|War in Abkhazia|
|Part of the Georgian Civil War|
The Government House of Abkhazia, destroyed in the Abkhaz offensive on September 27, 1993, still stands in ruins. The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic and inter-national conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988-1992 and Abkhazia (1992-1993 as well
| Abkhaz military|| Georgian Interior and Defense Ministry forces|
Paramilitary groups and volunteer battalions
|Casualties and losses|
The War in Abkhazia between 1992 and 1994 was waged chiefly between Georgian government forces on one side and Abkhaz separatist forces supporting independence of Abkhazia from Georgia on the other side. The Abkhazian Armed Forces is the military of the breakaway republic of Abkhazia, whose independence is recognized by Russia and Nicaragua but whom most Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (Конфедерация горских народов Кавказа is a militarized political organization composed of militants from The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC (Вооружённые Си́лы Росси́йской Федера́ции Transliteration Vooruzhyónniye Síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii The Georgian Armed Forces ( საქართველოს შეიარაღებული ძალები) is the name of the unified armed forces of the Georgia Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Шамиль Салманович Басаев (January 14 1965 – July 10 2006 was a Chechen field commander and a leader of the Chechen Anri Mikhail-ipa Jergenia varDjergenia ( Abkhaz: Анри Михаил-иҧа Џьергьениа) (born 1941 has been one of the leading politicians Geno Adamia (გენო ადამია ( March 8, 1936 – September 28, 1993) was a Georgian military commander Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) The Abkhazians or Abkhaz ( Abkhaz: Аҧсуа Apswa; Georgian: აფხაზი Aphkhazi) are a Caucasian Abkhazia (Аҧсны Apsny აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti Абха́зия Abhazia) is a De facto Ethnic Georgians who lived in Abkhazia fought largely on the side of Georgian government forces. The Georgians (ქართველები kartvelebi) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus, the oldest group of the Abkhazias population of ethnic Armenians and Russians largely supported Abkhazians, and many fought on their side. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries The separatists were supported by thousands of the North Caucasus and Cossack militants, and by the Russian Federation forces stationed in and near Abkhazia. The North Caucasus, also Ciscaucasus, Ciscaucasia or Forecaucasia, is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
Handling of this conflict was aggravated by the civil strife in Georgia proper between the supporters of the ousted Georgian president, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, and the post-coup government headed by Eduard Shevardnadze, as well as the Georgian-Ossetian conflict. The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic and inter-national conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988-1992 and Abkhazia (1992-1993 as well Zviad Gamsakhurdia ( Georgian: ზვიად გამსახურდია, ( March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993 Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze (ედუარდ შევარდნაძე ɛduɑrd ʃɛvɑrdnɑdzɛ (born 25 January 1928 in Mamati, Lanchkhuti
Significant human rights violations and atrocities were reported on all sides, and peaked in the aftermath of the Abkhaz capture of Sukhumi on September 27, 1993, which was followed by a large-scale campaign of ethnic cleansing against ethnic Georgian population (officiasly recognized by the OSCE and also mentioned in UN resolution GA/10708). Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (according to the Georgian side and by a number of western scholars The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Security Council of the United Nations passed 32 resolutions where it recognizes Abkhazia as an integral part of Georgia and supports its  From 13,000 to 20,000 ethnic Georgians have been reported to be killed and approximately 3,000 Abkhaz, more than 250,000 Georgians became internally displaced and refugees, and 2,000 are considered missing. Internally displaced persons (IDPs are people forced to flee their homes but who unlike refugees remain within their country's borders According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race
Post-Soviet Georgia was heavily affected by the war and suffered considerable financial, human and psychological damage. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Abkhazia has been devastated by the war and subsequent continued sporadic conflict. The region, de facto independent from Georgia, suffers huge economic and social problems. Its status remains undetermined, and the region remains heavily dependent on Russia. 
The situation in the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia had been tense since the end of the 1980s when Georgian anti-Soviet opposition started demanding the separation from the USSR. The Abkhaz ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union, within the Georgian SSR. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 In March 1989, Abkhaz nationalists demanded, in the Lykhny Declaration, as they had done on several occasions before, the status of separate Soviet Socialist Republic (based on the precedent of the existence of the separate Abkhazian SSR during 1925-1931, which was associated with the Georgian SSR by a confederative "Union Treaty"). Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (საქართველოს საბჭოთასოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა The Declaration was signed amongst others by the rector of the Sukhumi University. Ethnic Georgian students of the university announced a protests, but these were forbidden by the Georgian government. Nevertheless the students rallied and were attacked by some Abkhazians.  The Georgian anti-Soviet movement was outraged by the event and included the students' clause against Abkhazian secession into the list of slogans of the demonstrations of several thousands of Georgians in Tbilisi, which concluded with a bloody crackdown by the Soviet troops on April 9, 1989. Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari The April 9 tragedy refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on April 9, 1989, when an Anti-Soviet demonstration Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans)
In the aftermath, the first armed clashes between the representatives of the Abkhazian and Georgian populations took place on July 16–July 17, 1989 in Sukhumi. The Sukhumi riot was a Riot in Sukhumi, Abkhaz ASSR, Georgian SSR, Soviet Union, in July 1989 triggered by an increasing inter-ethnic Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Sukhumi, also spelled as Sukhum ( Abkhaz: Аҟəа Aqwa; სოხუმი Sokhumi, Сухуми/Сухум is the capital The conflict was sparked by alleged violations during the entrance exams to the Sukhumi University. The resulting civil unrest quickly turned into militarized clashes resulting in 16 deaths and about 140 wounded, mostly Georgians. To quench the unrest, the Army was invoked.
