The Wars of the Three Kingdoms (sometimes known as the Wars of the Three Nations) formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 after these three countries had come under the "Personal Rule" of the same monarch. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Personal Rule (also known as the Eleven Years Tyranny) was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, The English Civil War has become the best-known of these conflicts. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The wars were the outcome of tensions between king and subjects over religious and civil issues. Religious disputes centered on whether religion was to be dictated by the monarch or the choice of the subject, who had a direct relationship with God. The related civil questions were to what extent the king's rule was constrained by parliaments — in particular his right to raise taxes and armed forces without consent. In addition, the wars also had an element of national conflict, as Ireland and Scotland rebelled against England's primacy within the Three Kingdoms. The victory of the English Parliament — ultimately under Oliver Cromwell — over the King, the Irish and the Scots helped to determine the future of Great Britain as a constitutional monarchy with political power centred on London. The Parliament of England was the Legislature of the Kingdom of England. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Political power ( Imperium in Latin is a type of power held by a group in a Society which allows administration of some or all of London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Wars of the Three Kingdoms also paralleled a number of similar conflicts at the same time in Europe — such as the Fronde in France and the rebellions of the Netherlands, Catalonia and Portugal against Spanish rule. La Fronde (1648–1653 was a Civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Some historians have seen this period as one of General Crisis in Europe, characterised by the rebellion of conservative societies against centralising absolutist monarchs. An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler
The Wars included the Bishops' Wars of 1639 and 1640, the Scottish Civil War of 1644–1645; the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Confederate Ireland, 1642–1649 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 (collectively the Irish Confederate Wars); and the First, Second and Third English Civil Wars of 1642–1646, 1648–1649 and 1650–1651. Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms covers Scotland 's involvement in the wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms between 1644 and 1650 The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted Coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry but developed into inter communal violence between native Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649-53 refers to the re-conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell This article is concerned with the military history of Ireland from 1641-53 The First English Civil War (1642–1646 was the first of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars" The Second English Civil War ( 1648 &ndash 1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the The Third English Civil War ( 1649 &ndash 1651) was the last of the English Civil War ( 1642 &ndash 1652) a series of armed conflicts Several military conflicts are considered English civil wars: The Anarchy ( 1135 &ndash 1154)
The naming of these linked conflicts as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms represents a trend by recent historians aiming to take a unified overview rather than treating some of the conflicts as mere background to the English Civil War. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Some, such as Gaunt or Plant, have labelled them the British Civil Wars, but this led to confusion, as the kingdoms did not become a single political entity until the Act of Union 1800. The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Acht an Aontais 1800 is used to describe two complementary Acts whose official United Kingdom titles are
The personal union of the three kingdoms under one monarch came about as a relatively recent development in contemporary 17th-century terms. Since 1541, monarchs of England had also styled their Irish territory as a Kingdom (ruled with the assistance of a separate Irish Parliament), while Wales became more closely integrated into the Kingdom of England under Henry VIII. The Kingdom of Ireland (Ríocht na hÉireann was the name given to the Irish state from 1541 by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 of the Parliament of Ireland. The Parliament of Ireland (Irish Parlaimint na hEireann) was a Legislature that existed from mediæval times until 1800. The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Scotland, the third separate kingdom, came under the same ruler as England and Ireland when King James VI of Scotland also became King James I of England in 1603. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Ruling over these three diverse kingdoms proved difficult for James and his successor Charles I of England, particularly when they tried to impose religious uniformity on the three kingdoms. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution.
