Water politics, sometimes called hydropolitics, is politics affected by water and water resources. The Siege of Sarajevo was conducted by the Serb forces of self-proclaimed Republika Srpska and Yugoslav People's Army (later transformed to the Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Water resources are sources of Water that are useful or potentially useful to Humans Uses of water include Agricultural, industrial, Household
Because of overpopulation, mass consumption, misuse, and water pollution, the availability of drinking water per capita is inadequate and shrinking as of the year 2006. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Consumerism is the equation of personal Happiness with the purchase of material possessions and consumption. Water pollution is the contamination of Water bodies such as Lakes Rivers Oceans and Groundwater caused by human activities Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' For this reason, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Some have predicted that clean water will become the "next oil", making countries like Canada, Chile, Norway, Colombia and Peru, with this resource in abundance, possibly the new water-rich countries in the world. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America.    UNESCO's World Water Development Report (WWDR, 2003) from its World Water Assessment Program indicates that, in the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 40% of the world's inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness More than 2. 2 million people died in 2000 from diseases related to the consumption of contaminated water or drought. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply In 2004, the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases; often this means lack of sewage disposal; see toilet. WaterAid is an international Non-profit organisation dedicated to helping people escape the Poverty and Disease Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other A toilet is a Plumbing fixture and disposal system primarily intended for the disposal of the bodily wastes: Urine and fecal matter. The United Nations Development Programme sums up world water distribution in the 2006 development report: "While one part of the world sustains a designer bottled-water market that generates no tangible health benefits, another part suffers acute public health risks because people have to drink water from drains or from lakes and rivers. " Fresh water — now more precious than ever in our history for its extensive use in agriculture, high-tech manufacturing, and energy production — is increasingly receiving attention as a resource requiring better management and sustainable use. Sustainability, in a general sense is the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely
Water rights and associated issues like global warming and desertification have become issues in international diplomacy, in addition to domestic and regional politics. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting primarily from human activities and influenced by climatic variations World Bank Vice President Isamil Serageldin predicted, "Many of the wars of the 20th century were about oil, but wars of the 21st century will be over water". The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e
Fresh water is a vital human resource, and is involved in many industries, including forestry, agriculture and mining. Freshwater is a word that refers to bodies of water such as Ponds lakes rivers and streams containing low concentrations of dissolved Salts and other Total dissolved Forestry is the Art and Science of managing forests tree Plantations and related Natural resources. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body It can be dammed to create power in the form of hydroelectricity. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water Rivers often serve as the boundaries and demarcations between nations. "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there
Perhaps most importantly, fresh water is a fundamental requirement of all living organisms, Crops, livestock and Humanity included. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus According to the WHO, each human being requires 20 litres of fresh water per day. From country to country this specific figure varies, as is the case with westernised nations having ready access to decontaminating water for human consumption, and bringing it to every home. At the same time, nations across Latin America, parts of South East Asia, Africa and the Middle East are unable to obtain such facilities at the scales required, for various reasons, meaning the quantity of fresh water consumed per capita is reduced, leading to disease, starvation and death.
The control of water resources is considered vital to the survival of a state. .
With nearly 2,000 cubic metres (70,000 ft3) of water per person per year , the United States leads the world in water consumption per capita. Great Otway National Park is a national park in Victoria ( Australia) 162 km southwest of Melbourne. CM3 redirects here If you were looking for the 3rd game in the Cooking Mama series abbreviated as CM3 see here. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, the U. S. is first for water consumption, then Canada with 1,600 cubic meters (56,000 ft3) of water per person per year, which is about twice the amount of water used by the average person from France, three times as much as the average German, and almost eight times as much as the average Dane. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Since 1980, overall water use in Canada has increased by 25. 7%. This is five times higher than the overall OECD increase of 4. 5%. In contrast, nine OECD nations were able to decrease their overall water use since 1980 (Sweden, the Netherlands, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Finland and Denmark). "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. 
Ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh water is underground.
