Protest activity surrounding the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, which was to be the launch of a new millennial round of trade negotiations, occurred on November 30, 1999 (nicknamed "N30" on similar lines to J18 and similar mobilisations), when the World Trade Organization (WTO) convened at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center in Seattle, Washington, United States. The WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 was a meeting of the World Trade Organization, convened at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center in Seattle Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The Global Carnival Against Capital took place on Friday June 18, 1999. The Washington State Convention and Trade Center is a Convention center located next to and over Interstate 5 in downtown Seattle Washington Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The negotiations were quickly overshadowed by massive and controversial street protests outside the hotels and the Seattle Convention Center, in what became the second phase of the anti-globalization movement in the United States. Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging usually on a short-term basis The Washington State Convention and Trade Center is a Convention center located next to and over Interstate 5 in downtown Seattle Washington " Anti-globalization " is a term that encompasses a number of related ideas The scale of the demonstrations—even the lowest estimates put the crowd at over 40,000—dwarfed any previous demonstration in the United States against a world meeting of any of the organizations generally associated with economic globalization (such as the WTO, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), or the World Bank). Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e  The events are sometimes referred to as the Battle of Seattle.
Planning for the demonstrations began months in advance and included local, national, and international organizations. Among the most notable participants were national and international NGOs (especially those concerned with labor issues, the environment, and consumer protection), labor unions (including the AFL-CIO), student groups, religiously-based groups (Jubilee 2000), and anarchists (some of whom formed a black bloc). A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a National trade union center, the largest federation of Jubilee 2000 was an international coalition movement in over 40 countries that called for cancellation of Third world debt by the year 2000. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i A black bloc is made up largely of anarchists or autonomists, anti-capitalist individuals or groups that gather for protests demonstrations or other event
The coalition was loose, with some opponent groups focused on opposition to WTO policies (especially those related to free trade), with others motivated by pro-Labor, anti-Capitalist, or environmental agendas. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions Many of the NGOs represented at the protests came with credentials to participate in the official meetings, while also planning various educational and press events. The AFL-CIO, with cooperation from its member unions, organized a large permitted rally and march from Seattle Center to downtown. Seattle Center is a fairground, Park and arts and entertainment center in Seattle Washington. Downtown is the Central business district of Seattle, Washington.
Others, however, were more interested in taking direct action including both civil disobedience and acts of vandalism and property destruction to disrupt the meeting. Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical Several groups were loosely organized together under the Direct Action Network (DAN), with a plan to disrupt the meetings by blocking streets and intersections downtown to prevent delegates from reaching the Washington State Convention and Trade Center, where the meeting was to be held. Direct Action Network (DAN was a Confederation of Anarchist and Anti-authoritarian affinity groups collectives and organizations that was formed The Washington State Convention and Trade Center is a Convention center located next to and over Interstate 5 in downtown Seattle Washington
Certain activists, most notably a group of mostly-young anarchists from Eugene, Oregon (where anarchists had protested that summer), advocated more confrontational tactics, and planned and conducted deliberate vandalism of corporate properties in downtown Seattle. The city of Eugene ( "yoo-JEEN") is the County seat of Lane County, Oregon, Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed Vandalism is the behaviour attributed to the Vandals in respect of Culture: ruthless Destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful or Venerable Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual In a subsequent communique, they listed the particular corporations targeted, which they contend to have committed corporate crime:
