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Voting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion — often following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office An absentee ballot is a Vote cast by someone who is unable or unwilling to attend the official Polling station. Abstention is a term in Election procedure for when a participant in a vote either does not go to vote (on election day or in Parliamentary procedure, is present A ballot is a device (originally a small ball—see blackball) used to record choices made by Voters Each voter uses one ballot and ballots are not A ballot box is a temporarily sealed container usually cuboid though sometimes a tamper resistant bag with a narrow slot in the top sufficient to accept a ballot paper Ballot stuffing is the illegal act of one person submitting multiple Ballots during a Vote in which only one ballot per person is permitted Early voting, is the process which voters can cast their vote on a single or series of days prior to an election Election Day Registration, also known as "same-day voter registration" permits eligible citizens to register and vote on Election Day In Party-list proportional representation systems an election threshold is a clause that stipulates that a party must receive a minimum percentage of votes either None of the Above ( NOTA) or against all is a Ballot choice in some Jurisdictions or Organizations placed so as to allow the The paradox of voting, also referred to as Downs paradox is a reference to the fact that for a rational self-interested Voter, the costs of voting Postal voting describes the method of voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed and/or returned by post to electors in contrast to electors voting in person at a A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it In an Open list proportional representation system voters can indicate their preference for a particular individual candidate on a Party list by A Protest vote is a Vote cast in an Election to demonstrate the caster's unhappiness with the choice of candidates or refusal of the current political system A provisional ballot is used to record a vote when there is some question in regards to a given voter's eligibility. A refused ballot, or similar alternative is a choice available to voters in many Elections. The secret ballot is a voting method in which a Voter 's choices are confidential In Voting, a Ballot is considered to be spoilt, void, null or informal if it is regarded by the Election authorities In Voting systems tactical voting (or strategic voting or sophisticated voting) occurs when a voter supports a candidate other than his or her A ticket refers to a single Election choice which fills more than one Political office or seat Ticket Splitters are those who vote for candidates from more than one Political party when they vote for public offices voting on the basis of individual personalities and records A vote center sometimes known as a super precinct is a Polling place that combines multiple precincts allowing voters to choose at which location to vote Vote pairing (or vote swapping as it has also been called is the method where a voter in one district agrees to vote tactically for a less-preferred candidate or party who In Politics, voter fatigue is the apathy that the electorate can experience when they are required to vote too often Voter registration is the requirement in some democracies for Citizens and residents to check in with some central registry specifically for the purpose of being allowed Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a Ballot in an Election. A voting booth or polling booth is a room or cabin in a Polling station where voters are able to cast their vote in private to protect the secrecy of the ballot Voting machines are the total combination of mechanical electromechanical or electronic equipment (including Software, Firmware, and documentation required to program In Mathematics, a group is a set of elements together with an operation that combines any two of its elements to form a third element In a meeting, two or more people come together for the purpose of discussing a (usually predetermined topic such as business or community event planning often in a formal setting Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes ( cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives An opinion is a Person 's Ideas and thoughts towards something which it is either impossible to verify the truth of or the truth of which is thought unimportant to Debate ( American English) or debating ( British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational Argument. A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group
In a democracy, voting commonly implies election, i. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office e. a way for an electorate to select among candidates for office. In politics voting is the method by which the electorate of a democracy appoints representatives in its government. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government.
A vote, is an individual's act of voting, by which he or she express support or preference for a certain motion (e. A motion, in Parliamentary procedure, is a formal proposal by a member of a Deliberative assembly that the assembly take certain action g. a proposed resolution), a certain candidate, or a certain selection of candidates. A secret ballot, the standard way to protect voters' political privacy, generally takes place at a polling station. The secret ballot is a voting method in which a Voter 's choices are confidential Political privacy has been a concern since Voting systems emerged in ancient times The act of voting in most countries is voluntary, however some countries, such as Australia, Belgium and Brazil, have compulsory voting systems. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Compulsory voting requires electors to Vote in Elections or attend a polling place on voting day
Different voting systems use different types of vote. A voting system allows voters to choose between options often in an Election where candidates are selected for public office. Suppose that the options in some election are Alice, Bob, Charlie, Daniel, and Emily and they are all vying for the same position.
In a voting system that uses a single vote, the voter can select one of the five that they most approve of. "First past the post" uses single votes. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member So, a voter might vote for Charlie. This precludes him voting for anyone else.
An improvement on the single vote system is to have run-off elections, or repeat first past the post, however, the winner must win by 50% plus one, called a simple majority. RUNOFF was the first Computer Text formatting program to see significant use If subsequent votes must be used, often a candidate, the one with the fewest votes or anyone who wants to move their support to another candidate, is removed from the ballot.
In a voting system that uses a multiple vote, the voter can vote for any subset of the alternatives. So, a voter might vote for Alice, Bob, and Charlie, rejecting Daniel and Emily. Approval voting uses such multiple votes. Approval voting is a single-winner voting system used for Elections Each voter may vote for (approve of as many of the candidates as they wish
In a voting system that uses a ranked vote, the voter has to rank the alternatives in order of preference. For example, they might vote for Bob in first place, then Emily, then Alice, then Daniel, and finally Charlie. Many voting systems use ranked votes.
