Владимир Ильич Ленин
November 8, 1917 – January 21, 1924
|Preceded by||Alexander Kerensky (President of the Provisional Government)|
|Succeeded by||Alexei Rykov|
Joseph Stalin (General Secretary of the Communist Party)
|Born||April 22, 1870 (OS)|
Simbirsk, Russian Empire
|Died||January 21, 1924 (aged 53)|
Gorki, Soviet Union
|Political party||Bolshevik Party|
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов), and also known by the pseudonyms VI Lenin, Nikolai Lenin and N. An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union) Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский Aleksandr Fjëdorovich Kerenskij) ( June 11, 1970) served The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 after the February Revolution and the Abdication Alexei Ivanovich Rykov ( Russian: Алексей Иванович Рыков Aleksej Ivanovič Rykov; March 15 1938 was a Russian Marxist Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( First Secretary in 1953-1966 was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita Ulyanovsk (Улья́новск formerly Simbirsk (ru Симби́рск is a city on the Volga River in Russia, 893 km east from The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Gorki Leninskiye (Го́рки Ле́нинские is an Urban-type settlement located in Leninsky District of Moscow Oblast, 10 km south of The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Atheism Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Lenin, (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1922, the first de facto leader of the Soviet Union. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries A revolutionary when used as a noun is a person who either actively engages in some kind of Revolution, or advocates the revolution with recognition from some government or Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 He was named by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and The Time 100 The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's most influential politicians artists innovators scientists and cultural icons The twentieth century of the Common Era began on  His contributions to Marxist theory are commonly referred to as Leninism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin.
Born in Simbirsk (renamed Ulyanovsk after its most famous son), in the Russian Empire, Lenin was the son of Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyanov and Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova. Ulyanovsk (Улья́новск formerly Simbirsk (ru Симби́рск is a city on the Volga River in Russia, 893 km east from The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov ( Илья Николаевич Ульянов in Russian) (&mdash Simbirsk) was a Russian Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova (born Maria Alexandrovna Blank) (Мария Александровна Ульянова ( &mdash) was the mother of Vladimir Lenin, His father was a successful Russian official in public education who wanted democracy. Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the Government, whether national regional or local provided by an institution The family was of mixed ethnicity, his ancestry being “Russian, Mordovian, Kalmyk, Jewish (see Blank family), German, and Swedish, and possibly others” according to biographer Dmitri Volkogonov. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries The Mordvins (also Mordva, Mordvinians) are a people who speak languages of the Volga-Finnic (Finno-Volgaic branch of the Finno-Ugric language Kalmyk redirects here for the breed of cattle see Kalmyk (cattle. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Blank family were a family of Jews who converted to Orthodox Christianity in the Russian Empire, tavern keeper from Shtetl Starokonstantinovo The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov ( Дмитрий Антонович Волкогонов in Russian) ( 22 March 1928, Chita – 6  Lenin was baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure
In 1886, Lenin’s father, a schoolmaster, died of a cerebral hemorrhage, and, in May 1887, when Lenin was 17 years old, his eldest brother Alexander was arrested and hanged for participating in a terrorist bomb plot threatening the life of Tsar Alexander III. A cerebral hemorrhage (or intracerebral hemorrhage, ICH) is a subtype of Intracranial hemorrhage that occurs within the Brain tissue itself Aleksandr Ilyich Ulyanov ( Russian: Александр Ильич Ульянов 1866 &ndash May 8, 1887) was a Russian Revolutionary Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Alexander III Alexandrovich ( 10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Александр III Александрович reigned as Emperor His sister Anna, who was with Alexander at the time of his arrest, was banished to his family estate in the village of Kokushkino, about 40 km (25 mi. Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova-Ulyanova ( Анна Ильинична Елизарова-Ульянова;, Nizhny Novgorod - October 19, 1935 Lenino-Kokushkino ( Tatar and Ле́нино-Коку́шкино tt Lenino-Kokuşkino) informally called Apaqay (Апакай is a village ) from Kazan. Kazan (Каза́нь Казан tt Qazan) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russia's largest cities This event radicalized Lenin, and his official Soviet biographies describe it as being central to the revolutionary track of his life. It is also significant, perhaps, that this emotional upheaval transpired in the same year as that which saw him enroll at the Kazan State University. Kazan State University is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. A famous painting by Belousov, “We Will Follow a Different Path,"reprinted in millions of Soviet textbooks, depicted young Lenin and his mother grieving the loss of his elder brother. The phrase “We will follow a different path” refers to Lenin's choosing a Marxist approach to popular revolution, instead of anarchist or individualist methods. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Russian anarchism is Anarchism in Russia or among Russians. Bakunin and the anarchists' exile See also Exile In 1848 As Lenin became interested in Marxism, he was involved in student protests and was subsequently arrested. He was then expelled from Kazan University for his political ideas. He continued to study independently, however, and it was during this period of exile that he first familiarized himself with Karl Marx’s Das Kapital. Lenin was later permitted to continue his studies, this time at the University of Saint Petersburg, and, by 1891, had been admitted to the Bar. Saint Petersburg State University ( Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is a Russian federal state-owned higher 
In January 1892 Lenin was awarded a first class degree in law by the University. He also distinguished himself in Latin and Greek, and learned German, French and English. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States His knowledge of the latter two languages was limited: he relied on Inessa Armand to translate an article into French and into English in 1917. Inessa Armand (born Inès Stéphane; May 8, 1874 – September 24, 1920) was a French -born Communist who spent In the same year he also wrote to S. N. Ravich in Geneva “I am unable to lecture in French. ”
Lenin practiced as a lawyer for some years in Samara, a port on the Volga river , before moving to St Petersburg in 1893. Samara (Сама́ра ( Kuybyshev (ru Ку́йбышев from 1935 to 1990 is one of the largest cities in Russia. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Rather than pursuing a legal career, he became increasingly involved in revolutionary propaganda efforts, joining the local Marxist group. Revolutionary propaganda means dissemination of Revolutionary ideas On December 7, 1895, Lenin was arrested, held by authorities for fourteen months and then released and exiled to the village of Shushenskoye in Siberia, where he mingled with such notable Marxists as Georgy Plekhanov, who had introduced socialism to Russia. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Shushenskoye (Шу́шенское is an Urban-type settlement in the southern portion of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located at the confluence Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (Георгий Валентинович Плеханов ( December 11, 1856 &ndash May 30, 1918;
In July 1898, Lenin married socialist activist Nadezhda Krupskaya and he published the book The Development of Capitalism in Russia in April of 1899.  In 1900, his exile came to an end, and he began his travels throughout Russia and the rest of Europe. Lenin lived in Zurich, Geneva (where he lectured and studied at Geneva University), Munich, Prague, Vienna, Manchester and London, and, during this time, he co-founded the newspaper Iskra (“The Spark”) with Julius Martov, who later became a leading opponent. Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking The University of Geneva (Université de Genève is a university in Geneva, Switzerland. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Iskra (Russian Искра means Spark, was a political Newspaper of Russian Socialist emigrants established as the official Julius Martov or L Martov ( Ма́ртов, real name Yuli Osipovich Zederbaum ( Russian Ю́лий О́сипович Цедерба́ум He also wrote several articles and books related to the revolutionary movement, striving to recruit future Social Democrats. He began using various aliases, finally settling upon ‘Lenin’ — ‘N. Lenin’ in full.
