Vladimir Konstantinovich Bukovsky (Russian: Влади́мир Константи́нович Буко́вский; b. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages December 30, 1942) is a notable former Soviet political dissident, author and an activist. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Soviet dissidents were citizens of the Soviet Union who disagreed with the policies and actions of their government and actively protested against these actions through non-violent An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created
Bukovsky was one of the first to expose the use of psychiatric imprisonment against political prisoners in the Soviet Union. Involuntary commitment is the practice of using legal means or forms as part of a Mental health law to commit a person to a Mental hospital, Insane asylum A political prisoner is someone held in Prison or otherwise detained perhaps under House arrest, for his or her involvement in political activity The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 He spent a total of twelve years in Soviet prisons, labor camps and in psikhushkas, forced-treatment psychiatric hospitals used by the regime as special prisons. A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in Penal labor. In the Soviet Union, Psychiatry was used for punitive purposes A psychiatric hospital (previously called insane asylum, mental hospital; or derogatorily looney bin, nut house or Funny Farm) is
Vladimir Bukovsky was born in the town of Belebey, Bashkirian ASSR, Russian SFSR (now Bashkortostan), where his family was evacuated from Moscow during World War II. Belebey (Белебе́й is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. Republic of Bashkortostan (Респу́блика Башкортоста́н Башҡортостан Республикаһы or Bashkiria (ru Башки́рия Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of The Eastern Front of World War II (die Ostfront 1941-1945, der Rußlandfeldzug 1941-1945 (Russian campaign or der Ostfeldzug 1941-1945 (Eastern Campaign In 1959 he was expelled from his Moscow school for creating and editing an unauthorized magazine. The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Samizdat (самиздат was the clandestine copying and distribution of government-suppressed literature or other media in Soviet-bloc
From June 1963 to February 1965, Bukovsky was convicted (Article 70-1 of the Penal Code of the RSFSR) and sent to a psikhushka for organizing poetry meetings in the center of Moscow (next to the Mayakovsky monument). A penal code is a portion of a State 's Laws defining Crimes and specifying the Punishment. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский ( &ndash April 14, 1930) was a Russian poet and The official charge was an attempt to copy anti-Soviet literature, namely The New Class by Milovan Djilas. Milovan Đilas (or Djilas) ( Serbian Cyrillic: Милован Ђилас ( 12 June 1911 - 20 April 1995) was a Montenegrin
In December 1965 he organised a demonstration at Pushkin Square in Moscow in defence of the writers Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel (see Sinyavsky-Daniel trial). Andrei Donatovich Sinyavsky ( Russian language: Андрей Донатович Синявский) ( 8 October 1925, Moscow - Yuli Markovich Daniel (Юлий Маркович Даниэль November 15, 1925 — December 30, 1988) was a Soviet Dissident Sinyavsky-Daniel trial (процесс Синявского и Даниэля was the trial against Russian writers Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel, which took place Three days before the planned demonstration, Bukovsky was arrested. He was kept in various psykhushkas without any charges till July 1966.
In January 1967 he was arrested for organizing a demonstration in defence of Alexander Ginzburg, Yuri Galanskov and other dissidents (Article 190-1, 3 years of imprisonment); released in January 1970. Alexander (Alik Ilyich Ginzburg (Александр Ильич Гинзбург November 21, 1936 Moscow – July 19, 2002 Yuri Timofeyevich Galanskov Юрий Тимофеевич Галансков ( June 19, 1939 - November 4, 1972, Mordovia
In 1971, Bukovsky managed to smuggle to the West over 150 pages documenting abuse of psychiatric institutions for political reasons in the Soviet Union. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The information galvanized human rights activists worldwide (including inside the country) and was a pretext for his subsequent arrest in the same year. At the trial in January 1972 Bukovsky was accused of slandering the Soviet psychiatry, contacts with foreign journalists and possession and distribution of samizdat (Article 70-1, 7 years of imprisonment plus 5 years in exile). Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Samizdat (самиздат was the clandestine copying and distribution of government-suppressed literature or other media in Soviet-bloc
Together with a fellow inmate in the prison camp No 35 near Perm, psychiatrist Semyon Gluzman, he coauthored A Manual on Psychiatry for Dissidents in order to help other dissidents to fight abuses of the authorities. Perm (Пермь pʲɛrmʲ is a city and administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia. A psychiatrist (also archaically called an alienist) is a Physician who specializes in Psychiatry and is certified in treating Mental disorders
The fate of Bukovsky and other political prisoners in the Soviet Union, repeatedly brought to attention by Western human rights groups and diplomats, was a cause of embarrassment and irritation for the Soviet authorities.