The government of the Soviet Union did nothing to prevent inter-ethnic conflicts, itself being on the verge of collapse. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985
The tensions in the autonomy approached the dangerous edge in June 1992, when Abkhaz militants attacked the government buildings in Sukhumi. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Sukhumi, also spelled as Sukhum ( Abkhaz: Аҟəа Aqwa; სოხუმი Sokhumi, Сухуми/Сухум is the capital On July 23, 1992, the Abkhazian government proclaimed the independence of the region, though this was not internationally recognized. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The Government of the Republic of Abkhazia is the political leadership of the partially recognised Republic of Abkhazia. On August 14, 1992, Georgian police and National Guards units were dispatched to restore government control over Abkhazia. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The ranks of Georgian troops were filled partially by "emptying the jails" as some of the inmates were released on condition they fight in Abkhazia.  Fighting broke out the same day. On August 18, 1992, the separatist government fled from Sukhumi to Gudauta. Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Gudauta ( Abkhaz: Гəдоуҭа Gwdowtha; გუდაუთა Russian: Гудаута is a town in Georgia ’s breakaway region Abkhazia Georgian government forces managed to take control of large parts of Abkhazia, but military actions continued.
On August 25 Giorgi Karkarashvili, Georgian military commander, in a TV broadcast announced that the Georgian forces would not take POWs. He promised that no harm would be done to peaceful residents of Abkhazia and that peace talks would be conducted. He warned separatists that if the peace talks wouldn't succeed and if 100,000 Georgians get killed then all the 97,000 people (all the ethnic Abkhaz) who supported Ardzinba would perish.  Karkarashvili also urged the Abkhaz politician Vladislav Ardzinba 'not to make so that the Abkhaz nation will be left without descendants' and placed all the responsibility for future deaths on Ardzinba personally.  Later, his speech has been widely misquoted and misinterpreted by separatists' propaganda to portray Georgians as "fascist marauders" and justify their own actions, breaches of agreements, and refusal of peaceful settlement. 
Significant ethnic cleansing accompanied by atrocities occurred on both sides, with Abkhazians displaced from Georgian-held territory and vice-versa; some 6,000 people were reported to have been killed in this first phase of the war. Ethnic cleansing is a Euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity
. . . (Abkhazian) refugee family described how drunken men broke into their apartment firing automatic weapons and telling them to leave Sukhumi "forever, because Sukhumi is Georgian. " The family claimed that the soldiers stole jewelry, assaulted the husband, and then threw them all out into the street. The same witnesses reported seeing dead civilians, including women and elderly people, in the street, although fighting had been over for days. 
On August 26 armed Chechens captured Valery Maliuk from Eshera, just because he expressed his sympathy to Georgians. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. On the same day they raped Georgian teenagers and along with the Abkhaz militants committed atrocities in the village of Orjonikidze. 
Many human rights abuses -- principally looting, pillage, and other outlaw acts, along with hostage-taking and other violations of humanitarian law, were committed by all sides throughout Abkhazia. Both sides engaged in high level of criminality.  After taking Sukhumi the Georgian forces (including Mkhedrioni) engaged in "vicious, ethnically based pillage, looting, assault, and murder". The Mkhedrioni was a paramilitary group and political organisation in the Republic of Georgia, outlawed since 1995 but subsequently reconstituted as the Union  In addition to the looting, Abkhaz cultural monuments were destroyed in a manner that, according to some reports, suggests deliberate targeting. University buildings were sacked, and museum and other cultural collections broken up. The irreplaceable Abkhaz national archives were set upon and burned by Georgian forces; reportedly, local firefighters did not attempt to douse the blaze. 
At the end of this stage of the conflict Georgian troops controlled most of Abkhazia. The pockets of Abkhaz forces were besieged in parts of Ochamchira district and Tkvarcheli, while in Gudauta they were pinched between the Georgian troops in Sukhumi and Gagra. Ochamchira district is a district of the Republic of Abkhazia.