Lenin was active in the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP; РСДРП in Russian) and, in 1903, led the Bolshevik faction after a split with the Mensheviks. The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP ( Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The Mensheviks (Minority (Меньшевик) were a faction of the Russian Revolutionary movement that emerged in 1903 after a dispute between Vladimir The names ‘Bolshevik’, or ‘Majority’, and ‘Menshevik’, or ‘Minority’, referred to the narrow outvoting of the Mensheviks in the decision to limit party membership to revolutionary professionals, rather than including sympathizers. The division was inspired partly by Lenin’s pamphlet What Is to Be Done? (1901–02), which focused on his revolutionary strategy. What Is to Be Done? (Что делать? was a political pamphlet written by Vladimir Lenin at the end of 1901 and early 1902 It is said to have been one of the most influential pamphlets in pre-revolutionary Russia, with Lenin himself claiming that three out of five workers had either read it or had had it read to them. 
In November 1905 Lenin returned from exile to Russia to support the 1905 Russian Revolution. See also Russian Revolution (1917 The 1905 Russian Revolution also known as the Failed Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of In 1906, Lenin was elected to the Presidium of the RSDLP. At this time he shuttled between Finland and Russia but, in December 1907, with the revolution crushed by the Tsarist authorities, he returned back to European exile. Until the revolutions of 1917, he spent the majority of his time exiled in Europe, where, despite a hard and bitter existence, he managed to continue his political writings. 
In response to philosophical debates on the proper course of a socialist revolution, Lenin completed Materialism and Empirio-criticism in 1909 — a work which became fundamental in the Marxist-Leninist philosophy. A communist revolution is a Proletarian revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace Capitalism with Communism, typically Materialism and Empiriocriticism ( Ru Материализм и эмпириокритицизм) is a major philosophical work by Vladimir Lenin, published Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted Lenin continued to travel in Europe and participated in many socialist meetings and activities, including the Prague Party Conference of 1912. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The Prague Party Conference was a conference of Vladimir Lenin 's Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. When Inessa Armand left Russia and settled in Paris, she met Lenin and other Bolsheviks living in exile, and it is believed that she was Lenin’s lover during this time. Inessa Armand (born Inès Stéphane; May 8, 1874 – September 24, 1920) was a French -born Communist who spent As writer Neil Harding points out however, although much has been made of this relationship, despite the “slender stock of evidence … we still have no evidence that they were sexually intimate”.
When the First World War began in 1914, and the large Social Democratic parties of Europe (at that time self-described as Marxist, and including luminaries such as Karl Kautsky) supported their various countries’ war efforts, Lenin was absolutely stunned, refusing to believe at first that the German Social Democrats had voted for war credits. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Karl Kautsky ( October 16 1854 - October 17 1938) was a leading theoretician of Social democracy. This led him to a final split with the Second International, which was composed of these parties. The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. Lenin (against the war in his belief that the peasants and workers were fighting the battle of the bourgeoisie for them) adopted the stance that what he described as an “imperialist war” ought to be turned into a civil war between the classes. As war broke out, Lenin was briefly detained by the Austrian authorities in the town of Poronin, where he was residing at the time. Poronin is a village in southern Poland situated in Tatra County of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999 (it was previously in On 5 September 1914 Lenin moved to neutral Switzerland, residing first at Berne and then Zurich . Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the In 1915 he attended the anti-war Zimmerwald Conference, convened in the Swiss town of that name. The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 through September 8, 1915. Lenin was the main leader of the minority Zimmerwald Left, who unsuccessfully urged against the majority pacifists that the conference should adopt Lenin's stance of converting the imperialist war into a class war. The Zimmerwald Left was a Revolutionary minority fraction at the Zimmerwald Peace Conference of 1915 headed by Lenin. Lenin and the Zimmerwald Left urged a similar resolution at the next anti-war conference, also held in Switzerland at Kienthal (24-30 April 1916), but in the end settled for a compromise manifesto. 