Fidelity Investments (major investor in Occidental Petroleum, the bane of the U'wa tribe in Colombia); Bank of America, US Bancorp, Key Bank and Washington Mutual Bank (financial institutions key in the expansion of corporate repression); Old Navy, Banana Republic and the GAP (as Fisher family businesses, rapers of Northwest forest lands and sweatshop laborers); NikeTown and Levi's (whose overpriced products are made in sweatshops); McDonald's (slave-wage fast food peddlers responsible for destruction of tropical rainforests for grazing land and slaughter of animals); Starbucks (peddlers of an addictive substance whose products are harvested at below-poverty wages by farmers who are forced to destroy their own forests in the process); Warner Bros. (media monopolists); Planet Hollywood (for being Planet Hollywood). In Criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a Corporation (i Fidelity Investments is a provider of investment products and services Occidental Petroleum Corporation (" Oxy " is an international Oil and Gas exploration and production company with operations in the United The U'wa people are an indigenous people living in the Cloud forests of northeastern Colombia. Banc of America Securities Bank of America () is the largest bank by asset and second largest commercial Bank by deposits and Market capitalization in United US Bancorp ( is a Financial services Holding company, headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota. KeyBank ( is a Bank headquartered in the Key Tower in Cleveland, Ohio. Washington Mutual Inc (abbreviated to WaMu) ( is a savings bank holding company and the former owner of Washington Mutual Savings Bank, which was the Old Navy is a Brand of clothing and chain of stores owned by Gap Inc Banana Republic is a chain of mainly United States based clothing stores founded by Mel and Patricia Ziegler in 1978 as a travel-themed The Gap Incorporated ( is an American clothing and accessories retailer based in San Francisco California, and founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher A sweatshop is a working environment with very difficult or dangerous conditions usually where the workers have few rights or ways to address their situation Nike Inc ('naɪki ( is a major publicly traded sportswear and equipment supplier based in the United States. Levi Strauss & Co (LS&CO is a privately held Clothing company known worldwide for its Levi's brand of Denim Jeans. Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly Tropical rainforests are generally found near the Equator. They are common in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central Factory farming is the practice of raising Farm animals in confinement at high stocking density where a farm operates as a Factory &mdash a practice typical in Starbucks Corporation ( is an international Coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle Washington. Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and Planet Hollywood, a Theme restaurant chain inspired by the popular portrayal of Hollywood, was launched in New York on October 22, 
On the morning of November 30, 1999, the Direct Action Network's plan was put into action. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Direct Action Network (DAN was a Confederation of Anarchist and Anti-authoritarian affinity groups collectives and organizations that was formed Several hundred activists arrived in the deserted streets near the convention center and began to take control of key intersections. Over the next few hours, a number of marchers began to converge on the area from different directions. These included a student march from the north and a march of citizens of the developing world who marched in from the south. Some demonstrators held rallies, others held teach-ins and at least one group staged an early-morning street party. Meanwhile, a number of protesters still controlled the intersections using lockdown formations.
The control of the intersections, plus the sheer numbers of protesters in the area, prevented delegates from getting from their hotels to the Convention Center. It also had the effect of cutting the police forces in two: the police who had formed a cordon around the convention center were completely cut off from the rest of the city. The police outside of the area eventually decided to attempt to break through the protesters' lines in the south.
That morning, the King County Sheriff's Office and Seattle Police Department fired pepper spray, tear gas canisters, percussion grenades, and eventually rubber bullets at protesters at several intersections in an attempt to reopen the blocked streets and allow as many WTO delegates as possible through the blockade. The King County Sheriff's Office is located in western Washington. The Seattle Police Department ( SPD) is the principal law enforcement agency of the city of Seattle Washington, except for the campus of the University Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from " Oleoresin Capsicum " OC gas, capsicum spray, or oleoresin capsicum A lachrymatory agent or lachrymator (from lacrima meaning "a tear " in Latin) (commonly referred to as tear gas) is a Rubber bullets are Rubber or rubber-coated Projectiles fired from Firearms They are usually non-lethal, unless fired at short range but  At 6th Avenue and Union Street, the crowd threw them back.
The situation was complicated around noon, when black-clad anarchists (in a formation known as a black bloc) began smashing windows and decorating storefronts, beginning with Fox's Gem Shop. A black bloc is made up largely of anarchists or autonomists, anti-capitalist individuals or groups that gather for protests demonstrations or other event This produced some of the most famous and controversial images of the protests. This set off a chain-reaction of sorts, with additional protesters pushing dumpsters into the middle of intersections and lighting them on fire, police vehicles turned-over, non-black-blockers joining in the property destruction, and a general disruption of all commercial activity in downtown Seattle.
Other protesters attempted to physically block the activities of the black bloc. A black bloc is made up largely of anarchists or autonomists, anti-capitalist individuals or groups that gather for protests demonstrations or other event Seattle police, led by Chief Norm Stamper, did not react immediately, however, because they had been convinced by protest organizers during the protest-permit process that peaceful organizers would quell these kinds of activities.