December 18, 1976, while imprisoned, Bukovsky was exchanged for former Chilean Communist leader Luis Corvalán. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Luis Alberto Corvalán Castillo (born September 14, 1916 in Puerto Montt, Chile) is a former Secretary-General of the Communist Party of In his autobiographical book To Build a Castle, Bukovsky describes how he was brought to Switzerland handcuffed. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation This biography is available online at several sites 
Since 1976 Bukovsky has lived in Cambridge, England, focusing on neurophysiology and writing. The city of Cambridge (ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Neurophysiology (from Greek grc νεῦρον neuron, "nerve" grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία He received a Masters Degree in Biology and has written several books and political essays. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles In addition to criticizing the Soviet regime, he also picked apart what he calls "Western gullibility", a lack of a tough stand of Western liberalism against Communist abuses. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal
In 1983, together with Vladimir Maximov and Eduard Kuznetsov he cofounded and was elected president of international anti-Communist organization Resistance International (Интернационал сопротивления). Eduard Kuznetsov ( Russian language: Эдуард Кузнецов; born in Moscow, 1939 is a Soviet Dissident, Human rights activist
In April 1991 Vladimir Bukovsky visited Moscow for the first time since his forced deportation. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 the Russian Federation became an independent country In the run-up to the 1991 presidential election Boris Yeltsin's campaign considered Bukovsky as a potential vice-presidential running-mate (other contenders included Galina Starovoitova and Gennady Burbulis). Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on June 12, 1991. Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin () (1 February 1931 23 April 2007 was the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999 Galina Vasilyevna Starovoitova (Галина Васильевна Старовойтова ( 17 May 1946, Chelyabinsk - November 20, 1998 In the end, the vice-presidency was offered to Alexander Rutskoi. Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy (Russian Александр Владимирович Руцкой) (born September 16, 1947) is a Russian
In 1992, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, President Yeltsin's government invited Bukovsky to serve as an expert to testify at the CPSU trial by Constitutional Court of Russia, where the communists were sueing Yeltsin for banning their party. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with Constitutional law. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The respondent's case was that the CPSU itself had been an unconstitutional organisation. To prepare for his testimony, Bukovsky requested and was granted access to a large number of documents from Soviet archives (then reorganized into TsKhSD). The Russian State Archive of Contemporary History (RGANI (Российский государственный архив новейшей итории (РГАНИ is a large Russian Using a small handheld scanner and a laptop computer, he managed to secretly scan many documents (some with high security clearance), including KGB reports to the Central Committee, and smuggle the files to the West. A laptop computer, also known as a notebook computer, is a small Personal computer designed for mobile use. For use by the United Nations, see Security Clearance (UN A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to Classified KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a Leninist (commonly also Trotskyist) or Communist party, whether ruling or  The event that many expected would be another Nuremberg Trial and the beginnings of reconciliation with the Communist past, ended up in half-measures: while the CPSU was found unconstitutional, the communists were allowed to form new parties in the future. The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after Bukovsky expressed his deep disappointment with this in his writings and interviews:
|“||Having failed to finish off conclusively the communist system, we are now in danger of integrating the resulting monster into our world. It may not be called communism anymore, but it retained many of its dangerous characteristics. . . Until the Nuremberg-style tribunal passes its judgement on all the crimes committed by communism, it is not dead and the war is not over. ||”|
It took several years and a team of assistants to compose the scanned pieces together and publish it (see Soviet Archives, collected by Vladimir Bukovsky, prepared for electronic publishing by Julia Zaks and Leonid Chernikhov). The same collection of documents is also massively quoted in Bukovsky's Judgement in Moscow, which was published in 1994, translated to many languages and attracted international attention.
In 1992 a group of liberal deputies of the Moscow City Council proposed Bukovsky's candidacy for elections of the new Mayor of Moscow, following the resignation of the previous Mayor, Gavriil Popov. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Gavriil Kharitonovich Popov (Гаврии́л Харито́нович Попо́в born 1936) is a Russian Political figure and a reformer Bukovsky refused the offer. In early 1996 a group of Moscow academics, journalists and intellectuals suggested that Vladimir Bukovsky should run for President of Russia as an alternative candidate to both incumbent President Boris Yeltsin and his Communist challenger Gennady Zyuganov. Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin () (1 February 1931 23 April 2007 was the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999 Gennady Andreyevich Zyuganov or Guennady Ziuganov ( Генна́дий Андре́евич Зюга́нов) (born 26 June 1944) is a Russian No formal nomination was initiated. In any case, Bukovsky would not have been allowed to run, as the Russian Constitution stipulates that any presidential candidate must have lived in the country continuously for ten years prior to the election.
In 1997, during the General Meeting in Florence, Bukovsky has been elected General President of the Comitatus pro Libertatibus- Comitati per le Libertà- Freedom Committees, the international movement aimed to defend and empower everywhere the culture of liberties. Re-elected since then, Bukovsky promoted together with Dario Fertilio and Stéphane Courtois, a writer and an historian, the Memento Gulag, or Memorial Day devoted to the victims of communism and totalitarian regimes, to be held each year, on 7th November (anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution). Since then, the Memento Gulag has been celebrated in Rome, Bucharest, Berlin, La Roche sur Yon and Paris. Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania.
