary muscle failure; evidence to support this type of training is mixed at best. Irrespective of their program, however, most athletes engaged in high-intensity weight training will experience muscle failure from time to time.
Beginners are advised to build up slowly to a weight training programme. Untrained individuals may have some muscles that are comparatively stronger than others. An injury can result if, in a particular exercise, the primary muscle is stronger than its stabilising muscles. Building up slowly allows muscles time to develop appropriate strengths relative to each other. This can also help to minimise delayed onset muscle soreness. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS also sometimes called muscle fever, is the pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 2 A sudden start to an intense program can cause significant muscular soreness. Unexercised muscles contain cross-linkages that are torn during intense exercise.
Weight trainers commonly spend 5 to 20 minutes warming up their muscles with aerobic exercise before starting a workout. A warmup is usually performed before participating in (technical Sports or exercising They also stretch muscles after they have been exercised. The term can also refer to the stretching of Canvas on a frame. The exercises are performed at a steady pace, taking at least two to four seconds to lift and lower the weight, to avoid jerks that can damage muscles and joints.
Exercises where a barbell is held above the body, which can result in injury if the weight drops onto the lifter, are normally performed inside a squat cage or in the presence of one or more spotters, who can safely re-rack the barbell if the weight trainer is unable to do so. A power cage (also known as a power rack, squat cage, or squat rack) is an item of Weight training equipment designed to allow for a safe free Spotting, in weight or Resistance training, is the act of supporting another person during a particular exercise with an emphasis on allowing the participant
Anyone beginning an intensive physical training programme is typically advised to consult a physician, because of possible undetected heart or other conditions for which such activity is contraindicated. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health
There have been mixed reviews regarding the use of weightlifting belts and other devices, such as lifting straps. Critics claim that they allow the lifter to use more weight than they should. In addition, the stabiliser muscles in the lower back and gripping muscles in the forearms receive less benefit from the exercises.
Wrist straps (also known as cow ties or lifting straps) are sometimes used to assist in gripping very heavy weights. The straps wrap around the wrist and tuck around the bar or weight being lifted, transferring some of the weight directly to the wrist instead of through the fingers. They are particularly useful for the deadlift. Some lifters avoid using wrist straps in order to develop their grip strength. Grip strength is the Force applied by the hand to pull on or suspend from objects and is a specific part of Hand strength. Wrist straps can allow a lifter initially to use more weight than they might be able to handle safely for an entire set, and can place potentially harmful stress on the bones of the wrist.
These terms combine the prefix "iso" (meaning "same") with "tonic" (strength) and "plio" (more) with "metric" (distance). In "isotonic" exercises the force applied to the muscle does not change (while the length of the muscle decreases or increases) while in "plyometric" exercises the length of the muscle stretches and contracts rapidly to increases the power output of a muscle. A muscles contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a Muscle fibre generates tension through the action of Actin A muscles contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a Muscle fibre generates tension through the action of Actin
Weight training is primarily an isotonic form of exercise, as the force produced by the muscle to push or pull weighted objects should not change (though in practice the force produced does decrease as muscles fatigue). Any object can be used for weight training, but dumbbells, barbells and other specialised equipment are normally used because they can be adjusted to specific weights and are easily gripped. Many exercises are not strictly isotonic because the force on the muscle varies as the joint moves through its range of motion. Movements can become easier or harder depending on the angle of muscular force relative to gravity - for example, a standard biceps curl becomes easier as the hand approaches the shoulder as more of the load is taken by the structure of the elbow. Certain machines such as the Nautilus involve special adaptations to keep resistance constant irrespective of the joint angle.
Plyometric exercises exploits the stretch-shortening cycle of muscles to enhance the myotatic (stretch) reflex. Plyometrics is a type of Exercise training designed to produce fast powerful movements and improve the functions of the nervous system generally for the purpose of improving This involves rapid alternation of lengthening and shortening of muscle fibers against resistance. The resistance involved is often a weighted object such as a medicine ball, but can also be the body itself as in jumping exercises. A medicine ball (also known as an exercise ball, a med ball, or a fitness ball) is a weighted Ball, roughly the diameter of the shoulders (approx Plyometrics is used to develop explosive speed, and focuses on maximal power instead of maximal strength by compressing the force of muscular contraction into as short a period as possible, and may be used to improve the effectiveness of a boxer's punch, or to increase the vertical jumping ability of a basketball player. In Physics, power (symbol P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted or the amount of energy required or expended for Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight, Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m
An isolation exercise is one where the movement is restricted to one joint and one muscle group. For example, the leg extension is an isolation exercise for the quadriceps. Specialized types of equipment are used to ensure that other muscle groups are only minimally involved—they just help the individual maintain a stable posture—and movement occurs only around the knee joint. Most isolation exercises involve machines rather than dumbbells and barbells (free weights), though free weights can be used when combined with special positions and joint bracing.