Different religious conditions pertained in each of these jurisdictions. With the English Reformation, King Henry VIII made himself head of the Protestant Church of England and outlawed Roman Catholicism in England and Wales. The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England first broke away from the authority of the Pope Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican In the course of the 16th century Protestantism became intimately associated with national identity in England: English folk in general saw Catholicism as the national enemy, especially as embodied in France and Spain. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered However, Catholicism remained the religion of most people in Ireland and was for many a symbol of native resistance to the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland in the 16th century. In the Kingdom of Scotland the Protestant Reformation was a popular movement led by John Knox. The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time John Knox (c 1510 – 24 November 1572 was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian The Scottish Parliament legislated for a National Presbyterian church, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland or "Kirk", and the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate in favour of her son James VI of Scotland. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. Kirk can mean " church " in general or the Church of Scotland in particular James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James He grew up under a regency disputed between Catholic and Protestant factions, then took power and aspired to be a "universal King" favouring the English Episcopalian system of bishops appointed by the king. Episcopal polity is a form of church governance which is hierarchical in structure with the chief authority over a local Christian church resting in a Bishop (Greek In 1584, he introduced bishops, but met vigorous opposition and had to concede that the General Assembly running the church should continue to do so. The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest Court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body Calvinists reacted against the formal liturgy of the Book of Common Order moving increasingly to extempore prayer, though this was opposed by an Episcopalian faction. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the The Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba is a Christian denomination in Scotland and a member of the Anglican Communion, although it
James remained Protestant, taking care to maintain his hopes of succession to the English throne. He duly also became James I of England in 1603 and moved to London. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. His diplomatic and political skills now concentrated fully in dealing with the English Court and Parliament at the same time as running Scotland by writing to the Privy Council of Scotland and controlling the Parliament of Scotland through the Lords of the Articles. The Parliament of England was the Legislature of the Kingdom of England. The Privy Council of Scotland was a body that advised the King. This article is about the pre-1707 parliament The article on the devolved legislative body established in 1999 is at Scottish Parliament. This article is about the pre-1707 parliament The article on the devolved legislative body established in 1999 is at Scottish Parliament. He stopped the Scottish General Assembly from meeting, then increased the number of Scottish bishops, and in 1618, held a General Assembly and pushed through Five Articles of Episcopalian practices which were widely boycotted. In 1625, he was succeeded by his son Charles I who was less skilful or restrained and was crowned in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, in 1633 with full Anglican rites. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. A prominent feature of the Edinburgh skyline St Giles' Cathedral or the High Kirk of Edinburgh is a Church of Scotland place of worship decorating the Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Opposition to his attempts to enforce Anglican practices reached a flashpoint when he introduced a Book of Common Prayer. The Book of Common Prayer is the common title of a number of prayer books of the Church of England and used throughout the Anglican Communion. Charles' confrontation with the Scots came to a head in 1639, when Charles tried and failed to coerce Scotland by military means. In some respects, this revolt also represented Scottish resentment at being sidelined within the Stuart monarchies since James I's accession to the throne of England.
Charles shared his father's belief in the Divine Right of Kings, and his assertion of this led to a serious breech between the Crown and the English Parliament. The Divine Right of Kings is a general term that refers to the philosophy and ideas used to justify the authority and legitimacy of Monarchs in Medieval and While the Church of England remained dominant, a powerful Puritan minority, represented by around one third of the members of Parliament, had much in common with the Presbyterian Scots. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine,
The English Parliament also had repeated disputes with the King over such subjects as taxation, military expenditure and the role of parliament in government. While James I had held the same opinions as his son with regard to royal prerogatives, he had enough charisma to persuade the Parliament to accept his policies. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy Charles did not have this skill in human management and so, when faced with a crisis in 1639–42, he failed to prevent his Kingdoms from sliding into civil war. When Charles approached the Parliament to pay for a campaign against the Scots, they refused, declared themselves to be permanently in session and put forward a long list of civil and religious grievances that Charles would have to remedy before they approved any new legislation.
Meanwhile, in the Kingdom of Ireland (proclaimed such in 1541 but only fully conquered for the Crown in 1603), tensions had also begun to mount. The Kingdom of Ireland (Ríocht na hÉireann was the name given to the Irish state from 1541 by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 of the Parliament of Ireland. Charles I's Lord Deputy there, Thomas Wentworth, had antagonised the native Irish Catholics by repeated initiatives to confiscate their lands and grant them to English colonists. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl of Strafford ( April 13, 1593 &ndash May 12, 1641) was an English statesman and a major figure in He had also angered Roman Catholics by enforcing new taxes but denying them full rights as subjects. This situation became explosive in 1639 when Wentworth offered the Irish Catholics the reforms they had desired in return for them raising and paying for an Irish army to put down the Scottish rebellion. Although plans called for an army with Protestant officers, the idea of an Irish Catholic army enforcing what many saw as tyrannical government horrified both the Scottish and the English Parliaments, who in response threatened to invade Ireland.
Modern historians have emphasised the lack of the inevitability of the Civil Wars, pointing out that all sides resorted to violence in a situation marked by mutual distrust and paranoia. The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted Coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry but developed into inter communal violence between native The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. This article is concerned with the military history of Ireland from 1641-53 Scottish Civil War can refer to a number of internecine wars in Scottish history, including War of the Scottish succession 1094-1097 the revolts Charles' initial failure to bring the Bishops' Wars to a quick end also made other discontented groups feel that force could serve to get what they wanted.