It was in Zurich in the spring of 1916 that Lenin wrote the important theoretical work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916 by Vladimir Lenin is a classic Marxist theoretical treatise on the relationship between Capitalism In this work Lenin argues that the merging of banks and industrial cartels give rise to finance capital. Financial capital is money used by Entrepreneurs and Businesses to buy what they need to make their products or provide their services According to Lenin, in the last stage of capitalism, in pursuit of greater profits than the home market can offer, capital is exported. This leads to the division of the world between international monopolist firms and to European states colonizing large parts of the world in support of their businesses. Imperialism is thus an advanced stage of capitalism, one relying on the rise of monopolies and on the export of capital (rather than goods), and of which colonialism is one feature. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism
After the 1917 February Revolution in Russia and the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, Lenin realized that he must return to Russia as soon as possible, but this was problematic because he was isolated in neutral Switzerland as the First World War raged throughout neighboring states. The February Revolution (Февральская революция in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Swiss communist Fritz Platten nonetheless managed to negotiate with the German government for Lenin and his company to travel through Germany by rail, on the so-called “sealed train”. Fritz Platten ( 8 July 1883 – 22 April 1942) was a Swiss Communist. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The German government clearly hoped Lenin’s return would create political unrest back in Russia, which would help to end the war on the Eastern front, allowing Germany to concentrate on defeating the Western allies. The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and primarily Eastern Europe. Once through Germany, Lenin continued by ferry to Sweden; the remainder of the journey through Scandinavia was subsequently arranged by Swedish communists Otto Grimlund and Ture Nerman. See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Otto Bernhard Grimlund (1893 – 1969 was a Swedish Communist politician Ture "Ten Head" Nerman ( May 18, 1886, Norrköping – October 7, 1969) was a Swedish Socialist
On April 16, 1917, Lenin arrived by train to a tumultuous reception at Finland Station, in Petrograd. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Finlyandsky Rail Terminal (Финля́ндский вокза́л Finlyandsky vokzal) also known as Finland Station, is a railway station in Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River  He immediately took a leading role within the Bolshevik movement, publishing the April Theses, which called for an uncompromising opposition to the provisional government. The April Theses ( Russian: ru апрельские тезисы transliteration:) were a series of directives by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Initially, Lenin isolated his party through this lurch to the left. However, this uncompromising stand meant that the Bolsheviks were to become the obvious home for all those who became disillusioned with the provisional government, and with the “luxury of opposition” the Bolsheviks did not have to assume responsibility for any policies implemented by the government. 
Meanwhile, Aleksandr Kerensky, Grigory Aleksinsky and other opponents of the Bolsheviks accused them and Lenin in particular of being paid German agents. Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский Aleksandr Fjëdorovich Kerenskij) ( June 11, 1970) served  In response Leon Trotsky, a prominent new Bolshevik leader, made a defensive speech on July 17, saying:
|“||An intolerable atmosphere has been created, in which you as well as we are choking. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians They are throwing dirty accusations at Lenin and Zinoviev. Lenin has fought thirty years for the revolution. I have fought twenty years against the oppression of the people. And we cannot but cherish a hatred for German militarism. … I have been sentenced by a German court to eight months’ imprisonment for my struggle against German militarism. This everybody knows. Let nobody in this hall say that we are hirelings of Germany. ||”|
After the turmoil of the July Days, when workers and soldiers in the capital clashed with government troops, Lenin had to flee to Finland for safety, to avoid arrest by Kerensky. The July Days refers to events in 1917 that took place in Petrograd, Russia, between July 3 and July 7 ( Julian calendar The Bolsheviks had not arranged the July Uprising. The time was still not ripe for revolution, claimed Lenin: the workers in the city were willing, but the Bolsheviks still needed to wait for the support of the peasants. During his short time in Finland, Lenin finished his book State and Revolution, which called for a new form of government based on workers’ councils, or soviets elected and revocable at all moments by the workers. State and Revolution is a book written by Vladimir Lenin in August and September of 1917 A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. After an abortive coup attempt by General Kornilov in late August the masses rallied to the Bolsheviks and their programme of 'peace, bread and land'. The Kornilov Affair (Russian Корниловщина Kornilovshchina) was a confused struggle between Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army General Lavr Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov ( Russian: Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов ( August 18, 1870 &ndash April 13, 1918 Imprisoned Bolshevik leaders were released and Lenin returned to Petrograd in October, inspiring the October Revolution with the slogan “All Power to the Soviets!” Lenin directed the overthrow of the Provisional Government from the Smolny Institute from the 6th to the 8th of November 1917. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 after the February Revolution and the Abdication The Smolny Institute (Смольный институт Smol'niy institut) is a Palladian edifice in St Petersburg, which has played a major part in the The storming and capitulation of the Winter Palace on the night of the 7th to 8th of November marked the beginning of Soviet rule. See also The movie Russian Ark, an innovative single shot walkthrough with period reenactments spanning three hundred years of court meetings
On November 8, 1917, Lenin was elected as the Chair of the Council of People’s Commissars by the Russian Congress of Soviets. Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (Председатель The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in two periods from 1917 to 1936 and
“Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the entire country,” Lenin said, emphasizing the importance of bringing electricity to all corners of Russia and modernizing industry and agriculture:
|“||We must show the peasants that the organization of industry on the basis of modern, advanced technology, on electrification which will provide a link between town and country, will put an end to the division between town and country, will make it possible to raise the level of culture in the countryside and to overcome, even in the most remote corners of land, backwardness, ignorance, poverty, disease, and barbarism. ||”|
He initiated and supervised the devising and realization of the GOELRO plan, the first-ever Soviet project for national economic recovery and development. GOELRO plan ( Russian: план ГОЭЛРО was the first-ever Soviet plan for national economic recovery and development He was very concerned about creating a free universal health care system for all, the rights of women, and teaching the illiterate Russian people to read and write. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen,  But first and foremost, the new Bolshevik government needed to take Russia out of the World War. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Faced with the imposing threat of a continuing German advance eastwards, Lenin argued that Russia should immediately sign a peace treaty. Other Bolshevik leaders, such as Bukharin, advocated continuing the war as a means of fomenting revolution in Germany. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Никола́й Ива́нович Буха́рин ( &ndash March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik Trotsky, who led the negotiations, advocated an intermediate position, of “No War, No Peace”, calling for a peace treaty only on the conditions that no territorial gains on either side be consolidated. After the negotiations collapsed, the Germans renewed their advance, resulting in the loss of much of Russia’s western territory. As a result of this turn of events, Lenin’s position consequently gained the support of the majority in the Bolshevik leadership. On March 3, 1918, Lenin removed Russia from World War I by agreeing to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, under which Russia lost significant territories in Europe. Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Not to be confused with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (February 9 1918, a similar treaty involving Ukraine and the Central Powers.
