Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of pathological and computer viruses. In popular usage "marketing" is the promotion of products especially Advertising and Branding However in professional usage the term has a wider meaning of A social network is a Social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency such as A brand is a collection of Images and ideas representing an economic producer more specifically it refers to the descriptive verbal attributes and concrete symbols such as a Viral phenomena are objects or patterns able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them A virus (from the Latin virus meaning Toxin or Poison) is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable A computer virus is a Computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user It can be word-of-mouth delivered or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet. Word of mouth, is a reference to the passing of Information by verbal means especially recommendations but also general information in an informal person-to-person  Viral marketing is a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encourages people to pass along a marketing message voluntarily.  Viral promotions may take the form of video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames, ebooks, brandable software, images, or even text messages. Adobe Flash (previously called Shockwave Flash and Macromedia Flash) is a set of Multimedia software created by Macromedia and currently Advergaming is the practice of using Video games to advertise a product organization or viewpoint Brandable software is typically Software created by one company for the purpose of allowing other companies to obtain Resell rights or Giveaway rights to This is the practice of taking the marketing message directly to the personal pocket of the prospect The basic form of viral marketing is not infinitely sustainable.
It is claimed that a satisfied customer tells an average of three people about a product or service he/she likes, and eleven people about a product or service which he/she did not like.  Viral marketing is based on this natural human behavior.
The goal of marketers interested in creating successful viral marketing programs is to identify individuals with high Social Networking Potential (SNP) and create Viral Messages that appeal to this segment of the population and have a high probability of being passed along. Social Networking Potential (SNP is a numeric Coefficient, derived through Algorithms to represent both the size of an individual's Social network and Viral Messages refer to marketing messages that are passed from person to person through their Social Networks.
The term "viral marketing" is also sometimes used pejoratively to refer to stealth marketing campaigns—the use of varied kinds of astroturfing both online and offline  to create the impression of spontaneous word of mouth enthusiasm. Words and phrases are pejorative if they imply disapproval or contempt Undercover marketing (also known as buzz marketing, stealth marketing, or by its detractors roach baiting) is a subset of Guerrilla marketing Astroturfing in American English is a Neologism for formal Public relations campaigns in Politics and Advertising which seek to create the impression Word of mouth, is a reference to the passing of Information by verbal means especially recommendations but also general information in an informal person-to-person
The term Viral Marketing was coined by a Harvard Business School professor, Jeffrey F. Rayport, in December 1996 article for Fast Company The Virus of Marketing. Fast Company is a full-color not-quite-monthly (10 issues per year business magazine that reports on innovation digital media technology Change management  The term was further popularized by Tim Draper and Steve Jurvetson of the venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson in 1997 to describe Hotmail's e-mail practice of appending advertising for itself in outgoing mail from their users. Timothy Cook Draper is the founder of the global venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson. Steven T Jürvetson (born in Arizona, USA 1967 is a Managing Director of Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ. Windows Live Hotmail, formerly known as MSN Hotmail and commonly referred to simply as Hotmail, is a free Webmail service of the Windows Live Electronic mail, often abbreviated to e-mail, email, or originally eMail, is a Store-and-forward method of writing sending receiving Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand 
Among the first to write about viral marketing on the Internet was media critic Douglas Rushkoff in his 1994 book Media Virus. Media studies is a collection of academic programs regarding the content history meaning and effects of various media. Douglas Rushkoff (born 18 February 1961) is a New York -based writer columnist and lecturer on technology The assumption is that if such an advertisement reaches a "susceptible" user, that user will become "infected" (i. e. , sign up for an account) and can then go on to infect other susceptible users. As long as each infected user sends mail to more than one susceptible user on average (i. e. , the basic reproductive rate is greater than one), standard in epidemiology imply that the number of infected users will grow according to a logistic curve, whose initial segment appears exponential. In Epidemiology, the basic reproduction number (sometimes called basic reproductive rate or basic reproductive ratio) of an Infection is the Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the Health and Illness of populations and serves as the foundation and Logic of interventions made in the A logistic function or logistic curve is the most common Sigmoid curve.