Alienated by English/Protestant domination and frightened by the rhetoric of the English and Scottish Parliaments, a small group of Irish conspirators launched the Irish Rebellion of 1641, ostensibly in support of the "King's Rights". The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted Coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry but developed into inter communal violence between native The rising featured widespread assaults on the Protestant communities in Ireland, sometimes culminating in massacres. Rumours spread in England and Scotland that the killings had the King's sanction and that this foreshadowed their own fate if the Kings' Irish troops landed in Britain. As a result, the English Parliament refused to pay for a royal army to put down the rebellion in Ireland and instead raised their own armed forces. The King did likewise, rallying those Royalists (some of them members of Parliament) who believed that loyalty to the Legitimate King outweighed other important political principles. Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War ( 1642 &ndash 1651
The English Civil War broke out in 1642. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The Scottish Covenanters, as the Presbyterians called themselves, sided with the English Parliament, joined the war in 1643, and played a major role in the English Parliamentary victory. The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century The King's forces found themselves ground down by the efficiency of Parliament's New Model Army — backed by the financial muscle of the City of London. The New Model Army was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically In 1646, Charles I surrendered. After he failed to compromise with Parliament, the Parliamentary party had him detained and then executed him in 1649. In Ireland, the rebel Irish Catholics formed their own government — Confederate Ireland — with the intention of helping the Royalists in return for religious toleration and political autonomy. Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 Troops from England and Scotland fought in Ireland, and Irish Confederate troops mounted an expedition to Scotland in 1644, sparking the Scottish Civil War. Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms covers Scotland 's involvement in the wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms between 1644 and 1650 In Scotland, the Royalists had a series of victories in 1644-45, but were crushed with the end of the first English Civil War and the return of the main Covenanter armies to Scotland.
After the end of the second English Civil War, the victorious Parliamentary forces, now commanded by Oliver Cromwell, invaded Ireland and crushed the Royalist-Confederate alliance there in the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649-53 refers to the re-conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell The English Parliament's alliance with the Scottish Covenanters had broken down, and the Scots crowned Charles II as king. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Cromwell therefore embarked on a conquest of Scotland in 1650-51. At the end of the wars, the Three Kingdoms emerged as a unitary state called the English Commonwealth, ostensibly a republic, but having many characteristics of a military dictatorship. A unitary state is a State whose three Organs of state are governed Constitutionally as one single unit with one Constitutionally created The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy,
While the Wars of the Three Kingdoms pre-figured many of the changes that would shape modern Britain, in the short term they resolved little. The Royalist Rising of 1651 to 1654 took place in Scotland between Scots loyal to King Charles II against English parliamentary forces loyal to Oliver The English Commonwealth did achieve a compromise (though a relatively unstable one) between a monarchy and a republic. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland In practice, Oliver Cromwell exercised political power because of his control over the Parliament's military forces, but his legal position remained unclear, even when he became Lord Protector. Lord Protector is a particular British title for Heads of State with two meanings (and full styles at different periods of history None of the several proposed constitutions ever came into effect. Thus the Commonwealth and the Protectorate established by the victorious Parliamentarians left little behind it in the way of new forms of government. In British history, the Protectorate was the period 1653&ndash1659 during which the Commonwealth of England Scotland and Ireland was governed by a Lord
Two important legacies remain from this period:
English Protestants experienced religious freedom during the Interregnum, but not English Roman Catholics. The English Interregnum was the period of Parliamentary and Military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the The new authorities abolished the Church of England and the House of Lords. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" Cromwell dismissed the Rump Parliament and failed to create an acceptable alternative. The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament after Colonel Pride on December 6 1648 had purged Long Parliament of those Nor did Cromwell and his supporters move in the direction of a popular democracy, as the more radical fringes of the Parliamentarians (such as the Levellers) wanted. See Levellers (disambiguation for alternative meanings. The Levellers were members of a mid 17th century English Political movement
The New Model Army occupied Ireland and Scotland during the Interregnum. In Ireland, the new government confiscated almost all lands belonging to Irish Catholics as punishment for the rebellion of 1641; harsh Penal Laws also restricted this community. The Penal Laws in Ireland (Na Péindlíthe refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters in favour Thousands of Parliamentarian soldiers settled in Ireland on confiscated lands. The Commonwealth abolished the Parliaments of Ireland and Scotland. In theory, these countries had representation in the English Parliament, but since this body never received real powers, such representation remained ineffective. When Cromwell died in 1658 the Commonwealth fell apart without major violence, and Charles II returned as King of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1660.
Under the English Restoration, the political system returned to the constitutional position of before the wars. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored The new régime executed or imprisoned for life those responsible for the regicide of Charles I. The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a Monarch, or the person responsible for it Neo-Royalists dug up Cromwell's corpse and gave it a posthumous execution. Posthumous execution is the Ritual or Ceremonial execution of an already dead body Religious and political radicals held responsible for the wars suffered harsh repression. Scotland and Ireland regained their Parliaments, some Irish retrieved confiscated lands and the New Model Army disbanded. However, the issues that had caused the wars — religion, the power of Parliament and the relationship between the three kingdoms — remained unresolved, only postponed to re-emerge as matters fought over again in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union Only after this point did the features of modern Britain seen in the Civil Wars emerge permanently: a Protestant constitutional monarchy with England dominant and a strong standing army.