For specific disputes and concerns, see:
For general information, see:
In Mexico City, an estimated 40% of the city's water is lost through leaky pipes built at the turn of the 20th century. The California Water Wars describes the disputes between Los Angeles, California and the Owens Valley over Water rights The disputes The Colorado River Compact is a 1922 agreement among seven US The Ogallala Aquifer, also known as the High Plains Aquifer, is a vast yet shallow underground Water table Aquifer located beneath the Great Plains United States groundwater law is that area of United States law related to Groundwater. The Clean Water Protection Act ( is a bill currently in the United States Congress specifically in the United States House Transportation Subcommittee on Water Resources The Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act is a 2004 New Jersey Law aimed at protecting the development of the Highlands region of northwest New Jersey Access Service quality Quality of service also leaves much to be desired Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico 
The Middle East region has only 1% of the world's available fresh water, which is shared among 5% of the world's population. As a vital Natural resource, Water plays a key role in both global and domestic politics particularly in terms of the need for states to ensure access to sustainable and adequate The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Thus, in this region, water is an important strategic resource. By 2025, it is predicted that the countries of the Arabian peninsula will be using more than double the amount of water naturally available to them.  According to a report by the Arab League, two-thirds of Arab countries have less than 1,000 cubic meters (35,000 ft3) of water per person per year available, which is considered the limit. The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية 
Water politics is not an emerging field within international relations discourse, nor is it a force insignificant in comparison to other political pressures, such as those of critical infrastructure (for example, Oil for the United States), or that of strategic geopolitical control (for example, control of the Suez canal or Persian Gulf). Critical infrastructure is a term used by Governments to describe Assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the In the context of the Middle East, with a multitude of existing national, subnational, ideological, ethnic, religious and pan-national tensions, conflicts and associations, water politics has already been considered to have played a major role in tensions between Iraq, Syria and Turkey in 1990, when Turkey commenced the Southeastern Anatolia Project (also known as GAP) to dam sections of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers north of the Syrian/Turkey border. Examples of administrative divisions English terms In many of the following terms corresponding to British cultural influence areas of relatively low mean population An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Southeastern Anatolia Project ( Turkish: G üneydoğu A nadolu P rojesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern Immediately without control of their waterways Syria and Iraq formed an alliance, overstepping all previous forces which had divided the national entities, to confront the issue of water control.
Within the Middle East, all major rivers cross at least one international border, with rivers like the Tigris and Euphrates crossing through three major Middle Eastern nations. This means that the nations, cities and towns downstream from the next are hugely effected by the actions and decisions of other groups whom one has little practical control over. In particular this is evident with the cutting of water supply from one nation to the next, just as issues of air pollution effect the states surrounding that which is producing the pollution initially. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort It is believed that up to 50% of water required for any specific state within the Middle East finds its source in another state.
Iraq and Syria watched with apprehension the construction of the Atatürk Dam in Turkey and a projected system of 22 dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The Atatürk Dam (Atatürk Barajı originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam with a central core on the Euphrates River on the border The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת  According to the BBC, the list of 'water-scarce' countries in the region grew steadily from three in 1955 to eight in 1990 with another seven expected to be added within 20 years, including three Nile nations (the Nile is shared by nine countries). The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, the only conceivable flashpoint Egypt may encounter as it heads into the 21st century is the control of fresh water resources. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt.
With substantial, but falling, rates of fertility, the issue of water distrubution in the Middle East will not be easily dismissed.