The Russian Constituent Assembly was shut down during its first session January 19 and the Bolsheviks in alliance with the left Socialist Revolutionaries then relied on support from the soviets. The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание Vserossiiskoe Uchreditelnoe Sobranie was a democratically elected constitutional Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (the PSR the SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР эсеры was a Russian
The Bolsheviks had formed a coalition government with the left wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a Cabinet of a parliamentary Government in which several parties cooperate The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (the PSR the SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР эсеры was a Russian However, their coalition collapsed after the Social Revolutionaries opposed the Brest-Litovsk treaty, and joined other parties in seeking to overthrow the Bolshevik government. Not to be confused with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (February 9 1918, a similar treaty involving Ukraine and the Central Powers. Lenin responded to these efforts by a policy of wholesale persecution, which included jailing some of the members of the opposing parties.
From early 1918, Lenin campaigned for a single individual (accountable to the state to which the workers could ask for measures) to be put in charge of each enterprise (workers having to obey him until it was changed by the state), contrary to most conceptions of workers' self-management, but absolutely essential for efficiency and expertise according to Lenin (it was argued by most proponents of self-management that the intention behind this move was to strengthen state control over labour and that the failures of self-management were mostly because of lack of resources —a problem the government itself could not solve as his licensing for a month of all workers of most factories proved). Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the workers themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care general production As S. A. Smith wrote: “By the end of the civil war, not much was left of the democratic forms of industrial administration promoted by the factory committees in 1917, but the government argued that this did not matter since industry had passed into the ownership of a workers’ state. Factory committees ( zavodskoy komitet, zavkom, заводской комитет завком fabrichny komitet, fabkom, фабричный ”
Lenin had a certain admiration for the Irish socialist revolutionary James Connolly, and the Soviet Union was the first country to recognize the Irish Republic which fought a war of independence against Britain. He would often meet with the famous revolutionary’s son, Roddy Connolly and developed a close friendship with him. James Connolly (Séamas Ó Conghaile 5 June 1868 &ndash 12 May 1916 was an Irish Socialist leader The Irish Republic ( Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a unilaterally declared independent state of Ireland proclaimed The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla Roddy Connolly (11 February 1901 – 16 December 1980 was a Socialist Politician in Ireland.
To protect the newly-established Bolshevik government from counterrevolutionaries and other political opponents, the Bolsheviks created a secret police, the Cheka, in December 1917. 
The Bolsheviks had planned to hold a trial for the former Tsar, but in July 1918, when the White Army was advancing on Yekaterinburg where the former royal family was being held, Sverdlov acceded to the request of the local Soviet to execute the Tsar right away, rather than having him freed by the Whites. The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard Yekaterinburg (Екатеринбу́рг also romanized Ekaterinburg, formerly Sverdlovsk) is a major city in the central part of Russia Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov ( Russian Я́ков Миха́йлович Свердло́в known under pseudonyms "Andrei" "Mikhalych" "Max" The Tsar and the rest of his immediate family were executed, though whether this was a decision of the central government or the local Soviet remains the subject of historical dispute. Lenin was informed about the execution only after it had taken place, but did not criticize it.  Censorship was quickly imposed, and it was up to the Cheka to confiscate the literature of dissident workers: “[On] 17 November the Central Executive Committee passed a decree giving the Bolsheviks control over all newsprint and wide powers of closing down newspapers critical of the regime…” (Leonard Shapiro, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union). Workers were re-forming independent soviets; the Cheka broke them up. Independent newspapers criticized Lenin’s government; the Cheka closed them down, until the Bolshevik-controlled Pravda and Izvestia had a monopoly on the supply of news. Pravda (Правда "The Truth" was a leading Newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the For the Thoroughbred racehorse see Izvestia (horse Izvestia (Известия) is a long-running high-circulation daily Newspaper Shapiro asserts that “The refusal to come to terms with the socialists and the dispersal of the Constituent assembly led to the logical result that revolutionary terror would now be directed not only against traditional enemies, such as the bourgeoisie or right-wing opponents, but against anyone, be he socialist, worker or peasant, who opposed Bolshevik rule. A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting and in some cases adopting a Constitution. ”
On January 14, 1918, an assassination attempt (an attempt to kill Lenin) was made against Lenin’s car in Petrograd by unknown/ unrecognizable gunmen. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Lenin and Fritz Platten were in the back of the car together, after having given a public speech. Fritz Platten ( 8 July 1883 – 22 April 1942) was a Swiss Communist. When the shooting started, “Platten grabbed Lenin by the head and pushed him down. … Platten’s hand was covered in blood, having been grazed by a bullet as he was shielding Lenin. ”
On August 30, 1918, Fanya Kaplan, a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, approached Lenin after he had spoken at a meeting and was on the way to his car. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan (Фаниа Ефимовна Каплан February 10, 1890 – September 3, 1918) also known as Fanny Kaplan The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (the PSR the SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР эсеры was a Russian He had his foot on the running board. She called out to Lenin, who turned to answer. She immediately fired three shots hitting Lenin twice: one bullet, relatively harmless, lodged in the arm; the second round, more seriously entering at the juncture of Lenin’s jaw and neck, the third shot striking a woman who was talking with Lenin when the shooting began.  Lenin fell to the ground, unconscious. He was taken to his apartment in the Kremlin, refusing to venture to a hospital since he believed that other assassins would be waiting there. The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль Moskovskiy Kreml) usually referred to as simply The Kremlin, is a historic fortified Doctors were summoned but decided that it was too dangerous to remove the bullets. While Lenin began his slow recovery Pravda ridiculed Kaplan as a latter-day Charlotte Corday; assuring its readers that immediately after the shooting: “Lenin, shot through twice, with pierced lungs, spilling blood, refuses help and goes on his own. Pravda (Правда "The Truth" was a leading Newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont ( July 27, 1768 – July 17, 1793) known to history as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the The next morning, still threatened with death, he reads papers, listens, learns, and observes to see that the engine of the locomotive that carries us towards global revolution has not stopped working…” Although Lenin had no “pierced lungs”, the potentially fatal neck-jaw wound had allowed blood to enter one of his lungs, which is still a very serious condition. 