The police were eventually totally overwhelmed by the mass of protesters downtown, including many who had chained themselves together and were blocking intersections. Meanwhile, the late-morning labor-organized rally and march drew tens of thousands; though the intended march route had them turning back before they reached the convention center, most ignored the marshals and joined what had become a street-carnival-like scene downtown.
The opening of the meetings was delayed, and it took police much of the afternoon and evening to clear the streets. Seattle mayor Paul Schell imposed a curfew and a 50-block "No-Protest Zone". Paul Schell, born Paul Schlachtenhaufen on October 8, 1937, in Fort Dodge Iowa, was the 50th mayor of Seattle Washington. A curfew can be one of the following An order by a Government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time
Over 600 people were arrested over the next few days. One particularly violent confrontation occurred the evening of December 1, when police pursued protesters fleeing from downtown into the bohemian neighborhood of Capitol Hill, using tear gas, pepper spray, and physical force. Capitol Hill is the second most densely populated Neighborhood in Seattle Washington, United States, after Belltown (in northern downtown A police order that day also banned the use or sale of gas masks downtown, provoking criticism. 
The New York Times printed an erroneous article that stated that protesters at the 1999 WTO convention in Seattle threw Molotov cocktails. The Molotov cocktail, also known as the booze bomb, alcohol bomb or Molotov bomb, is a generic name used for a variety of improvised incendiary  Two days later the New York Times printed a correction, but the original error persisted in later accounts in the mainstream media. See: De-Fact-o.com "Origins of the Molotov Myth"
The Seattle City Council also dispelled these rumors with their own investigation findings:
"The level of panic among police is evident from radio communication and from their inflated crowd estimates, which exceed the numbers shown on news videotapes. ARC investigators found the rumors of "Molotov cocktails" and sale of flammables from a supermarket had no basis in fact. But, rumors were important in contributing to the police sense of being besieged and in considerable danger. " 
In fact, an editorial in The Nation disputed Molotov cocktails have ever been thrown at an anti-globalization protest within the US. This article is about the US Publication. For other newspapers magazines and alternate uses by the same name see The Nation (disambiguation. 
Controversy over the city's response to the protests resulted in the resignation of Seattle police chief Norm Stamper, and arguably played a role in Schell's loss to Greg Nickels and Mark Sidran in the 2001 mayoral primary election. Gregory J "Greg" Nickels (born August 7, 1955) is the 51st and current mayor of Seattle, 
Similar tactics, on the part of both police and protesters, were repeated at subsequent meetings of the WTO, IMF/World Bank, Free Trade Area of the Americas, and other international organizations, as well as the Democratic and Republican National Conventions in the U. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The Free Trade Area of the Americas ( FTAA) ( Spanish: Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas (ALCA French: Zone de libre-échange des The Democratic National Convention is a series of presidential nominating conventions held every four years since 1832 by the United States Democratic Party. The Republican National Convention is the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States. S.
The long-term impacts on WTO policies remain decidedly unclear, and it is an open question whether the WTO's actions since that time have been influenced significantly by these events.
To many in North American anarchist and radical circles, the Seattle WTO riots, protests, and demonstrations were a success and are thought of as the most recent victories in the U. S. Prior to the "Battle of Seattle," there was almost no mention of "anti-globalization" (sic) in the US media, while the protests are seen as having forced the media to report on why anybody would oppose the WTO.  However this was only the second phase of these mass demonstrations. The first began in 1997 in Melbourne on 12 December in which newly formed grass-roots organizations blockaded Melbourne, Perth, Sydney and Darwin city centers. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 
On January 16, 2004, the city settled with 157 individuals arrested outside of the no-protest zone during the WTO events, agreeing to pay them a total of $250,000. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
On January 30, 2007, a federal jury found that the City of Seattle had violated protesters' Fourth Amendment constitutional rights by arresting them without probable cause or hard evidence. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. A constitutional right is a Right granted by a Government 's Constitution (on the national or sub-national level and cannot be legally denied by that government 
The massive size of the protest pushed the city of Seattle $3 million over their estimated budget of $6 million, partly due to city cleanup and police overtime bills. In addition, the damage to commercial businesses from vandalism and lost sales has been estimated at $20 million.