On September 3, 1992, a ceasefire was negotiated in Moscow. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of According to the agreement, Georgian forces were obliged to withdraw from Gagra district. The Georgian side carried out the implementation of the agreement and left its positions. As the result local population of Gagra remained defenceless. The ceasefire was soon violated by the Abkhaz side. Thousands of volunteer paramilitaries, mainly Chechens and Cossacks from the militarized Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (CMPC) joined the Abkhaz military to fight the Georgian government. Chechens ( Chechen: Hохчи / Noxçi) constitute the largest native Ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (Конфедерация горских народов Кавказа is a militarized political organization composed of militants from The Abkhazian Armed Forces is the military of the breakaway republic of Abkhazia, whose independence is recognized by Russia and Nicaragua but whom most Abkhaz and CMPC forces attacked the town of Gagra on October 2. Gagra ( Abkhaz and Russian: Гагра გაგრა is a town in Abkhazia, the breakaway republic Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Abkhaz, Russian and CMPC joint troops attacked Gagra by overwhelming numbers of tanks and aviation. Russian navy started to block the seawater area near Gagra. The military vessels: SKP "Bezukoriznenniy", "KIL-25", "BTH-38", "BM-66", "Golovin", Landing 345, aviation 529 (SU-25, SU-27), MI- and anti-aircraft 643 regiments commanded by the first deputy Minister of Defense of Russian Federation G. Kolesnikov took part in the occupation of Gagra. Russian tanker "Don" delivered 420 tons of fuel to Separatist-held Gudauta.
With the Abkhaz conquest of Gagra, many Georgians were killed and a majority was forcefully expelled from the town.  Abkhaz forces, largely supported by Russian military presence in the region, were now in control over Gagra, Gudauta (where a former Soviet/Russian military base remains) and Tkvarcheli and approached Sukhumi.
|“||My husband Sergo was dragged and tightened to the tree. Abkhaz woman named Zoya Tsvizba brought a tray with lots of salt on it. She took the knife and started to inflict wounds on my husband. Then she threw salt onto my husbands exposed wounds. They tortured him like that for ten minutes. Then they forced a young Georgian boy (they killed him after that) to dig a hole with a tractor. They placed my husband in this whole and buried him alive. The only thing I remember him saying before he was covered with the gravel and sand was: “Dali, take care of the kids! ”. ||”|
The villages along the Gumista river (north and east of Sukhumi) such as Kamani, Shroma and Achadare heavily populated by ethnic Georgians became a very important area strategically which enabled motorized units to reach Sukhumi, the capital of Abkhazia. Kamani is a Village in Bhamo Township in Bhamo District in the Kachin State of north-eastern Burma. The Georgians (ქართველები kartvelebi) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus, the oldest group of the After failed attempt to storm Sukhumi from the west, the Abkhaz formations and their allies diverted their offensive on the northern and eastern sides of Sukhumi. On July 02, 1993 under the Russian military directives and naval support, the Abkhaz and their allies (Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus) attacked the villages on the Gumista river. Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (Конфедерация горских народов Кавказа is a militarized political organization composed of militants from The Georgian side did not expect any offensive from the northern or eastern side of Sukhumi district. Sukhumi district is a district of the Republic of Abkhazia.It corresponds to the eponymous Georgian district. The Georgian side suffered great losses (as many as 500 dead within an hour of the attack)  and the defensive line around Sukhumi was breached by the Abkhaz offensive. On July 5, 1993 Abkhaz, Russian, Armenian Bagramyan battalion and North Caucasian detachments stormed the villages of Akhalsheni, Guma and Shroma of Sukhumi district. The Bagramyan Battalion was a Battalion formed in Abkhazia, Georgia and predominantly composed of ethnic Armenians living in Abkhazia that fought The residents from the villages were rounded up and massacred. The last offensive took place on July 9, on the village of Kamani. Kamani was a Svan (sub-ethnic group of the Georgian people) village which also included a Orthodox Church (named after St George) and convent (populated by priests and nuns). Christianity in ancient and feudal Georgia According to tradition when the Apostles were sent out to preach the Gospel to the nations of the world the Apostle In Christian hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Anglican Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox After the fall of the village, most of its inhabitants (including priests and nuns) were killed by Abkhaz formations and their allies (see Kamani massacre). The Kamani Massacre took place on July 9, 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. 
In December 1992, Abkhaz troops began the shelling of Georgian-held Sukhumi. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) On March 4, 1993, Eduard Shevardnadze, head of the State Council of Georgia, arrived in the capital of the region to take control over the defensive operations in the city. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze (ედუარდ შევარდნაძე ɛduɑrd ʃɛvɑrdnɑdzɛ (born 25 January 1928 in Mamati, Lanchkhuti The Minister of Economy, Beslan Kobakhia, arrived in Sukhumi during the negotiations with Goga Khaindrava. According to Kobakhia, separatist leader Ardzinba would resign if Shevardnadze would do the same. He did not approve of the facts of vandalism in Gagra and noted that Abkhazia officially never declared the aim to secede from Georgia. As Commander–in chief of Georgian Military Forces Eduard Shevardnadze issued the order "Measures on the defense of Sukhumi and Ochamchira Regions" that stated: "Military formations of different countries are concentrating in Gudauta and Gumista area. We have an information that those forces have serious aim to seize Sukhumi and bring the chaos and turmoil in entire Georgia. " On February 10 Shevardnadze appointed Guram Gabiskiria as Mayor of Sukhumi. Guram Gabiskiria (გურამ გაბესკირია ( March 2, 1947 – September 27, 1993) was a Mayor of Sukhumi Meanwhile, Georgian Parliament made an official declaration blaming Russia for aggression against Georgia and demanding the withdrawal of all Russian military forces from the territory of Abkhazia.