Jordan, for example, has little water, and dams in other countries have reduced its available water sources over the years. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees The 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace stated that Israel would give 50 million cubic meters of water (1. 7 billion ft3) per year to Jordan, which it refused to do in 1999 before backtracking. The 1994 treaty stated that the two countries would cooperate in order to allow Jordan better access to water resources, notably through dams on the Yarmouk River. The Yarmouk River ( Arabic: نهر اليرموك, " Nahr Al-Yarmuk " Hebrew: נהר הירמוך " Nehar HaYarmukh "  Confronted by this lack of water, Jordan is preparing new techniques to use non-conventional water resources, such as second-hand use of irrigation water and desalinization techniques, which are very costly and are not yet used. Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove excess salt and other Minerals from Water A desalinization project will soon be started in Hisban, south of Amman. Amman (ɑˈmɑːn sometimes spelled Ammann ( Arabic عمان ʿAmmān) is the Capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom The Disi groundwater project, in the south of Jordan, will cost at least $250 million to bring out water. Groundwater is Water located beneath the Ground surface in Soil pore spaces and in the Fractures of lithologic formations Along with the Unity Dam on the Yarmouk River, it is one of Jordan's largest strategic projects. Born in 1987, the "Unity Dam" would involve both Jordan and Syria. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية This "Unity Dam" still has not been implemented because of Israel's opposition, Jordan and Syrian conflictive relations and refusal of world investors. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. However, Jordan's reconciliation with Syria following the death of King Hussein represents the removal of one of the project's greatest obstacles. Hussein bin Talal King of Jordan (حسين بن طلال Ḥusayn bin Ṭalāl) ( November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was 
Both Israel and Jordan rely on the Jordan River, but Israel controls it, as well as 90% of the water resources in the region. This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia The Golan Heights provide 770 million cubic meters (27 billion ft3) of water per year to Israel, which represents a third of its annual consumption. This article was originally based on an entry from a Public domain edition of the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. The Golan's water goes to the Sea of Galilee—Israel's largest reserve—which is then redistributed throughout the country by the National Water Carrier. The Sea of Galilee, also Sea of Genneseret, Lake Kinneret or Lake Tiberias (Hebrew ים כנרת) (Arabic بحيرة طبريا) Origins The National Water Carrier of Israel (המוביל הארצי HaMovil HaArtzi) is the largest Water project in Israel. However, the level on the Sea of Galilee has dropped over the years, sparking fears that Israel's main water reservoir will become salinated. On its northern border, Israel threatened military action in 2002 when Lebanon opened a new pumping station taking water from a river feeding the Jordan. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية To help ease the crisis, Israel has agreed to buy water from Turkey and is investigating the construction of desalination plants. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches 
Water is also an important issue in the conflict with the Palestinians—indeed, according to former Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon quoted by Abel Darwish in the BBC, it was one of the causes of the 1967 Six-Day War. (אריאל Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt In practice the access to water has been a casus belli for Israel. Casus belli is a Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war The Israeli army prohibits Palestinians from pumping water, and settlers use much more advanced pumping equipment. The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Israeli settlements are communities inhabited by Israelis in territory that was captured as a result of Jordanian attacks during the 1967 Six-Day War. Palestinians complain of a lack of access to water in the region.  Israelis in the West Bank use four times as much water as their Palestinian neighbors. The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria  According to the World Bank, 90% of the West Bank's water is used by Israelis. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria  Article 40 of the appendix B of the September 28, 1995 Oslo accords stated that "Israel recognizes Palestinians' rights on water in the West Bank". Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Israeli-Palestinian conflict The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles Statistics obtained from the Global Research Centre indicate that for the 3. 7 million Palestinians living in Gaza and the West Bank, approximately 260–290 MCM/yr of fresh water are consumed, this figure including domestic, agricultural and industrial consumption. Gaza (غزة, עַזָּה ʕazzā is the largest city in the Gaza Strip and the Palestinian territories. The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria At the same time, 6. 4 million Israelis have a total water consumption of 2,129 MCM/yr.
Israel obtains water from four sources: rainwater collected naturally into the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan River(~36%), the mountain aquifers (~28%), the coastal aquifer (~14%), and water recycling (~23%). The Sea of Galilee, also Sea of Genneseret, Lake Kinneret or Lake Tiberias (Hebrew ים כנרת) (Arabic بحيرة طبريا) This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia An aquifer is an underground layer of Water -bearing Permeable rock or unconsolidated materials ( Gravel, Sand, Silt, or Clay Almost all the water used in the Palestinian areas other than rainwater is drawn from the underground aquifers (mountain aquifer ~52%, coastal aquifer ~48%). The Palestinian Authority has not developed any significant wastewater treatment facilities. The mountain aquifers lie mostly under the West Bank and the coastal aquifer mostly under the Israeli coastal plain. Israel took control of the West Bank in 1967, including the recharge areas for aquifers that flow west and northwest into Israel and limits were placed on the amount withdrawn from each existing well. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Since that time, the only permits for new Palestinian wells that have been granted are for domestic needs. Agricultural usage was capped at 1968 levels and all subsequent extension of land under irrigation has been through increased efficiency (Richardson 1984). Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. At the same time, 17 wells were drilled to provide water to the new Israeli settlements. Almost 80% of aquifer usage is by Israel and its settlements. Some Palestinian wells were undercut and became desiccated, notably at al Auja and Bardala, because of the deeper, more powerful Israeli wells (Dillman 1989, 56-57). Of the 47 MCM/yr pumped in the mountain area, 14 MCM/yr, or 30 per cent, goes to the Jewish settlements. The eastern aquifer, which flows into the Jordan Valley, is the only one not being overexploited, but Palestinians have not been allowed to expand their water resources in this region either (Dillman 1989, 57). Currently, a total of 150 MCM/yr is consumed by its residents - 115 MCM/yr by Palestinians and 35 MCM/yr by Jews. Water usage issues have been part of a number of agreements reached between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. For these reasons, the question of water supply for both Israel and Palestine is a very serious obstacle to a comprehensive agreement.