Other than similar exhortation by the press, little was revealed to the Russian public — either about the attempted assassination, the suspect, or Lenin’s condition. Historian Richard Pipes wrote, “The impression one gains … is that the Bolsheviks deliberately underplayed the event to convince the public that whatever happened to Lenin, they were firmly in control. Richard Edgar Pipes (born July 11, 1923) is an American historian who specializes in Russian history, particularly with respect to the history of the ”
Popular reaction to the assassination attempt on Lenin was described at the time by Leonid Krasin, who wrote to his wife on 7 Sept 1918:
A personal cult of Lenin, which he himself tried to discourage, began with this incident. Lenin’s health declined from this point. It is believed by some that the incident contributed to his later strokes. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain
Following the assassination attempt on Lenin and the successful assassination of Petrograd chief of secret police Moisei Uritsky, Stalin, in a telegram to Lenin, argued that a policy of “open and systematic mass terror” be instigated against “those responsible”. Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky (Моисей Соломонович Урицкий 1873&ndash August 30 1918) was a Bolshevik Revolutionary leader Lenin and the other Bolsheviks agreed, and instructed Felix Dzerzhinsky, whom Lenin had appointed to head the Cheka in 1917, to commence a “Red Terror”, which was officially announced to the public on September 1, 1918, by the Bolshevik newspaper, Krasnaya Gazeta. Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky ( Polish: Feliks Edmundowicz Dzierżyński, Russian: Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский Belarusian The Cheka ( ЧК - чрезвычайная комиссия Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya,) was the first of a succession of Soviet State security The Red Terror in Soviet Russia was the campaign of mass arrests and Executions conducted by the Bolshevik government Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  Suspected enemies could expect brutal torture, flogging, maiming or execution. Some were shot, others drowned, buried alive, or hacked to death by swords. Quite often those about to be executed were forced to dig their own graves.  The only published Soviet statistics regarding Cheka executions are the semi-official ones provided by the Chekist Martin Latsis, limited to RSFSR over the period 1918–1920, giving the grand total of 12,733 executed, including 3,082 for taking part in rebellions, 2,024 for membership of counter-revolutionary organizations, 643 for gangsterism, 455 for incitement to revolution, 206 for corruption, 102 for desertion and the same number for espionage.  These statistics are considered by many scholars to be decidedly understated, as they did not embrace Ukraine or the Crimea. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым  In the latter the Bolsheviks slaughtered an estimated 50,000 people after White forces withdrew in 1920.  Some historians estimate that between 1917 and 1922 up to 280,000 people were killed by the Chekas, of which about half perished through summary executions and the other half through the suppression of rebellions (e. A summary execution is a type of Extrajudicial punishment in which a person is killed on the spot without Trial. g. Tambov Rebellion). The Tambov Rebellion of 1919&ndash1921 was one of the largest and best organized peasant rebellions against the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War  Orlando Figes goes so far as to assert that it is possible more people were killed by the Cheka than died in battle. Orlando Figes ( IPA pronunciation:) (born 1959 is a British historian of Russia and a professor of history at Birkbeck University of London.  During the Civil War, atrocities were carried out by both Reds and Whites. The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed 
According to the Black Book of Communism, in May 1919 there were 16,000 people in labor camps based on the old Tsarist katorga labor camps, and in September 1921 there were more than 70,000. The Black Book of Communism Crimes Terror Repression is a book which describes a history of Repressions both Political and Civilian, by A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in Penal labor. Katorga (ка́торга from medieval Greek: katergon κάτεργον Galley) was the precursor to the Gulag system  Lenin's Hanging Order documents that Lenin himself ordered terror on 11th August 1918 . "Lenin's Hanging Order" is a term given to Vladimir Lenin 's hand-written order dated 11 August 1918 instructing the Communists operating in the 
According to Orlando Figes, Lenin had always been an advocate of “mass terror against enemies of the revolution” and was open about his view that the proletarian state was a system of organized violence against the capitalist establishment. Orlando Figes ( IPA pronunciation:) (born 1959 is a British historian of Russia and a professor of history at Birkbeck University of London. State terrorism refers to acts of Terrorism conducted by governments The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Figes also claims that the terror, while encouraged by the Bolsheviks, had its roots in a popular anger against the privileged.  When Kamenev and Bukharin tried to curb the “excesses” of the Cheka in late 1918, it was Lenin who defended it. ( Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд ( – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Никола́й Ива́нович Буха́рин ( &ndash March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik  Lenin remained an advocate of mass terror. In a letter of March 19, 1922, to Molotov and the members of the Politburo, following an uprising by the clergy in the town of Shuia, Lenin outlined a brutal plan of action against the clergy and their followers, who were defying the government decree to remove church valuables: “We must (…) put down all resistance with such brutality that they will not forget it for several decades. (…) The greater the number of representatives of the reactionary clergy and reactionary bourgeoisie we succeed in executing (…) the better. ” According to Church records, 2,691 priests, 1,962 monks and 3,447 nuns were killed that year. 