On March 14, 1993, At 6 and 9 o'clock in the morning Abkhaz and the Confederation forces launched a full-scale attack on Sukhumi resulting in large destruction and casualties among the civilians. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar)  At 2 o'clock in the morning Abkhaz side started artillery bombardments of Georgian positions at the Gumista River and Sukhumi. Later in the day several Russian SU-25 had been shelling Sukhumi till the morning of the next day. Russian special detachment led the operation followed by Abkhaz fighters and CMPC volunteers. They crossed the river Gumista and took part of Achadara. However, the government forces repelled the attack.
On May 14, a short-lived ceasefire was signed. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the On July 2, a strong force of Abkhaz and North Caucasian volunteers landed again with the strong support of Russian navy near the village Tamishi. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival The battle was one of the bloodiest in the war. Several hundreds were killed and wounded from all sides, but Georgian forces managed to regain the positions. In July Russian detachments, Abkhaz military and CMPC volunteers captured the villages of Akhalsheni, Guma and Shroma of Sukhumi region. The Abkhazian Armed Forces is the military of the breakaway republic of Abkhazia, whose independence is recognized by Russia and Nicaragua but whom most The fiercest struggle near the village Kamani cost the life of many Georgians, both military and civilian. Separatists occupied almost all strategic heights and practically besieged Sukhumi. Soon after the Chairman of the Georgian Council of Defense of Abkhazia Tamaz Nadareishvili resigned due to ill-health and was succeeded by Member of Georgian Parliament Zhiuli Shartava. Tamaz Nadareishvili (თამაზ ნადარეიშვილი (born 19 July 1954 – died 31 August 2004) was a Georgian Zhiuli Shartava (ჟიული შარტავა ( March 7, 1944 – September 27, 1993) was a Georgian Politician Abkhaz forces brought down 3 airplanes including one flying from Sochi and another one flying from Tbilisi. In September 1993, three Tupolev civilian airliners belonging to Transair Georgia were hit by missiles fired by rebels in Sukhumi, Abkhazia, Sochi (Сочи ˈsotɕɪ is a Russian Resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari
Another Russian-mediated ceasefire was agreed in Sochi on July 27, and lasted until September 16, when separatists violated the agreement and launched a large-scale offensive against Sukhumi, which after a fierce fighting fell on September 27. Sochi (Сочи ˈsotɕɪ is a Russian Resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Shevardnadze appealed to the population of Sukhumi by radio:
"Dear friends, Citizens of Sukhumi and Georgia! Georgia is facing the most difficult days, especially Sukhumi. Separatists and foreign invaders entered into the city. I am proud of your courage… Separatists and opportunists will be judged by history. . . They do not want Georgians to live in this Georgian city. Many of them dream to repeat the Gagra tragedy here. . . I know that you understand the challenge we are facing. I know how difficult the situation is. Many people left the city but you remain here for Sukhumi and for Georgia… I call on you, citizens of Sukhumi, fighters, officers and generals: I understand the difficulties of being in your position now, but we have no right to step back, we all have to hold our ground. We have to fortify the city and save Sukhumi. I would like to tell you that all of us – Government of Abkhazia, Cabinet of Ministers, Mr. Zhiuli Shartava, his colleagues, city and regional government of Sukhumi, are prepared for action. The enemy is aware of our readiness, that's why he is fighting in the most brutal way to destroy our beloved Sukhumi. I call on you to keep peace, tenacity and self-control. We have to meet the enemy in our streets as they deserve. "
After the Abkhaz capture of the city one of the most horrific massacres of the war was committed against the remaining and trapped Georgian civilians in the city. The Sukhumi massacre (სოხუმის ტრაგედია took place on September 27, 1993, during the War in Abkhazia and fall of Sukhumi  Almost all members of the Georgia-backed Abkhaz government who refused to leave the city, including Zhiuli Shartava, Guram Gabiskiria and Raul Eshba, were murdered (see Sukhumi Massacre). Zhiuli Shartava (ჟიული შარტავა ( March 7, 1944 – September 27, 1993) was a Georgian Politician Guram Gabiskiria (გურამ გაბესკირია ( March 2, 1947 – September 27, 1993) was a Mayor of Sukhumi Raul Eshba (რაულ ეშბა (1944-1993 was an ethnic Abkhaz Politician who was killed in Sukhumi along with Zhiuli Shartava, The Sukhumi massacre (სოხუმის ტრაგედია took place on September 27, 1993, during the War in Abkhazia and fall of Sukhumi 
The 1994 U. S. State Department Country Reports also describes scenes of massive human rights abuse:
Eduard Shevardnadze left the city narrowly escaping death. Soon Abkhaz forces and the Confederates overran the whole territory of Abkhazia, except the small region of the upper Kodori Gorge (which more or less remains under the control of the Tbilisi government). The Kodori Valley (also known as the Kodori Gorge, ҭҭа კოდორის ხეობა is a river valley in Abkhazia, Georgia 's breakaway Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari The total defeat of Georgian forces was accompanied by the ethnic cleansing of the Georgian population with all horrors of humanitarian catastrophe. The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (according to the Georgian side and by a number of western scholars  As a result of the war, more than 250. 000 people (mainly Georgians, also Greeks and others) fled from or were forced out of Abkhazia. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions In September 1994, several reports indicated ethnic clashes between Abkhaz and Armenians, a significant part of whom supported the former during the war. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large Chechen militants of the CMPC soon left Abkhazia to take part in the First Chechen War with Russia. The First Chechen War also known as the War in Chechnya was fought between Russia and Chechnya from 1994 to 1996 and resulted in Chechnya's