Among the first to write about algorithms designed to identify people with high Social Networking Potential is Bob Gerstley in Advertising Research is Changing. Gerstley uses SNP algorithms in quantitative marketing research to help marketers maximize the effectiveness of viral marketing campaigns. It is also named "viral" because it allows a message to spread like a virus. In 2004 the concept of Alpha User was released to indicate that it had become now possible to technically isolate the focal point members of any viral campaign, the "hubs" who are most influential. Social Marketing Intelligence is the method of extrapolating valuable information from Social network interactions and large data flows that can enable companies for example Alpha Users can today be isolated and identified, and even targeted for viral advertising purposes most accurately in mobile phone networks, as mobile phones are so personal.
In response to its use, many sites have started up trying to describe what viral marketing is.
Notable examples of viral marketing
- The Ponzi scheme and related investment Pyramid schemes, are an early and unfortunate example of viral marketing. A Ponzi scheme is a Fraudulent Investment operation that involves promising or paying abnormally high returns (" Profits quot to investors out of the A pyramid scheme is a Non-sustainable Business model that involves the exchange of Money primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme without In each round, investors are paid interest from the principal deposits of later investors. Early investors are so enthusiastic that they recruit their friends resulting in exponential growth until the pool of available investors is tapped out and the scheme collapses.
- Multi-level marketing popularized in the 1960's and 70's is essentially a form of viral marketing in which representatives gain income by recruiting customers and associates to themselves become marketing representatives. Multi-level marketing ( MLM) also known as Network Marketing, is a business-distribution model that allows a parent company to market its products directly to consumers When successful, the strategy creates an exponentially growing network of reprepresentatives and greatly enriches early adopters. Examples include Amway and Mary Kay Cosmetics. Amway is a Multi-level marketing, or Network marketing company founded in 1959 by Jay Van Andel and Rich DeVos. Mary Kay Ash ( May 12, 1918 &ndash
- BusinessWeek (2001) described web-based campaigns for Hotmail (1996) and The Blair Witch Project (1999) as striking examples of viral marketing, but warned of some dangers for imitation marketers. BusinessWeek is a business Magazine published by McGraw-Hill. Windows Live Hotmail, formerly known as MSN Hotmail and commonly referred to simply as Hotmail, is a free Webmail service of the Windows Live The Blair Witch Project is a low-budget American Horror film released in 1999 
- Burger King's The Subservient Chicken campaign was cited in Wired as a striking example of viral or word-of-mouth marketing. Burger King ( often abbreviated to The Subservient Chicken is an advertising program created to promote international Fast food restaurant chain Burger King 's TenderCrisp Wired is a full-color monthly American Magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993 
- In 2000, Slate described TiVo's unpublicized gambit of giving free TiVo's to web-savvy enthusiasts to create "viral" word of mouth, pointing out that a viral campaign differs from a publicity stunt. A publicity stunt is an event designed to attract the public 's attention to the promoters or their causes 
- Cadbury's Dairy Milk 2007 Gorilla advert was heavily popularised on YouTube and Facebook. Gorilla is a 2007/2008 Advertising campaign to promote the Cadbury Dairy Milk -brand Chocolate within the United Kingdom and Ireland
- With the emergence of Web 2.0, mostly all web startups like facebook. Web 20 is a term describing changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and Web design that aims to enhance Creativity, secure com, youtube. com, collabotrade. com, myspace. com, and digg. com have made good use of Viral Marketing by merging it with the social networking.