Lenin also signed off on lists of people to be executed. For example, in September 1918, 25 former tsarist ministers and high civil servants along with 765 so-called White Guards were shot in Moscow. Lenin personally signed the execution lists. 
of the Soviet Union
In March 1919, Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders met with revolutionary socialists from around the world and formed the Communist International. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow Members of the Communist International, including Lenin and the Bolsheviks themselves, broke off from the broader socialist movement. From that point onwards, they would become known as communists. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based In Russia, the Bolshevik Party was renamed the “Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks),” which eventually became the CPSU.
Meanwhile, the civil war raged across Russia. The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A wide variety of political movements and their supporters took up arms to support or overthrow the Soviet government. Although many different factions were involved in the civil war, the two main forces were the Red Army (communists) and the White Army (traditionalists). The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard Foreign powers such as France, Britain, the United States and Japan also intervened in this war (on behalf of the White Army). Eventually, the more organizationally proficient Red Army, led by Leon Trotsky, won the civil war, defeating the White Russian forces and their allies in 1920. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Smaller battles continued for several more years, however.
The civil war has been described as one “unprecedented for its savagery,” with mass executions and other atrocities committed by both sides. Between battles, executions, famine and epidemics, many millions would perish. 
In late 1919, successes against the White Russian forces convinced Lenin that it was time to spread the revolution to the West, by force if necessary. When the newly independent Second Polish Republic began securing its eastern territories annexed by Russia in the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, it clashed with Bolshevik forces for dominance in these areas, which led to the outbreak of the Polish-Soviet War in 1919. The Second Polish Republic or interwar Poland is the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the With the revolution in Germany and the Spartacist League on the rise, Lenin viewed this as the perfect time and place to “probe Europe with the bayonets of the Red Army. The Spartacist League ( Spartakusbund in German) was a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a Knife - Dagger - or spike-shaped Weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle ” Lenin saw Poland as the bridge that the Red Army would have to cross in order to link up the Russian Revolution with the communist supporters in the German Revolution, and to assist other communist movements in Western Europe. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' However the defeat of Soviet Russia in the Polish-Soviet War invalidated these plans.
Lenin was a harsh critic of imperialism. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude  In 1917 he declared the unconditional right of separation for national minorities and oppressed nations. However, when the Russian Civil War was won he used military force to assimilate the newly independent states of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South  He argued that the inclusion of those countries into the newly emerging Soviet government would shelter them from capitalist imperial ambitions.
During the civil war, as an attempt to maintain food supply to the cities and the army in the conditions of economic collapse, the Bolsheviks adopted the policy of war communism. An economic collapse is a devastating breakdown of a national regional or territorial economy War communism (or military communism) (Военный коммунизм 1918 - 1921 is the term created by western historians referring to the economic and political system That involved “requisitioning” supplies from the peasantry for little or nothing in exchange. This led the peasants to drastically reduce their crop production. Additionally, according to the official Bolshevik view which is still shared by some Marxists, rich peasants (kulaks) withheld grain in order to increase their profits — statistics indicate that most of the grain and the other food supplies passed through the black market. Kulaks ( Russian: кула́к kulak " Fist ", by extension "tight-fisted" were a category of rich Peasants in later  Then, the Bolshevik requisitions came to affect the food that peasants had grown for their own subsistence and their seed grain. The resulting conflicts began with the Cheka and the army shooting hostages, and, according to The Black Book of Communism, ended with a second full-scale civil war against the peasantry, including the use of poison gas, death camps, and deportations. The Cheka ( ЧК - чрезвычайная комиссия Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya,) was the first of a succession of Soviet State security The Black Book of Communism Crimes Terror Repression is a book which describes a history of Repressions both Political and Civilian, by Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. The same source emphasizes that in 1920, Lenin ordered increased emphasis on the food requisitioning from the peasantry, at the same time as the Cheka gave detailed reports about the large scale famine.  The long war and a drought in 1921 also contributed to the famine. Estimates on the deaths from this famine are between 3 and 10 million. .
The long years of war, the Bolshevik policy of war communism, the Russian famine of 1921, and the encirclement of hostile governments took their toll on Russia, however, and much of the country lay in ruins. War communism (or military communism) (Военный коммунизм 1918 - 1921 is the term created by western historians referring to the economic and political system The Russian famine of 1921, better known as Povolzhye famine, which began in the early spring of that year and lasted through 1922, was a severe Famine There were many peasant uprisings, the largest being the Tambov rebellion. The Tambov Rebellion of 1919&ndash1921 was one of the largest and best organized peasant rebellions against the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War After an uprising by the sailors at Kronstadt in March 1921, Lenin replaced the policy of War Communism with the New Economic Policy (NEP), in a successful attempt to rebuild industry and especially agriculture. This article is about the historical event known as the Kronstadt rebellion War communism (or military communism) (Военный коммунизм 1918 - 1921 is the term created by western historians referring to the economic and political system For the Malaysian New Economic Policy see Malaysian New Economic Policy. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The new policy was based on recognition of political and economic realities, though it was intended merely as a tactical retreat from the socialist ideal. The whole policy was later reversed by Stalin.