|“||When Abkhaz entered my house, they took me and my seven year old son outside. After forcing us to knee, they took my son and shot him right in front of me. After they grabbed me by hair and took me to the nearby well. Abkhaz soldier forced me to look down that well; there I saw three younger man and couple of elderly woman who were standing soaking in water naked. They were screaming and crying while Abkhaz were dumping dead corpses on them. After, they threw a grenade there and placed more people inside. I was forced again to knee in front of the dead corpses. One of the soldiers took his knife and took the eye out from one of the dead near me. Then he started to rub my lips and face with that decapitated eye. I could not take it any longer and fainted. They left me there in pile of corpses. ”. ||”|
In the concluding phase of the battle of Sukhumi, the Abkhaz forces destroyed three Georgian civilian airliners that resulted in the death of over 150 people. In September 1993, three Tupolev civilian airliners belonging to Transair Georgia were hit by missiles fired by rebels in Sukhumi, Abkhazia,
After the fall of Sukhumi thousands of refugees started to flee Sukhumi, Gali and Ochamchira regions. The plight of refugees became deadly due to snow and cold on the pathway in Kodori valley. Georgian authorities were unable to evacuate all remaining civilians (previously many people were evacuated from Sukhumi via airplanes and cargo ships from Ukraine). The refugees started to move in through the Kodori gorge on foot, bypassing Gali region which was blocked by advancing Abkhaz separatist forces. The crossing of the Kodori gorge on foot became another death trap for the fleeing IDPs.  Most of the people who did not survive the crossing, died from freezing cold and starvation. The survivors who reached the Svan mountains were attacked and robbed by local criminal groups. One of the survivors recalls the crossing:
|“||They were killing everyone who was Georgian. Every road was blocked. There was only one way out, through the mountains. It was terrible and horrific; nobody knew where it ended or what would happen on the way. There were children, woman, and elderly people. Everyone was marching not knowing where they are headed. We were cold, hungry, there was no water… We marched the whole day. By the end of the day we were tired and could not go on. To rest, it meant to die, so we marched and marched. Some woman near me did not make it; she has fallen. As we marched, we saw people frozen and dead; they apparently stopped for a break and it was their end. The path never ended, it seemed that we would die at any time. One young girl who marched beside me all the way from Sukhumi was pregnant. She delivered her baby in the mountains. The child died on the third day of our deadly march. She separated from us and we never seen her after. Finally we made in to Svan villages. Only woman and children were allowed in their huts. Buses came later on that day. We were taken to Zugdidi. ”||”|
According to the United States State Department Commission on Foreign Relations and International Relations, 104th Cong. , 1st Sess. , Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1994, at 815 (Joint Comm. Print 1995), the victorious Abkhaz "separatists moved through captured towns with prepared lists and addresses of ethnic Georgians, plundered and burned homes, and executed designated civilians. " Georgians were specifically targeted, but all non-Abkhaz suffered. 
The ethnic cleansing and massacres of Georgians has been officially recognized by the OSCE conventions in 1994, 1996 and again in 1997 during the Budapest, Lisbon and Istambul summits and condemned the “perpetrators of war crimes committed during the conflict. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey ”  On May 15 2008, UN General Assembly adopted a resolution (GA/10708) which acknowledges the ethnic cleansing campaign which have been described by OSCE conventions, and strongly emphasizes the return of all Georgian IDPs back to Abkhazia, protection of their property rights and full restoration of the pre-war population. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members  The International Criminal Court is currently investigating allegations of genocide and crimes against humanity in Abkhazia. The International Criminal Court ( ICC or ICCt) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for Genocide, crimes against Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of  The ICC was provided with the documents selected from the 300 volumes of evidence about the genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia. These materials were collected by the Georgian Prosecutors' Office beginning in 1993 and allegedly contain horrific accounts of atrocities committed by the Abkhaz fighters and mercenaries from Russia.  The reports included a detailed description of how the separatists played soccer with the heads of dead Georgians on the field after the executions in Gagra. 