In 2002 Boris Nemtsov, a member of the Russian Duma (parliament) and leader of the Union of Right Forces, and former Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, visited Vladimir Bukovsky in Cambridge to discuss the strategy of the Russian opposition. Boris Efimovich Nemtsov (Борис Ефимович Немцов (born October 9 1959) is a former Deputy Prime Minister of Russia one of co-founders of the A Duma (Ду́ма is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The Union of Right Forces, or SPS (Сою́з Пра́вых Сил СПС/Soyuz Pravykh Sil was a Russian democratic opposition party associated Bukovsky told Nemtsov that, in his view, it is imperative that Russian liberals adopt an uncompromising stand toward what he sees as the authoritarian government of President Vladimir Putin. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, USSR; now Saint Petersburg, Russia was the second President of Russia In January 2004, together with Garry Kasparov, Boris Nemtsov, Vladimir V. Kara-Murza and others, Vladimir Bukovsky co-founded the Committee 2008, an umbrella organization of the Russian democratic opposition, whose purpose is to ensure free and fair presidential elections in 2008. Garry Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров) (born as Garry Kimovich Weinstein on April 13 1963 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Boris Efimovich Nemtsov (Борис Ефимович Немцов (born October 9 1959) is a former Deputy Prime Minister of Russia one of co-founders of the Vladimir V Kara-Murza (Russian Владимир Владимирович Кара-Мурза) (born 7 September 1981, Moscow) is a Russian Committee 2008 is an umbrella organization of the Russian democratic opposition formed in January 2004 in response to what they saw as the growing authoritarianism of President Vladimir
In 2005 Bukovsky participated in They Chose Freedom, a four-part documentary on the Soviet dissident movement. They Chose Freedom (in Russian Они выбирали свободу) is a four-part TV documentary on the history of political Dissent in In 2005, with the revelations about captives in Guantanamo, Abu Ghraib and the CIA secret prisons, Bukovsky criticized the rationalization of torture. Guantánamo is a municipality and city in southeast Cuba and capital of Guantánamo Province. The city of Abu Ghraib ( Arabic: أبو غريب Abū Ghurayb  Bukovsky warned about some parallels between the formations of Soviet Union and European Union. 
Vladimir Bukovsky is a member of the Board of Directors of the Gratitude Fund, and a member of the International Council of the New York-based Human Rights Foundation. The Gratitude Fund describes itself as "a Non-profit organization which was created to provide assistance to the forgotten heroes and veterans of the active struggle for The Human Rights Foundation ( HRF) is a non-profit organization that works on “defending human rights and promoting liberal democracy in the Americas In the United Kingdom, he is Vice-President of The Freedom Association (TFA) and a patron of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Freedom Association is a Free market Libertarian pressure group pledged to support individual freedom in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, ˈjuːkɪp
On the 28th May 2007, Bukovsky agreed to become a candidate in the Russian presidential election. The Russian Presidential election of 2008, held on March 2, 2008 resulted in the election of Dmitry Medvedev as the third President of Russia 
The group that nominated Bukovsky as a candidate included Yuri Ryzhov, Vladimir V. Kara-Murza, Alexander Podrabinek, Andrei Piontkovsky, Vladimir Pribylovsky and others. Vladimir V Kara-Murza (Russian Владимир Владимирович Кара-Мурза) (born 7 September 1981, Moscow) is a Russian Alexandr Podrabinek (Александр Пинхосович Подрабинек born August 5 1953) is Russian journalist human rights activist and editor-in-chief Andrey Andreevich Piontkovsky (born 1940 Moscow) is Russian Scientist and political writer and Analyst. Vladimir Valerianovich Pribylovsky (Владимир Валерианович Прибыловский b  Activists and writers Valeria Novodvorskaya, Victor Shenderovich, Vladimir Sorokin favored Bukovsky. Valeria Ilyinichna Novodvorskaya ( Russian: Валерия Ильинична Новодворская) (born May 17, 1950, Baranavichy Victor Anatolievich Shenderovich ( Russian: Виктор Анатольевич Шендерович) (born August 15, 1958 in Moscow Vladimir Georgievich Sorokin (Владимир Георгиевич Сорокин (born August 7, 1955 in Bykovo Moscow Oblast .
In their answer to pro-Kremlin politicians and publicists who expressed doubt in Bukovksy's electoral prospects, his nominators refuted a number of frequently repeated statements. .
More than 800 participants nominated Bukovsky for president on December 16, 2007 in Moscow. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Bukovsky secured the required turnout and submitted his registration to the Central Election Commission on December 18, 2007. The Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation (Центральная избирательная комиссия Российской Федерации (Центризбирком .
The Election Commission turned down Bukovsky's application on December 22, 2007, claiming that he failed to give information on his activity as a writer when submitting documents to the Election Commision, that he was holding a British residence permit, and that he has not been living on Russian territory over the past ten years.  Bukovsky appealed the decision in Supreme Court on December 28, 2007, then in its cassation board on January 15, 2008. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation ( Russian: ru Верховный Суд Российской Федерации is the final instance in Administrative law