The chaotic years of World War I, the February and October Revolutions, and the Civil War were fertile ground for the antisemitism that was endemic to tsarist Russia. During the war, Jews were accused of sympathizing with Germany and often persecuted. Russian anti-semitism continued even after the lifting of official anti-Jewish restrictions by the February regime and the Bolsheviks. Pogroms were unleashed throughout the Civil War, perpetrated by virtually every competing faction, from anarchists, to Polish and Ukrainian nationalists to the Red and White Armies. Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Нестор Іванович Махно October 26, 1888 – July 6, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Continuing the policy of the Bolsheviks before the Revolution, Lenin and the Bolshevik Party strongly condemned the pogroms, including official denunciations in 1918 by the Council of People's Commissars. Opposition to the pogroms and to manifestations of Russian anti-semitism in this era were complicated by both the official bolshevik policy of assimilationism towards all national and religious minorities, and concerns about overemphasizing Jewish concerns for fear of exacerbating popular anti-semitism, as the White forces were openly identifying the Bolshevik regime with Jews. 
Lenin was intrigued with technology and in 1919 recorded eight of his speeches on gramophone records. Seven were later re-recorded and put on sale in the Khrushchev era. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following Significantly the one which was suppressed outlined Lenin’s feelings on anti-Semitism:
|“||The Tsarist police, in alliance with the landowners and the capitalists, organized pogroms against the Jews. A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses The landowners and capitalists tried to divert the hatred of the workers and peasants who were tortured by want against the Jews. … Only the most ignorant and downtrodden people can believe the lies and slander that are spread about the Jews. … It is not the Jews who are the enemies of the working people. The enemies of the workers are the capitalists of all countries. Among the Jews there are working people, and they form the majority. They are our brothers, who, like us, are oppressed by capital; they are our comrades in the struggle for socialism. Among the Jews there are kulaks, exploiters and capitalists, just as there are among the Russians, and among people of all nations… Rich Jews, like rich Russians, and the rich in all countries, are in alliance to oppress, crush, rob and disunite the workers… Shame on accursed Tsarism which tortured and persecuted the Jews. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Shame on those who foment hatred towards the Jews, who foment hatred towards other nations. ||”|
Lenin was supported by the Labor Zionist (Paole Zion) movement, then under the leadership of Marxist theorist Ber Borochov, which was fighting for the creation of a Jewish workers' state in Palestine and also participated in the October Revolution (and in the Soviet political scene afterwards until being banned by Stalin in 1928). Labor Zionism ( Labour Zionism, ציונות סוציאליסטית tsionut sotsialistit) can be described as the major stream of the Left wing of the Poale Zion (also spelled Poalei Tziyon or Poaley Syjon, meaning "Workers of Zion" was a Movement of Marxist Zionist Jewish Dov Ber Borochov (1881-1917 was a Marxist Zionist and one of the founders of the Labor Zionist movement as well as a pioneer in the study of Yiddish Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. While Lenin remained opposed to outward forms of anti-semitism (and all forms of racism), allowing Jewish people to rise to the highest offices in both party and state, certain historians such as Dmitri Volkogonov argue that the record of his government in this regard was highly uneven. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov ( Дмитрий Антонович Волкогонов in Russian) ( 22 March 1928, Chita – 6 A former official Soviet historian turned staunch anti-communist, Volkogonov claims that Lenin was aware of pogroms carried out by units of the Red Army during the war with Poland, though the whole issue was effectively ignored. Volkogonov writes that “While condemning anti-Semitism in general, Lenin was unable to analyze, let alone eradicate, its prevalence in Soviet society”.  Likewise, the hostility of the Soviet regime towards all religion made no exception for Judaism, and the 1921 campaign against religion saw the seizure of many synagogues (whether this should be regarded as anti-Semitism is a matter of definition since Orthodox churches received the same treatment). Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut
However, according to Jewish historian Zvi Gitelman: “Never before in Russian history — and never subsequently has a government made such an effort to uproot and stamp out anti-Semitism”. 
Lenin’s health had already been severely damaged by the strains of revolution and war. The assassination attempt earlier in his life also added to his health problems. The bullet was still lodged in his neck, too close to his spine for medical techniques of the time to remove. In May 1922, Lenin had his first stroke. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain He was left partially paralyzed on his right side, and his role in government declined. Paralysed redirects here For other uses see xx Paralysed (disambiguation Paralysis is the complete loss of Muscle function After the second stroke in December of the same year, he resigned from active politics. In March 1923, he suffered his third stroke and was left bedridden for the remainder of his life, no longer able to speak.
After his first stroke, Lenin dictated to his wife several papers regarding the government. Most famous of these is Lenin's Testament, which was partially inspired by the 1922 Georgian Affair and among other things criticized top-ranking communists, including Joseph Stalin, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin and Leon Trotsky. Lenin's Testament is the name given to a document written by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923 The Georgian Affair of 1922 (Грузинское дело was a political conflict within the Soviet leadership about the way in which social and political transformation was Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Gregory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евс́еевич Зин́овьев alternative transliteration Grigorii Ovseyevish Zinoviev born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich ( Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд ( – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Никола́й Ива́нович Буха́рин ( &ndash March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Of Stalin, who had been the Communist Party’s general secretary since April 1922, Lenin said that he had “unlimited authority concentrated in his hands” and suggested that “comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post. ” Upon Lenin’s death, his wife mailed his Testament to the central committee, to be read at the 13th Party Congress in May 1924. However, the committee and especially the ruling “triumvirate” — Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev — had a vested interest in not releasing the will to the wider public. The term triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men" is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals The central committee justified this by stating that Lenin had been mentally ill in his final years and, as such, his final judgments were not to be trusted. Lenin’s Testament was first officially published in 1925 in the United States by Max Eastman. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Max Forrester Eastman ( January 4, 1883 &ndash March 25, 1969) was a Socialist and (late in his life Libertarian American In the same year, Trotsky wrote an article that downplayed its significance, stating that Lenin’s notes should not be regarded as a “will” and had neither been concealed nor violated.  He did invoke it in his polemic against Stalin on later occasions, while in exile. 