Although Russia officially claimed neutrality during the war in Abkhazia, Russian military officials and politicians were involved in the conflict in several ways. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Russia was the main source of weapons for both conflicting sides, it unofficially supported the Abkhaz side and finally Russia also carried out some humanitarian operations. 
Russian arms used by Georgia were transferred to it under the bilateral agreements with Russia and included main battle tanks, armored personnel carriers, heavy artillery and heavy mortars. The whole Akhaltsikhe motorised rifle division was turned over to Georgia on September 22, 1992.  Some weapons were gained by local raids on Russian Army bases in Batumi, Akhalkalaki, Vaziani (near Tbilisi) and Poti by irregular Georgian paramilitary forces. Batumi (ბათუმი formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and Capital of Adjara, an Autonomous Akhalkalaki (ახალქალაქი for New City; Ախալքալաք Akhalkalak) is a small city in Georgia 's southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari Poti (ფოთი is a Port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti  After several attacks Russia declared it would defend its bases with force.
Prior to the outbreak of the war, the Abkhaz leadership arranged for the redeployment of a Russian airborne battalion from the Baltic States to Sukhumi. The Baltic states (Balti riigid Baltijas valstis Baltijos valstybės or Baltic countries are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the  According to the Russian historian Svetlana Chervonnaya, a number of Russian security servicemen also arrived in Abkhazia as "tourists" during that summer:
|“||The main load in the preparation of Abkhazian events was given to staff of the former KGB. KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty Almost all of them got appointments in Abkhazia under cover of neutral establishments which had nothing to do with their real activities. To distract attention, various ruses were resorted to, such as the private exchange of apartments, or the necessity of moving one’s place of work to Abkhazia due to a sudden deterioration of health.||”|
According to another Russian expert, Evgeni Kozhokin, director of the Russian Institute of Strategic Studies, prior to the outbreak of hostilities, Abkhaz guardsmen had been supplied with weaponry by Russia’s 643rd anti-aircraft missile regiment and a military unit stationed in Gudauta. A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft Gudauta ( Abkhaz: Гəдоуҭа Gwdowtha; გუდაუთა Russian: Гудаута is a town in Georgia ’s breakaway region Abkhazia Ardzinba had major supporters in Moscow as well, including Vice President Alexander Rutskoy and the Chechen speaker of the Russian parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy (Russian Александр Владимирович Руцкой) (born September 16, 1947) is a Russian Chechens ( Chechen: Hохчи / Noxçi) constitute the largest native Ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region The State Duma (Государственная дума (Gosudarstvennaya Duma common abbreviation Госдума (Gosduma in the Russian Federation is the Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov ( Russian: Руслан Имранович Хасбулатов) (born November 
After the eruption of armed conflict, the Abkhaz separatist paramilitary units, along with their political supporters fled to Gudauta from where they obtained significant amount of military and financial aid.  In Gudauta, Russian Army base housed and trained Abkhaz paramilitary units and provided protection for the leader of Abkhaz separatists, Vladislav Ardzinba.  The high level of corruption in the Russian military also contributed in the leakage of Russian arms to both sides.
From the outset of the hostilities Russia called upon both sides to negotiate and it brokered several cease-fires which mostly proved ineffective (i. e. the Sukhumi offensive was undertaken by the Abkhaz side in violation of the previous cease-fire agreement). On the other hand, the Russian military offered protection to the retreating Abkhaz detachments during the summer 1992 Georgian offensive. In November 1992, Russian Air Force conducted heavy air strikes against the villages and towns in Abkhazia predominantly populated by Georgians. In response, the Georgian Defense Ministrya accused Russia for the first time in public of preparing a war against Georgia in Abkhazia. This led to the Georgian attacks on targets under Russian and Abkhaz control, and the retaliation from the Russian forces. 
The Russian attitude began to tilt further to the Abkhaz side after a Russian Mi-8 helicopter (reportedly carrying humanitarian aid) was brought down by Georgian forces on October 27 which triggered retaliation from Russian forces. On December 14, 1992, the Russian military suffered the loss of another military helicopter, carrying evacuees from Tkvarcheli, resulting in 52 to 64 deaths (including 25 children). Tkvarcheli (Тҟəарчал Tqwarchal, ტყვარჩელი is a town in Abkhazia. Although Georgian authorities denied any responsibility, many believed the helicopter was shot down by the Georgian forces. On 16 December, the government of Georgia requested the Russians to evacuate their nationals from Abkhazia via other routes, foremost the Black Sea, but also to limit the number of missions flown from Gudauta, the main Russian air base in the area.  However, this incident "raised the level of general malevolence in the war and catalyzed more concerted Russian military intervention on the Abkhaz side".  The town of Tkvarcheli had been besieged by Georgian forces and its population (mostly Abkhaz, Georgians and Russians) suffered a severe humanitarian crisis. Russian military helicopters supplied the city with food and medicine and mobilized Russian-trained and Russian-paid fighters to defend the city. 