Compound exercises work several muscle groups at once, and include movement around two or more joints. For example, in the leg press movement occurs around the hip, knee and ankle joints. This exercise is primarily used to develop the quadriceps, but it also involves the hamstrings, glutes and calves. Compound exercises are generally similar to the ways that people naturally push, pull and lift objects, whereas isolation exercises often feel a little unnatural. Compound exercises generally involve dumbbells and barbells (free weights), involving more muscles to stabilize the body and joints as well as move the weight.
Each type of exercise has its uses. Compound exercises build the basic strength that is needed to perform everyday pushing, pulling and lifting activities. Isolation exercises are useful for "rounding out" a routine, by directly exercising muscle groups that cannot be fully exercised in the compound exercises.
The type of exercise performed also depends on the individual's goals. Those who seek to increase their performance in sports would focus mostly on compound exercises, with isolation exercises being used to strengthen just those muscles that are holding the athlete back. Similarly, a powerlifter would focus on the specific compound exercises that are performed at powerlifting competitions. Powerlifting is a strength Sport, consisting of three events the squat, the Bench press, and the Deadlift. However, those who seek to improve the look of their body without necessarily maximising their strength gains (including bodybuilders) would put more of an emphasis on isolation exercises. Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing Muscle hypertrophy. Both types of athletes, however, generally make use of both compound and isolation exercises.
Free weights are dumbbells, barbells, and kettlebells. A medicine ball (also known as an exercise ball, a med ball, or a fitness ball) is a weighted Ball, roughly the diameter of the shoulders (approx Unlike weight machines, they do not constrain users to specific, fixed movements, and therefore require more effort from the individual's stabilizer muscles. A weight machine is an Exercise machine used for Weight training that uses gravity as the primary source of resistance and a combination of Simple machines It is often argued that free weight exercises are superior for precisely this reason. As weight machines can go some way toward preventing poor form, they are somewhat safer than free weights for novice trainees. Moreover, since users need not concentrate so much on maintaining good form, they can focus more on the effort they are putting into the exercise. However, most athletes, bodybuilders and serious fitness enthusiasts prefer to use compound free weight exercises to gain functional strength. A sportsperson ( British and American English) or athlete (principally American English is any person who participates regularly in a Sport. Physical fitness is used in two close meanings general fitness (a state of Health and well-being and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability
Some free weight exercises can be performed while sitting or lying on a Swiss ball. An exercise ball, also known as a Swiss ball, is a ball constructed of elastic soft PVC with a Diameter of around 35 to 85 cm (14 to 34 inches This makes it more difficult to maintain good form, which helps to exercise the deep torso muscles that are important for maintaining posture.
There are a number of weight machines that are commonly found in neighborhood gyms. The Smith machine is a barbell that is constrained to move only vertically upwards and downwards. The Smith machine is an item of equipment used in Weight training. The cable machine consists of two weight stacks separated by 2. A cable machine is an item of equipment used in Weight training or Functional training. 5 metres, with cables running through adjustable pulleys (that can be fixed at any height) to various types of handles. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International There are also exercise-specific weight machines such as the leg press. A weight machine is an Exercise machine used for Weight training that uses gravity as the primary source of resistance and a combination of Simple machines The leg press is a Weight training Exercise in which the individual pushes a weight away from them using their legs A multigym includes a variety of exercise-specific mechanisms in one apparatus.
One limitation of many free weight exercises and exercise machines is that the muscle is working maximally against gravity during only a small portion of the lift. Some exercise-specific machines feature an oval cam (first introduced by Nautilus) which varies the resistance so that the resistance, and the muscle force required, remains constant throughout the full range of motion of the exercise. A cam is a projecting part of a rotating Wheel or shaft that strikes a Lever at one or more points on its circular path Nautilus Inc ( located in Vancouver Washington, United States, is the marketer developer and manufacturer of branded health and fitness products sold under