In a voting system that uses a scored vote (or range vote), the voter gives each alternative a number between one and ten (the upper and lower bounds may vary). See range voting. Range voting (also called ratings summation, average voting, cardinal ratings, score voting, 0–99 voting, or the score
Some "multiple-winner" systems may have a single vote or one vote per elector per available position. In such a case the elector could might vote for Bob and Charlie on a ballot with two votes. However, if James and Jiggles each receive the most votes (1st and 2nd place plurality), then Jiggles and James would obtain the seats. These types of systems can use ranked or unranked voting, and are often used for at-large positions such as on some city councils. At-Large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are Elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body (for example a city state
Economist Kenneth Arrow lists five characteristics of a fair voting system. Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American Economist and joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics A voting system allows voters to choose between options often in an Election where candidates are selected for public office. However, Arrow's impossibility theorem shows that it is impossible for any voting system which offers more than three options per question to have all 5 characteristics at the same time. In Social choice theory, Arrow’s impossibility theorem, or Arrow’s paradox, demonstrates that no voting system can convert the ranked preferences of individuals
Casting a vote expresses an implied willingness to participate in a common process with some shared outcome. Those who feel unable to express their limits or boundaries of tolerance in a voting system may be more likely to resist or fight or fail to support decisions made through it (more of an issue with parties or policies). A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral Those who feel unable to express their real preferences may lack all enthusiasm for the choices or for the eventually chosen representative or leader. The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading Any vote balances both kinds of considerations.
One common issue, especially in first-past-the-post systems, is that of the protest vote: one might "waste one's vote" on a minor party to send a signal of strong preference for a candidate or party that cannot win, or of intolerance for the "more mainstream" options. A Protest vote is a Vote cast in an Election to demonstrate the caster's unhappiness with the choice of candidates or refusal of the current political system However it is difficult to tell from the vote alone whether one is positively inclined to the minor party or negatively inclined to the major party. Previously Russia offered its electors a "None of the Above" option, so that protest votes could be properly tallied. None of the Above ( NOTA) or against all is a Ballot choice in some Jurisdictions or Organizations placed so as to allow the Other jurisdictions may record the incidence of (apparently deliberately) spoiled ballot papers. In Voting, a Ballot is considered to be spoilt, void, null or informal if it is regarded by the Election authorities
Also, it is often not clear whether the voter really understands how his or her vote is counted in the voting system, especially with the more complex types. This often leads to issues with the results. Ballot design and the use of voting machines have particular importance, given this issue. A ballot is a device (originally a small ball—see blackball) used to record choices made by Voters Each voter uses one ballot and ballots are not Voting machines are the total combination of mechanical electromechanical or electronic equipment (including Software, Firmware, and documentation required to program Optimally participants in a vote should perceive the results, especially of a political vote, as fair. If fairness appears lacking, resistance to the results may lead at best to confusion, at worst to violence and even civil war, in the case of political rivals. Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state
In an effort to make balloting cheaper and more transparent, Brazil introduced electronic voting in all levels of elections, gradually since 1994. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Electronic voting (also known as e-voting) is a term encompassing several different types of Voting, embracing both electronic means of casting a vote and electronic By 2002 general elections, all voting in Brazil was cast on electronic system, with paper ballots being used only in last case emergencies (such as black-outs). Argentina followed in 2003 for a gubernatorial election. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. This pilot test involved 500,000 voters distributed among 20 constituencies in the eastern Argentine province of Buenos Aires. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern However, concerns over the security of paperless voting machines have caused controversy, particularly in the United States. Voting machines are the total combination of mechanical electromechanical or electronic equipment (including Software, Firmware, and documentation required to program
Criteria. It may be premature to choose the best method of voting without deciding the criteria by which the methods are to be judged. The criterion most commonly accepted is that the method should choose the candidate or policy that would defeat all others in a series of individual contests. This is what our usual balloting system does, looking only at the voter’s positive choices. Pairwise comparisons is a good implementation of that aim.
Maybe that should not be the sole criterion, however. Another possible goal would be to protect minorities from what has been called the “militant majority. ” A town meeting is one implementation of democracy that often does this. Such a meeting would probably not choose the initially most popular candidate if that candidate was totally unacceptable to a significant minority. A candidate would probably be chosen who had slightly fewer supporters but many fewer enemies. A blackball or veto provision also protects minority rights, though at great cost to majority rule.
It may be desirable then that an ideal voting system should consider who people oppose as well as who they support. These are not mirror images of each other. The decision makers have latitudes of acceptance, indifference, and rejection, and these may differ in their widths. Many alternatives may fall in the latitude of indifference - they are neither accepted nor rejected. Avoiding the choice that the most people strongly reject may sometimes be at least as important as choosing the one that they most favor.
Modern political science has questioned whether average citizens have sufficient political information to cast meaningful votes. In Mathematics, an average, or central tendency of a Data set refers to a measure of the "middle" or " expected " value of A series of studies coming out of the University of Michigan in the 1950s and 1960s argued that voters lack a basic understanding of current issues, the liberal-conservative ideological dimension, and the relative ideological positions of the major parties. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor ( U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a top-ranked Coeducational public research Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral Only a handful of sophisticated voters—usually those with education and high levels of political involvement—seemed to understand political debates fully. 
Though these studies arose from research in the United States, their implications for democracy are severe. However, these conclusions continue to be contested as current scholarly research debates the Michigan studies' findings. A consensus has begun to emerge that voters do not need the high levels of political information that the Michigan studies expected to find in order to participate fully in politics; instead, voters learn to rely on "information shortcuts"—for example, they look at which politicians and interest groups endorse each side of a proposal to get a feel for whether they ought to support it. An interest group (also advocacy group, lobby group, pressure group or special interest group) is an organized collection of people who seek