The Human Rights Watch states: Although the Russian government continued to declare itself officially neutral in the war, parts of Russian public opinion and a significant group in the parliament, primarily Russian nationalists who had never been favourably disposed toward the Georgians, began to tilt toward the Abkhaz at least by December. < During this period the Abkhaz side obtained a large number of armor, tanks (T-72 and T-80) and heavy artillery. The T-72 is a Soviet -designed Main battle tank that entered production in 1971 The T-80 is a Main battle tank which was designed in the Soviet Union and entered service in 1976 The question remains whether there were specific orders concerning the transfer of weapons to Abkhaz side and if so, whom they were issued by. Russian border guards allowed the Chechen fighters led by Shamil Basayev to cross into Abkhazia or at least did nothing to prevent them from arriving in the conflict zone.  The defense minister in the secessionist government and one of the main organizers of Abkhaz armed units was the professional Russian military officer Sultan Sosnaliev from the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic. The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ
The most obvious example of Russian support to the Abkhaz side in 1993 was the bombing of Georgian-held Sukhumi by Russian fighter-bombers. Sukhumi, also spelled as Sukhum ( Abkhaz: Аҟəа Aqwa; სოხუმი Sokhumi, Сухуми/Сухум is the capital The Russian Defence minister Pavel Grachev consistently denied it but after Georgians succeeded in bringing down one SU-27 fighter-bomber and UN experts identified the dead pilot as Russian it became irrefutable. Pavel Sergeyevich Grachev (Па́вел Серге́евич Грачё́в is a Russian Army General and the former Defence Minister of the Russian Federation Nevertheless some equipment was turned over to Georgia according to the previous agreements in 1993. Russian general Grachev claimed that Georgian side has painted the aircraft to resemble Russian Air Force aircraft and bombed their own positions, killing hundreds of their own people in Sukhumi and Eshera. This statement raised anger and utter contempt among Georgians toward the Russian side.
The Russian journalist Dmitry Kholodov who has witnessed the Russian bombardment of Sukhumi, wrote a couple of compiling reports with detailed description of humanitarian catastrophe:
Kholodov also reported on the Russian volunteers fighting on the separatist side:
On February 25, the Georgian Parliament appealed to the UN, European Council and Supreme Council of the Russian Federation demanding the withdrawal of Russian forces from Abkhazia and stating that Russia waged “an undeclared war” against Georgia. 
Georgian Parliament adopted another resolution on April 28, 1993 which openly blamed Russia in political facilitation of ethnic cleansing and genocide against Georgians. 
Russian policy during the final battle for Sukhumi in September 1993, immediately after the breach of the cease-fire by the Abkhaz forces, appeared to follow several lines. Russian officials condemned the attack, issued calls to Abkhaz forces to cease the offensive and its accompanying human rights violations, and reportedly cut off electricity and telephone service to parts of Abkhazia from September to December 1993. Russia also supported resolutions in the Security Council condemning Abkhaz forces for breaching the ceasefire. At the same time, the Russian government criticized the Georgian government for refusing, once the attack was underway, to negotiate. As the Human Rights Watch report notes "it is doubtful, however, that Russian forces in or near Abkhazia were as surprised as the Russian government seemed to be. Initiating an offensive as large as the one undertaken, in three different directions at once, must have required extensive movement of forces and resupply during the days leading up to it. " Russian forces on the Georgian-Abkhaz border who were supposed to police the cease-fire made no attempt to forestall the attack. The Abkhaz weapons were stored near the front and were returned to the Abkhaz by Russian military mission when hostilities restarted.  Ataman Nikolay Pusko, a notable commander of some 1,500 Cossack volunteers fighting against Georgians in Abkhazia, later claimed that his sotnia was the first to enter Sukhumi. Ataman (variants wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian ватаман (Russian regional отаман (Ukrainian was Sotnia was a traditional division of the Cossack regiments from earliest records of the Zaporizhian Sich, and means 'a hundred' 
In a Time Magazine article published in October 4th 1993, Georgians said Russian Army officers provided Abkhazian separatists — at the beginning using mere hunting rifles and shotguns — with sophisticated weapons like BM-21 multiple rocket launchers and Sukhoi Su-25 jet aircraft, plus battlefield intelligence. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls A shotgun (also known as a scattergun) is a Firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number The BM-21 "Grad" (БМ-21 "Град" meaning Hail) is a launch vehicle of the Soviet 122 mm multiple-launch rocket system developed WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout 
In the beginning of the conflict (August, 1992) Russia evacuated many people from Abkhazian resorts by means of Black Sea fleet and Russian Airforce. As the war progressed Russia began to supply humanitarian aid to both sides; it also brokered numerous agreements concerning the exchange of prisoners-of-war. In the course of the war, Russian humanitarian efforts were chiefly focused on the town of Tkvarcheli which had large ethnic Russian population and was besieged by the Georgian forces. The landmines installed along the mountain highway to this town made Russian helicopters the only safe means of transportation into it. However, Russian navy also evacuated tens of thousands of Georgian civilians after the fall of Gagra (October 1992) and Sukhumi (September 1993) to the separatist forces. Gagra ( Abkhaz and Russian: Гагра გაგრა is a town in Abkhazia, the breakaway republic 
Georgia effectively lost control over Abkhazia and the latter established as a de facto independent territory. The relations between Russia and Abkhazia improved in the late 1990s and the economic blockade of Abkhazia was lifted. The laws were also passed allowing other countries to become part of Russian Federation which was interpreted by some as an offer to Abkhazia and other unrecognised countries of the former Soviet Union. 