- The 2008 film The Dark Knight featured an extensive viral marketing campaign combining both online and real-life elements, making it an alternate reality game as well as a viral marketing campaign. An alternate reality game ( ARG) is an interactive Narrative that uses the real world as a platform often involving multiple media and game elements to tell
- The 2008 film Cloverfield was first publicized with a teaser trailer that did not advertise the film's title, only its release date: "01·18·08. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Cloverfield is a 2008 monster / Horror film directed by Matt Reeves, produced by J A teaser trailer, or teaser is a short trailer used to advertise an upcoming movie game or television series " Elements of the viral marketing campaign included MySpace pages created for fictional characters and websites created for fictional companies alluded to in the film. MySpace is a popular social networking Website offering an interactive user-submitted network of friends personal profiles blogs groups photos music and
- The release of the 2007 concept album Year Zero by Nine Inch Nails involved a viral marketing campaign, including the band leaving USB drives at concerts during NIN's 2007 European Tour. Year Zero is the sixth studio album by American Industrial rock act Nine Inch Nails, released on April 16 2007 by Interscope Records. This was followed up with a series of interlinked websites revealing clues and information about the dystopian future in which the album is set. A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος alternatively cacotopia, kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is the vision of a society
- In 2007, World Wrestling Entertainment promoted the return of Chris Jericho with a viral marketing campaign using 15-second cryptic binary code videos. World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, Christopher Keith Irvine (born November 9 1970 better known by his Ring name Chris Jericho, is an American-born Canadian Television and stage Cryptic crosswords are crossword puzzles of a special type one in which each clue is a word puzzle in and of itself The videos contained hidden messages and biblical links related to Jericho, although speculation existed throughout WWE fans over who the campaign targeted.  The text "Save Us" and "2nd Coming" were most prominent in the videos. The campaign spread throughout the internet with numerous websites, though no longer operational, featuring hidden messages and biblical links to further hint at Jericho's return. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages 
- In 2007 The New York Times' advertising columnist Stuart Elliott wrote about a business-to-business viral campaign for a software company, showing that viral advertising has application in areas outside of consumer marketing: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/10/business/media/09adnewsletter1.html
- In 2007, Portuguese football club Sporting Portugal integrated a viral feature in their campaign for season seats. Sporting Clube de Portugal ( pron 'spɔɾtĩg 'klub(ɨ dɨ puɾtu'gaɫ referred to coloquially as Sporting, Sporting CP or erroneously Sporting In their website, a video  required the user to input his name and phone number before playback started, which then featured the coach Paulo Bento and the players waiting at the locker room while he makes a phone call to the user telling him that they just can't start the season until the user buys his season ticket. Paulo Jorge Gomes Bento (born June 20, 1969 in Lisbon) ( pron. Flawless video and phone call synchronization and the fact that it was a totally new experience for the user led to nearly 200,000 pageviews phone calls in less than 24 hours.
- Avirginsplea.com claimed that a 25-year old virgin living in Toronto named Geoff needed five million hits on his website in 30 days in order for Jenn, one of his very hot platonic female friends, to help him lose his virginity. avirginspleacom is a website that was part of a Viral marketing experiment
- On January 31, 2008 at 3 PM, radio station WMAX in Grand Rapids, Michigan dropped its Modern AC / Hot AC format and began stunting with the sounds of a ticking clock. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes WMAX-FM are the call letters of a Radio station owned by Clear Channel Communications located in Grand Rapids Michigan, transmitting on a frequency Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Modern adult contemporary (or Modern AC) is a popular and influential hybrid radio format Adult contemporary music, frequently abbreviated AC, refers to styles of popular music that ranges from "lush Sixties pop often vocal -based and rooted in Stunting in Radio Broadcasting occurs when a Radio station abruptly begins broadcasting seemingly uncharacteristic programming A 12-second viral video posted on the station's website and on YouTube pointed to 02/04/08 @ 10:01 AM. A viral video is a Video clip that gains widespread popularity through the process of Internet sharing typically through Email or YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload view and share Video clips YouTube was created in February 2005 by three former PayPal employees In addition, liners that pointed to this date were also played, along with random songs from different radio formats. Sure enough, on February 2, 2008 at 10:01 AM, the ticking clock sounds came to an end, and a new format, Modern Rock Radio X 96. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Modern rock is a term commonly used to describe a Rock music format found on American commercial Radio. 1 was launched.
- In April 2008, strange videos began appearing on Canadian music video channel MuchMusic. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page A music video is a Short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music most commonly a Song with lyrics MuchMusic (often referred to only as Much) is a Canadian English language Cable television Specialty channel owned by CTVglobemedia The videos, made by a blogger known only as phreak615, interfered with the station's signal, especially during the station's original signal programming. The videos, all of which were under 10 seconds long, pointed to phreak615. The second ( SI symbol s) sometimes abbreviated sec, is the name of a unit of Time, and is the International System of Units com, the URL of the signal hacker's blog. Uniform Resource Locator is an URI which also specifies where the identified resource is available and the protocol for retrieving it A blog (a contraction of the term " Web log " is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary descriptions of According to his blog, phreak615 is a self-proclaimed pop culture activist who apparently works for MuchMusic. Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance — Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change It is being used to promote the MuchMusic Video Awards. The MuchMusic Video Awards (also known as (the MMVA or MMVAs) are annual awards presented by the Canadian music video channel MuchMusic The videos and signal hacking may have been inspired by the Max Headroom pirating incident that occurred on Chicago's WTTW 11 in 1987, as phreak615 had posted a link to that video on his blog. The Max Headroom broadcast signal intrusion incident was a television signal hijacking in Chicago Illinois, on the evening of November 22, 1987; it is Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. WTTW, channel 11 is one of three PBS member stations serving the Chicago Illinois market the others are WYCC and WYIN. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar)
- Pre-Internet: Early in its existence (perhaps between 1988 and 1992), the television show Mystery Science Theater 3000 had limited distribution. Mystery Science Theater 3000 is an American Cult television comedy series created by Joel Hodgson and produced The producers encouraged viewers to makes copies of the show on video tape and give them to friends in order to expand viewership and increase demand for the fledgling Comedy Central network. Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto Magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. Comedy Central is an American Cable television and Satellite television channel that carries predominantly Comedy programming During this period the closing credits included the words "Keep circulating those tapes!"
Viral expansion loop
A viral expansion loop is similar to viral marketing with one notable difference: viral marketing can't be replicated indefinitely, while a viral expansion loop must be in order for it to exist.  When properly conceived and implemented, a viral loop almost guaranteed self-replicating growth. Companies that have attempted to utilize viral loops to their advantage include social networking engine Ning, and viral loops power many Web 2.0 icons, including PayPal, YouTube, Facebook, MySpace, Digg and Flickr. Ning is an online platform for users to create their own social websites and social networks launched in October 2005 Ning means "peace" in Chinese Web 20 is a term describing changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and Web design that aims to enhance Creativity, secure PayPal is an E-commerce business allowing payments and Money transfers to be made through the Internet. YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload view and share Video clips YouTube was created in February 2005 by three former PayPal employees Facebook is a social networking Website launched on February 4 2004 MySpace is a popular social networking Website offering an interactive user-submitted network of friends personal profiles blogs groups photos music and Digg is a Website made for people to discover and share content from anywhere on the Internet, by submitting links and stories and voting and commenting on submitted Flickr is an image and video hosting Website, Web services suite and Online community platform
- ^ USAToday: Viral advertising spreads through marketing plans. June 23, 2005, 2005
- ^ Viral Marketing - definition, information, sites, articles
- ^ Bizsum Book Summary: Secrets of Word Of Mouth Marketing by George Silverman.
- ^ Wired: Commentary: Sock Puppets Keep It Shill on YouTube. May 8, 2007
- ^ Onion: I'd Love This Product Even If I Weren't A Stealth Marketer. December 14, 2005
- ^ The Virus of Marketing.
- ^ Montgomery, Alan (Mar-Apr 2001). "Applying Quantitative Marketing Techniques to the Internet" (PDF). Interfaces 31 (2): 90-108.
- ^ Viral Marketing Alert!.
- ^ Marketers Feverish Over Viral Ads.
- ^ TiVo's Stealth Giveaway.
- ^ Breaking the Code. WWE (November 19, 2007).
- ^ Clayton, Corey (November 19, 2007). Orton burned by the second coming of Chris Jericho. WWE.
- ^ Chris Jericho - Save Us Secret Site. OnlineOnslaught. com. Retrieved on 2007-11-21. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem.
- ^ NEW INFO! Chris Jericho - Savior Self Secret Site. OnlineOnslaught. com. Retrieved on 2007-11-21. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem.
- ^ Sporting Clube de Portugal
- ^ Penenberg, Adam. "Ning's Infinite Ambition" (Magazine), Fast Company, Mansueto Ventures LLC, May 2008, pp. 76-84.
See also A viral video is a Video clip that gains widespread popularity through the process of Internet sharing typically through Email or
© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
- (uncountable) (advertising and marketing) A marketing technique aiming at reproducing "word of mouth", usually on the internet or by e-mail, for humorous, political or marketing purposes.
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