The Ganges is disputed between India and Bangladesh. The sharing of the Ganges ' waters is a long-standing issue between India and Bangladesh over the appropriate allocation and development of the water A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river The Ganges (ˈgænʤiːz also Ganga, Devanāgarī: hi गंगा in most Indian languages) is the major river in the Indian subcontinent India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially The water reserves are being quickly depleted and polluted, while the glacier feeding the sacred Hindu river is retreating hundreds of feet each year because of global warming and deforestation in the Himalayas, which is causing subsoil streams flowing into the Ganges river to dry up. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Downstream, India controls the flow to Bangladesh with the Farakka Barrage, 10 kilometers (6 mi) on the Indian side of the border. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Completed in 1974-75, the Farakkah Barrage is a dam on the Ganges River located in the Indian state of West Bengal, roughly 10 Kilometers (km from the Until the late 1990s, India used the barrage to divert the river to Calcutta to keep the city's port from drying up during the dry season. This denied Bangladeshi farmers water and silt, and it left the Sundarban wetlands and mangrove forests at the river's delta seriously threatened. Silt is Soil or rock derived Granular material of a Grain size between sand and clay The Sundarbans (সুন্দরবন Shundorbôn) is the largest single block of tidal halophytic Mangrove forest in the world Mangroves (generally are Trees and Shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the Tropics and Subtropics. The two countries have now signed an agreement to share the water more equally. Water quality, however, remains a problem, with high levels of arsenic and untreated sewage in the river water. Water quality is the physical chemical and biological characteristics of Water in relationship to a set of standards Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 
The Guaraní Aquifer, located between the Mercosur countries of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay, with a volume of about 40,000 km³, is an important source of fresh potable water for all four countries. The Guaraní Aquifer, located beneath the surface of the original four Mercosur countries ( Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay Role and potential Some South Americans see Mercosur as giving the capability to combine resources to balance the activities of other global economic powers especially the North For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only
Privatization of water companies has been contested on several occasions because of poor water quality, increasing prices, and ethical concerns. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business Water quality is the physical chemical and biological characteristics of Water in relationship to a set of standards In Bolivia for example, the proposed privatization of water companies by the IMF was met by popular protests in Cochabamba in 2000, which ousted Bechtel, an American engineering firm based in San Francisco. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The Cochabamba protests of 2000, also known as "The Cochabamba Water Wars" were a series of protests that took place in Cochabamba, Bolivia 's third largest Bechtel Corporation ( Bechtel Group) is the largest Engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Suez has started retreating from South America because of similar protests in Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, and Córdoba, Argentina. Suez SA was a leading French -based Multinational corporation, with operations primarily in Water, Electricity and Natural gas supply Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Santa Fe is the capital city of province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Córdoba, abbreviated as CBA, is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas mountains on the Consumers took to the streets to protest water rate hikes of as much as 500% mandated by Suez. In South and Central America, Suez has water concessions in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico. "Bolivian officials fault Suez for not connecting enough households to water lines as mandated by its contract and for charging as much as $455 a connection, or about three times the average monthly salary of an office clerk", according to the Mercury News. The San Jose Mercury News is the major daily Newspaper in San Jose California and Silicon Valley. 
South Africa also made moves to privatize water, provoking an outbreak of cholera killing 200. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa 
In 1997, World Bank consultants assisted the Philippine government in the privatization of the city of Manila's Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage Systems (MWSS). By 2003, water price increases registered at 81% in the east zone of the Philippines and 36% in the west region. As services became more expensive and inefficient under privatization, there was reduced access to water for poor households. In October 2003, the Freedom from Debt Coalition reported that the diminished access to clean water resulted in an outbreak of cholera and other gastro-intestinal diseases.