Georgia claimed that Russian army and intelligence contributed decisively to the Georgian defeat in the Abkhazian war and considered this conflict (along with the Georgian Civil War and Georgian-Ossetian War) as one of Russia's attempt of restoring its influence in the post-Soviet area. The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic and inter-national conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988-1992 and Abkhazia (1992-1993 as well 
At the end of the war, the Russian Foreign Minister Andrey Kozyrev said at the UN General Assembly: “Russia realizes that no international organization or group of states can replace our peacekeeping efforts in this specific post-Soviet space. The Sukhumi massacre (სოხუმის ტრაგედია took place on September 27, 1993, during the War in Abkhazia and fall of Sukhumi This page lists foreign ministers of Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation: Heads of Posolsky Prikaz, 1549-1699 Andrey Vladimirovich Kozyrev (Андрей Владимирович Козырев born March 27 1951) was the Foreign minister of Russia under President Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members International Organization is a peer-reviewed Academic journal that covers the entire field of International affairs. Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace The post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the 15 independent nations that split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ”
A wide array of opinions on Russian policy with respect to Georgia and Abkhazia is expressed in the media and parliament. Leonid Radzikhovsky, a political analyst and independent journalist, wrote that gaining new territories is the last thing Russia needs and compared the support of foreign separatists to throwing stones at one's neighbours while living in the glass house. 
Oxford Professor S. N. MacFarlane, notes on the issue of Russian mediation in Abkhazia:
On August 28, Senator Richard Lugar, then visiting Georgia's capital Tbilisi, joined the Georgian politicians in criticism of the Russian peacekeeping mission, stating that "the U. Richard Green "Dick" Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Indiana. S. administration supports the Georgian government’s insistence on the withdrawal of Russian peacekeepers from the conflict zones in Abkhazia and the Tskhinvali district. "
During the war the peace mediation was done first by Russia and second by the UN. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security From 1993 onwards, the pressure for a peace settlement mounted from UN, Russia and the then Group of Friends of Georgia (Russia, U.S., France, Germany and UK). Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In December 1993, an official ceasefire was signed by Georgian and Abkhaz leaders under the aegis of the UN and with Russia as intermediary. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The venues shifted from Geneva to New York and finally to Moscow. On April 4, 1994, the "Declaration on Measures for a Political Settlement of the Georgian-Abkhazian Conflict" was signed in Moscow. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Instead of the deployment of a traditional UN peacekeeping force, the deployment of a CIS, mainly Russian peacekeeping force was agreed in Moscow on May 1994. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) In June 1994, CIS peacekeeping forces comprising only the Russian soldiers were deployed along the administrative border between Abkhazia and the remaining Georgia. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) The UN mission (UNOMIG) also arrived. However, these could not prevent further atrocities against the Georgians in the following years (around 1. 500 deaths have been reported by the Georgian government in the post-war period). On September 14, 1994, Abkhaz leaders appeared on local TV to demand that all ethnic Georgians depart from the region by September 27 (the anniversary of the capture of Sukhumi). Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again On November 30, 1994, Abkhazia promulgated a new constitution declaring independence of the breakaway region. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) However, none of the foreign governments recognized this. On December 15, 1994, the US State Department condemned Abkhazia’s declaration of independence. Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) On March 21, 1995, The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees accused Abkhaz militias of torturing and murdering dozens of returning ethnic Georgian refugees in the Gali District. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Despite an official economic blockade imposed on Abkhazia by Russia and CIS in 1995 (virtually ended by the Russian government in 1997), the breakaway region has been enjoying both military and economic support by Russia. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
The UN sent non-military observers (UNOMIG) to monitor the ceasefire and Russia deployed peacekeeping forces. The Organization for Security in Europe (OSCE) and other international organizations are also involved in monitoring developments. Negotiations toward a permanent peace settlement have made little progress, but the Georgian and Abkhazi governments have agreed to limit the size of their military forces and extend the authorization for UNOMIG. Meanwhile, Georgian refugees maintain a government in exile.