Lenin died at 18:50 Moscow time on January 21, 1924, aged 53, at his estate in Gorki Leninskiye. Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Gorki Leninskiye (Го́рки Ле́нинские is an Urban-type settlement located in Leninsky District of Moscow Oblast, 10 km south of Over 900,000 people passed through the Hall of Columns during the four days and nights that Lenin lay in state. Large sections of the population in other countries expressed their grief at the death of Lenin. Speaking at a memorial meeting, Chinese premier Sun Yat-sen. Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often said:
Through the ages of world history thousands of leaders and scholars appeared who spoke eloquent words, but these remained words. You, Lenin, were an exception. You not only spoke and taught us, but translated your words into deeds. You created a new country. You showed us the road of joint struggle. . . You, great man that you are, will live on in the memories of the oppressed people through the centuries.
The city of Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor three days after Lenin’s death. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River This remained the name of the city until the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, when it reverted to its original name, St Petersburg, even though its administrative area kept the name (Leningrad Oblast)
During the early 1920s the Russian movement of cosmism was so popular that Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov proposed to cryonically preserve Lenin’s body in order to revive him in the future. Russian cosmism is a cosmocentric philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century Leonid Borisovich Krasin (Леонид Борисович Красин 1870 – November 24, 1926) was a Russian and Soviet Bolshevik Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov Александр Александрович Богданов (born Alyaksandr Malinouski, Аляксандар Маліноўскі( Cryonics is the low-temperature Preservation of Humans and other Animals that can no longer be sustained by contemporary Medicine until  Necessary equipment was purchased abroad, but for a variety of reasons the plan was not realized.  Instead his body was embalmed and placed on permanent exhibition in the Lenin Mausoleum in Moscow on January 27, 1924. Embalming, in most modern Cultures is the Art and Science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall Decomposition Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Lenin’s preserved body is on permanent display at the Lenin Mausoleum.
Because of Lenin’s unique role in the creation of the first Communist state, and despite his expressed wish shortly before his death that no memorials be created for him, his character was elevated over time to the point of near religious reverence. By the 1980s, every city in the Soviet Union had a statue of Lenin in its central square, either a Lenin street or a Lenin Square near the center, and often 20 or more smaller statues and busts throughout its territory. Collective farms, medals, hybrids of wheat, and even an asteroid were named after him. Collective farming is an organization of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise Lenin’s life became the subject of nursery rhymes and children’s storytelling.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the level of reverence for Lenin in post-Soviet republics has fallen considerably, though he is still considered an important figure by generations who grew up during the Soviet period. Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Никола́й Ива́нович Буха́рин ( &ndash March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union is covered in the following series of articles  Most statues of Lenin have been torn down in Eastern Europe, but many still remain in Russia and ex-Soviet Central Asia. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. In 1991, following a close vote and political battles between communist and liberals the city of Leningrad returned to its original name, St Petersburg, whilst the surrounding Leningrad Oblast retained Lenin’s name. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Leningrad Oblast (Ленингра́дская о́бласть Leningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an Oblast)  The citizens of Ulyanovsk, Lenin’s birthplace, have so far resisted all attempts to revert its name to Simbirsk. Ulyanovsk (Улья́новск formerly Simbirsk (ru Симби́рск is a city on the Volga River in Russia, 893 km east from The subject of interring Lenin’s body has been a recurring topic for the past several years in Russia.
Lenin’s writings were carefully censored under the Soviet regime after his death. In the early 1930s, it became accepted dogma under Stalin to assume that neither Lenin nor the Central Committee could ever be wrong. Therefore, it was necessary to remove evidence of situations where they had actually disagreed, since in those situations it was impossible for both to have been right at the same time. Trotsky was a particularly vocal critic of these practices, which he saw as a form of deification of a mere human being who could, and did, make mistakes.  Later, even the fifth “complete” Soviet edition of Lenin’s works (published in 55 thick volumes between 1958 and 1965) left out parts that either contradicted dogma or showed their author in too poor a light. 
|“||In several parts of his book Eastman says that the Central Committee concealed from the Party a number of exceptionally important documents written by Lenin in the last period of his life (it is a matter of letters on the national question, the so-called ‘will’, and others); there can be no other name for this than slander against the Central Committee of our Party. … Vladimir Ilyich did not leave any “will”, and the very character of his attitude towards the Party, as well as the character of the Party itself, precluded any possibility of such a ‘will’. What is usually referred to as a ‘will’ in the émigré and foreign bourgeois and Menshevik press (in a manner garbled beyond recognition) is one of Vladimir Ilyich’s letters containing advice on organisational matters. The 13th Congress of the Party paid the closest attention to that letter, as to all of the others, and drew from it the conclusions appropriate to the conditions and circumstances of the time. All talk about concealing or violating a ‘will’ is a malicious invention.||”|
Aleksandr Kerensky (as Head of the Provisional Government of 1917)
|Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars|
Alexey Ivanovich Rykov
|NAME||Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov, Владимир Ильич Ульянов (Ленин) (Russian)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Russian politician, led October Revolution|
|DATE OF BIRTH||22 April 1870|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Simbirsk, Russia|
|DATE OF DEATH||21 January 1924|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Moscow, Russia|
David Remnick (born October 29, 1958 in Hackensack, New Jersey) is an American Journalist, Writer, and What Is to Be Done? (Что делать? was a political pamphlet written by Vladimir Lenin at the end of 1901 and early 1902 State and Revolution is a book written by Vladimir Lenin in August and September of 1917 "Left-Wing" Communism An Infantile Disorder ( Russian: Детская болезнь "левизны" в коммунизме is a work by Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский Aleksandr Fjëdorovich Kerenskij) ( June 11, 1970) served The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 after the February Revolution and the Abdication Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Alexei Ivanovich Rykov ( Russian: Алексей Иванович Рыков Aleksej Ivanovič Rykov; March 15 1938 was a Russian Marxist Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Ulyanovsk (Улья́новск formerly Simbirsk (ru Симби́рск is a city on the Volga River in Russia, 893 km east from Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending