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Viking refers to a member of the Norse (Scandinavian) peoples, famous as explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates, who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the late 8th to the early 11th century. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The Scandinavian Mountains in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen ("the Fells quot or Kölen, and in Norwegian Kjølen, The Scandinavian Peninsula is a geographic region in northern Europe, consisting principally of the Mainland territories of Norway and Sweden Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian See also Medieval Scandinavian laws A thing or ting ( Old Norse, Old English and Icelandic: þing; other modern The Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people starting in the 8th century with The Kalmar Union ( Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Kalmarunionen) is a historiographical term meaning a series of Personal Denmark–Norway ( Danish: Danmark-Norge Norwegian: Danmark-Norge or Danmark-Noreg is the historiographical name for a former political entity union Sweden–Finland is a historiographical term used especially in Finland, to refer to the Swedish Kingdom from the Kalmar Union to the The Union between Sweden and Norway (Unionen mellan Sverige och Norge Unionen mellom Norge og Sverige or the Swedish-Norwegian Kingdom was the union of the kingdoms of The history of Scandinavia is the history of the Nordic countries — Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland. This article covers the history of the Kingdom of Denmark and of the areas comprising modern-day Denmark. From around the time of the Roman Empire until about 800 AD many stone inscriptions can be found written in Runes Modern Sweden emerged out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century This article is about the history of Iceland and the areas comprising modern day Iceland. The history of Greenland, the world's largest island is the history of life under extreme Arctic conditions an Ice cap covers about 95 percent of the island Pre-Norse history The early details of Faroese history are rather nebulous The Kalmar Union ( Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Kalmarunionen) is a historiographical term meaning a series of Personal The history of Karelia dates to 7000-6000 BC. Mining began between 1 and 1000 AD Scandinavism (also called Pan-Scandinavianism) and Nordism are literary and political movements that support various degrees of cooperation between the Scandinavian The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Skandinaviska myntunionen Skandinaviske møntunion Skandinaviske myntunion was a Monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark A Scandinavian defence union that would include Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark was planned between the four countries after World History For the Royal League 2004-05 tournament the twelve participating teams were initially placed into three groups Scandinavian Airlines System ( SAS) is a multi-national Airline for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the leading carrier in the Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well According to the Random House Dictionary, the term warrior has two meanings Merchants function as professionals who deal with Trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves in order to produce Profit. Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.  These Norsemen used their famed longships to travel as far east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia, and as far west as Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland. Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language Longships, or longboats were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxon people to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of This period of Viking expansion is known as the Viking Age, and forms a major part of Scandinavian history, with a minor, yet significant part in European history. Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. The history of Scandinavia is the history of the Nordic countries — Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland. The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day
Once seen through the classical mindset of the "barbaric North", the historical image of the Vikings, although still under the shadow of traditional views, now shows the Vikings as aspirational, adventurous peoples, with ingenuity in ship and town construction, and a proficiency as seafarers and traders to match. 
The word Viking comes from the Old Norse word "vikingr", lit. "one who came from the fjords", from "vik", meaning a bay, creek, fjord or inlet. By the end of the Viking period, the term referred to pirates or robbers operating by sea, known as "vikingr" in West Norse, and was used as a term for sea-born warfare and harrying in the West Norse "Viking". Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Though mostly used as a general term for pirates there are instances of another use in some of the Icelandic sagas. The Sagas of Icelanders ( Icelandic: Íslendingasögur)&mdashmany of which are also known as family sagas &mdashare prose histories describing There some were considered vikings and to be "going on Viking" who sailed out to claim fame and fortune for themselves.  This could involve seeking the stewardship of kings, trading in foreign parts and raiding. These names were common mainly in Scandinavia itself, however, and many other terms were generally used in the wider world. These included heathens, northmen, Lochlannachs in the Irish tongue, the people from the north, the Danes, Rus', or simply the foreigners. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world The term Dane may refer to People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity whether living in Denmark, emigrants or the descendants of emigrants Rus’ (Русь rusʲ Русичи Русы are an ancient people whose name survives in the cognates Russians, Rusyns, and Ruthenians These terms, however, were used for the Viking peoples as a whole, and thus never accounted for the class distinction between vikings and other Norsemen nor the variety of the Nordic peoples. 
The period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian History. The history of Scandinavia is the history of the Nordic countries — Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland. The Normans, however, were descended from Danish Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France — the Duchy of Normandy — in the 8th century. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. The term Dane may refer to People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity whether living in Denmark, emigrants or the descendants of emigrants Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of In that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe. Likewise, King Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England who was killed during the Norman invasion in 1066, was descended from Danish Vikings. Harold Godwinson, (c 1022 &ndash 14 October 1066 also known as Harold II, is widely regarded as the last Anglo-Saxon King of England before the For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south Many of the medieval kings of Norway and Denmark were married to English and Scottish royalty and Viking forces were often a factor in dynastic disputes prior to 1066.
Geographically, a "Viking Age" may be assigned not only to Scandinavian lands (modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden), but also to territories under North Germanic dominance, mainly the Danelaw, which replaced the powerful English kingdom of Northumbria. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Viking navigators opened the road to new lands to the north, west and east, resulting in the foundation of independent settlements in the Shetland, Orkney, and Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and L'Anse aux Meadows, a short-lived settlement in Newfoundland, circa 1000 A. Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland; Old Norse non Hjaltland; Sealtainn is an Archipelago off the northeast coast of Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove" is an Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of D.  Many of these lands, specifically Greenland and Iceland, may have been originally discovered by sailors blown off course. They also may well have been deliberately sought out, perhaps on the basis of the accounts of sailors who had seen land in the distance. The Greenland settlement eventually died out, possibly due to climate change. Vikings also explored and settled in territories in Slavic-dominated areas of Eastern Europe. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. By 950 AD these settlements were completely Slavicized.
From 839, Varangian mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine Empire, notably Harald Hardrada, campaigned in North Africa, Jerusalem, and other places in the Middle East. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian Harald Sigurdsson (1015 &ndash September 25, 1066) later given the epithet Hardraada ( Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Important trading ports during the period include Birka, Hedeby, Kaupang, Jorvik, Staraya Ladoga, Novgorod and Kiev. For a group of islands in the Gulf of Finland, see Berezovye Islands. Hedeby (ˡheðəby Old Norse Heiðabýr, of heiðr = heathland and býr = yard thus "heath yard" sometimes known For another Viking Age site see Kaupanger. Kaupang is a town founded in the 780s during the time when the Vikings started to launch their Staraya Ladoga (Ста́рая Ла́дога or the Aldeigjuborg of Norse sagas is a village ( selo) in the Volkhovsky Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the
There is archaeological evidence that Vikings reached the city of Baghdad, the center of the Islamic Empire. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous  The Norse regularly plied the Volga with their trade goods: furs, tusks, seal fat for boat sealant and slaves. Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services However, they were far less successful in establishing settlements in the Middle East, due to the more centralized Islamic power. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
Generally speaking, the Norwegians expanded to the north and west to places such as Ireland, Iceland and Greenland; the Danes to England and France, settling in the Danelaw (northern England) and Normandy; and the Swedes to the east. Norwegians See also History of Norway and Demography of Norway. The term Dane may refer to People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity whether living in Denmark, emigrants or the descendants of emigrants The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. These nations, although distinct, were similar in culture and language. The names of Scandinavian kings are known only for the later part of the Viking Age, and only after the end of the Viking Age did the separate kingdoms acquire a distinct identity as nations, which went hand in hand with their Christianization. The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity Thus the end of the Viking Age for the Scandinavians also marks the start of their relatively brief Middle Ages.
The Vikings sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the middle east, as looters, traders, colonists, and mercenaries. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Vikings under Leif Eriksson, heir to Erik the Red, reached North America, and set up a short lived settlement in present-day L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Leif Ericson ( Old Norse: Leifr Eiríksson) (c 970 – c 1020 was a Norse Explorer who was probably the first European to land in Erik the Red (950–c 1003 ( Old Norse: Eiríkr rauði; Icelandic: Eiríkur rauði; Norwegian: Eirik Raude; Danish L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove" is an Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
Traditionally, the earliest date given for a Viking raid is 789 when, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, three ships from Norway sailed to Portland Bay, in Dorset. The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of Annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Isle of Portland ( is a limestone tied island long by wide in the English Channel. There, they were mistaken for merchants by a royal official, and they murdered him when he tried to get them to accompany him to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods. The next recorded attack, dated June 8, 793, was on the monastery on the island of Lindisfarne, off the east coast of England. The resident monks were killed, thrown into the sea to drown or carried away as slaves along with some of the church treasures. After repeated Viking raids, the monks fled Lindisfarne in AD 875, carrying the relics of Saint Cuthbert with them. The Cathedral Church of Christ Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city of Durham, England
In 840 and 841, Norwegians raided during the winter months instead of summer, as was their usual tactic. They waited on an island off Ireland. In 865 a large army of Danish Vikings, supposedly led by Ivar, Halfdan and Guthrum, arrived in East Anglia. The " Great Heathen Army " also known as the Great Army or the Great Danish Army, was a Viking Army originating in Denmark Halfdan ( Old Norse) or Healfdene ( Beowulf) or Haldan (Danish Latin sources (late 5th century, early 6th century Guthrum (died c 890 christened Æthelstan, was king of the Danish Vikings in the Danelaw. They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York (Jorvik), where some settled as farmers. Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep the Vikings out of his county. Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c Alfred and his successors were able to drive back the Viking frontier and retake York.
A new wave of Vikings appeared in England in 947 when Erik Bloodaxe captured York. Eirik Bloodaxe ( Old Norse: Eiríkr blóðøx, Norwegian: Eirik Blodøks) (c The Viking presence continued through the reign of Canute the Great (1016-1035), after which a series of inheritance arguments weakened the family reign. } Canute the Great, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, or Knut ( Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian
The Vikings did not get everything their way. In one instance in England, a small Viking fleet attacked a rich monastery at Jarrow. Jarrow (ˈjæroʊ or /ˈjærə/ is a Town on the River Tyne, England with a Population around 27000 (2001 Census) The Vikings were met with stronger resistance than they expected: their leaders were killed, the raiders escaped, only to have their ships beached at Tynemouth and the crews killed by locals. This article concerns itself with the village For the Parliament constituency of the same name see Tynemouth (UK Parliament constituency Tynemouth This was one of the last raids on England for about 40 years. The Vikings instead focused on Ireland and Scotland. The Viking presence in the British Isles dwindled until 1066, when the Norwegians lost their final battle with the English.
It is important to bear in mind that not all the Norse arriving in the British Isles came as raiders. Many arrived with families and livestock, often in the wake of the capture of territory by their forces. DNA analysis shows that a major part of the ancestry of English people in northern East Anglia, eastern Yorkshire and in the Lake District is Scandinavian in origin, presumably from colonists around this time. The populations then merged over time by intermarriage into the Anglo-Saxon population of these areas. Many words in the English language seem to be derived from old Scandinavean languages, emphasizing the importance of this contact.
While there are few records from the earliest period, it is believed that Scandinavian presence in Scotland increased in the 830s. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. In 836, a large Viking force believed to be Norwegian invaded the Earn valley and Tay valley which were central to the Pictish kingdom. The River Earn (Uisge Eireann in Scotland leaves Loch Earn at St Fillans and runs east through Strathearn, then east and south joining the The Tay ( Gaelic: Tatha) is a river starting in the Highlands and flowing down into the centre of Scotland through Perth and Fortriu or the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for an ancient Pictish kingdom and often used synonymously with They killed Eoganan, king of the Picts, and his brother, the vassal king of the Scots. They also killed many members of the Pictish aristocracy. The sophisticated kingdom that had been built fell apart, as did the Pictish leadership. The foundation of Scotland under Kenneth MacAlpin is traditionally attributed to the aftermath of this event. The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe Cináed mac Ailpín ( Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein) commonly Anglicised as Kenneth MacAlpin and known in most modern regnal lists as
The isles to the north and west of Scotland were heavily colonized by Norwegian Vikings. Shetland, Orkney, the Western Isles, Caithness and Sutherland were under Norse control, sometimes as fiefs under the King of Norway and other times as separate entities. Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland; Old Norse non Hjaltland; Sealtainn is an Archipelago off the northeast coast of Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north The Outer Hebrides, ( officially known for local government purposes by the Gaelic name Na h-Eileanan Siar) comprise an island Geography Caithness extends about 40 Miles (64 Kilometres) north-south and about 30 miles (50 km east-west Sutherland (In Gaelic the area is referred to according to its traditional areas Dùthaich 'Ic Aoidh (NW Asainte (Assynt and Cataibh (East Shetland and Orkney were the last of these to be incorporated into Scotland in as late as 1468. As well as Orkney and Shetland, Caithness and Sutherland, the Norse settled in the Hebrides. See also Hebrides (disambiguation The Hebrides (ˈhɛbrɨˌdiːz "HEB-ri-deez" Gaelic: Innse Gall) comprise a widespread and diverse Some parts of the west coast were also settled, and Galloway, which got its name from the Gall-Gael or Foreigner Gael (as the mixed Norse Scots were known). Galloway ( Gaelic: Gall-Ghaidhealaibh, əŋ ɡauɫ̪ɣəɫ̪əv or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern
In 722, the Cornish allied with Danish Vikings in order to hold Wessex from expanding into Cornwall. The Cornish people (Kernowyon are regarded as an Ethnic group of the United Kingdom originating in Cornwall. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe West Saxon redirects here For other meanings of Wessex or West Saxon see Wessex (disambiguation. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar  A Wessex Saxon army led by King Ine was beaten by an alliance of Cornish and Vikings near the Camel estuary at "Hehil", possibly somewhere near modern day Padstow. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south Ine was King of Wessex from 688 to 726 He was unable to retain the territorial gains of his predecessor Cædwalla, who had brought much of Southern The River Camel is a river in Cornwall, UK. It rises on the edge of Bodmin Moor and together with its tributaries drains a considerable Padstow (Lannwedhenek is a small town its great Civil parish and cargo port on the north coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom This battle, recorded in the Annales Cambriae, as well as the Vikings' continual attacks on Wessex, enabled Cornwall to stay autonomous from Wessex for the next 100 years. Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin Chronicles deriving ultimately from a text compiled  (Up until 838 the eastern Cornish border was still on the River Exe-River Taw line). The Cornish people (Kernowyon are regarded as an Ethnic group of the United Kingdom originating in Cornwall. The River Exe in England rises near the village of Simonsbath, on Exmoor in Somerset, near the Bristol Channel coast The River Taw rises at Taw Head, a spring on the central northern flanks of Dartmoor. The Danes provided tactical support to their Cornish allies by raiding Wessex which weakened the authority of the Saxons. In 831 AD, the Danes raided Charmouth in Dorset, in 997 AD they destroyed the Dartmoor town of Lydford, and from 1001 AD to 1003 AD they occupied the old Roman city of Exeter. Charmouth is a village at the Mouth of the River Char in West Dorset, England. Dartmoor is an area of Moorland in the centre of Devon, England. Lydford, sometimes spelled Lidford, is a village once an important town in the western parliamentary division of Devonshire in Devon situated six miles (13 Exeter ( (IPA ˈeksɪtər is a city, district and County town of Devon, England. In 1013 Wessex was conquered by the Danes under the leadership of Sweyn Forkbeard. Sweyn I Forkbeard, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in English Sven the Dane, also known as Swegen and Tuck, ( Old Norse 
Wales was not colonized by the Vikings significantly as in eastern England or Scotland. The Vikings did, however, settle in small numbers in the south around St. David's, Haverfordwest, and the Gower. Saint David ( c. 500–589 ('Dewi Sant' was a church official later regarded as a Saint and as the Patron saint of Wales. Haverfordwest (Hwlffordd is the County town of Pembrokeshire, in south-west Wales. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement. Skokholm ( Welsh: Ynys Sgoc-holm) is an uninhabited Island off the coast of south west Pembrokeshire in Wales, lying south of the neighbouring Skomer is a 292 km² Island off the coast of southwest Wales, one of a chain lying within a kilometre off the Pembrokeshire Swansea ( Abertawe "mouth of the Tawe " is a city and county in Wales.  The Vikings, however, were not able to set up a Viking state or control Wales, owing to the powerful forces of Welsh kings, and, unlike in Scotland, the aristocracy was relatively unharmed.
Nevertheless, following the successful Viking alliances with Cornwall in 722 and Britanny in 865, the Britons made their peace with the Danes, and a Viking/Welsh alliance in 878 defeated an Anglo-Saxon army from Mercia, although there were still some occasional skirmishes between the Britons of Wales and the Danes. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
The city of Swansea was founded by the imperialist Viking King of Denmark Sweyn Forkbeard who by 1013 was King of the Danes, Anglo-Saxons and Norwegians. Sweyn I Forkbeard, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in English Sven the Dane, also known as Swegen and Tuck, ( Old Norse Swansea is a corruption of the Norse "Sweyn's Ey", which means "Sweyn's island". The island refers to the area around the estuary of the river Tawe. The neighboring Gower peninsula has some place names of Norse origin (such as Worms Head; worm is the Norse word for dragon, as the Vikings believed that the serpent-shaped island was a sleeping dragon). Twenty miles (32 km) west of Cardiff on the Vale of Glamorgan coast is the semi-flooded island of Tusker Rock, which takes its name from Tuska, the Viking who established a settlement in the area. Cardiff ( 'kɑːdɪf) is the Capital and the largest city and county in Wales. Geography It has been a County borough (unitary authority since 1996, previously being part of South Glamorgan county Tusker Rock is a rock in the Bristol Channel, situated about 2 miles west of Ogmore-by-Sea, Bridgend, Wales.
The Vikings conducted extensive raids in Ireland and founded many towns, including Dublin, Limerick, Mullingar, Wexford, Waterford and Leixlip. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Limerick (pronounced /ˈlɪmrɪk/ Luimneach in Irish) is a city and the county seat of County Limerick in the Province of Munster Mullingar ( An Muileann gCearr in Irish, meaning "the left-handed or wry mill" is the administrative centre of County Westmeath, Ireland Wexford (derived from Old Norse Veisafjǫrðr (in some sources spelled "Waes Fiord" – veisa meaning "mudflat stagnant pool" Waterford ( or Windy fjord;) is a city in Ireland. It is the primary city of the South East region and the fifth largest in the country Leixlip (/'likslɪp/ Léim an Bhradáin in Irish) is a town in north-east County Kildare, Ireland, east of the midlands of Ireland Literature, crafts, and decorative styles in Ireland and the British Isles reflected Scandinavian culture. Vikings traded at Irish markets in Dublin. Excavations found imported fabrics from England, Byzantium, Persia, and central Asia. Dublin became so crowded by the 11th century that houses were constructed outside the town walls.
The Vikings pillaged monasteries on Ireland’s west coast in 795, and then spread out to cover the rest of the coastline. The north and east of the island were most affected. During the first 40 years, the raids were conducted by small, mobile Viking groups. From 830 on, the groups consisted of large fleets of Viking ships. From 840, the Vikings began establishing permanent bases at the coasts. Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term. The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence and culture. In some cases they became allies and also intermarried throughout all of Ireland.
In 832, a Viking fleet of about 120 ships under Turgesius invaded kingdoms on Ireland’s northern and eastern coasts. Turgesius (died 845 (also spelled "Turgeis" was a Viking chief active in Ireland who is said to have conquered Dublin. Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders’ desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland. During the mid-830s, raids began to push deeper into Ireland. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible. After 840, the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations throughout Ireland.
In 838, a small Viking fleet entered the River Liffey in eastern Ireland, probably led by the chieftain Saxolb (Soxulfr) who was killed later that year. The Liffey ( An Life in Irish) is a River in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called longphorts. A longphort is a term used in Ireland for a Viking ship enclosure or shore fortress This longphort would eventually become Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years. The Vikings also established longphorts in Cork, Limerick, Waterford, and Wexford. The Vikings were driven out of Ireland for a short period around 900, but returned to Waterford in 914 to found what would become Ireland's first city. The other longphorts were soon re-occupied and developed into cities and towns.
The last major battle involving Vikings was the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, in which a large force from the pan-Viking world and their Irish allies opposed Brian Boru, then the High King of Ireland and his forces, a small contingent of which were Viking defectors. The Battle of Clontarf (Cath Chluana Tarbh took place on Good Friday in 1014 (23 April between the forces of Brian Boru and the forces led by the King of Brian mac Cennétig, called Brian Bóruma, ( c 941&ndash23 April 1014 (Brian Boru Brian Bóraimhe was an Irish king who ended the centuries-long domination The battle was fought in what is the now Dublin suburb of Clontarf on Good Friday of that year. Boru, the Irish High King had gracefully allowed the Viking King of Dublin; Sigtrygg Silkbeard, one year to prepare for his coming assault. Silkbeard responded by offering the bed of his mother to several Viking lords from Scandinavia and the British Isles. The savage melee between the heavily mailed Norse and the unarmoured, yet undaunted Gaels ended in a rout of the Vikings and their Irish allies. Careful accounts were taken by both sides during the battle, and thus many famous warriors sought each other out for personal combat and glory. High King Brian, who was nearly eighty, did not personally engage in the battle but retired to his tent where he spent the day in quiet prayer. The Viking Earl Brodir of Man chanced upon Brian's tent as he fled the field. He and a few followers seized the opportunity, and surprised the High King, killing the aged Brian before being captured. Brian's foster son Wolf the Quarrelsome later tracked down and dispatched Brodir by disembowelment; Wolf watching as Brodir marched and wound his own innards around the trunk of a large tree. The battle was fairly matched for most of the day and each side had great respect for the prowess of the other; however, in the end, the Irish forced the Norse to return to the sea. Many of the fleeing Vikings were drowned in the surf due to their heavy mail coats as they struggled for the safety of their longships; others were pursued and slain further inland. After the battle, Viking power was broken in Ireland forever, though many settled Norse remained in the cities and prospered greatly with the Irish through trade. With Brian dead, Ireland returned to the fractured kingdom it had once been, but was now cleared of further Viking predation.
West Francia suffered more severely than East Francia during the Viking raids of the ninth century. West Francia or the West Frankish Kingdom was a short-lived kingdom encompassing the lands of the western part of the Carolingian Empire that came under the undisputed East ( ern) Francia ( Regnum Francorum orientalium) known variously as Francia Orientalis or the Kingdom of the East Franks, was the The reign of Charles the Bald coincided with some of the worst of these raids, though he did take action by the Edict of Pistres of 864 to secure a standing army of cavalry under royal control to be called upon at all times when necessary to fend off the invaders. Charles the Bald ( 13 June 823 – 6 October 877) Holy Roman Emperor (875–877 as Charles II) and King of West Francia The Edict of Pistres or Edictum Pistensis is often held up as one of the few examples if not the sole example of good government from Charles the Bald He also ordered the building of fortified bridges to prevent inland raids.
Nonetheless, the Bretons allied with the Vikings and Robert, the margrave of Neustria, (a march created for defence against the Vikings sailing up the Loire), and Ranulf of Aquitaine died in the Battle of Brissarthe in 865. The Bretons are a distinct Ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. Robert IV the Strong (also known as Rutpert) ( 820 - September 15, 866) was Margrave in Neustria. Margrave (marchio is the English and French form (recorded since 1551 of the German Title Markgraf (from Mark " The territory of Neustria or Neustrasia, meaning "new land" originated in 511 made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, Loire ( Arpitan: Lêre, Occitan: Léger) is an administrative department in the east-central part of France occupying the Ranulf I (also Ramnulf, Rannulf, and Ranulph; 820 &ndash 866 was a Count of Poitiers (from 835 and Duke of Aquitaine (from 852 The Battle of Brissarthe was fought on 15 September 866 between the Franks and a joint Breton - Viking army near Brissarthe The Vikings also took advantage of the civil wars which ravaged the Duchy of Aquitaine in the early years of Charles' reign. The Duke of Aquitaine ( French: Duc d'Aquitaine) ruled the historical region of Aquitaine under the supremacy of the Frankish and later the In the 840s, Pepin II called in the Vikings to aid him against Charles and they settled at the mouth of the Garonne. Pepin II, called the Younger (823 &ndash after 864 in Senlis) was King of Aquitaine from 838 as the successor upon the death of his father Pepin The Garonne (Garonne in Occitan, Catalan and Spanish: Garona; Garumna is a River in southwest France and northern Two dukes of Gascony, Seguin II and William I, died defending Bordeaux from Viking assaults. The Duchy of Vasconia (sometimes Wasconia) later known as Gascony, was a Merovingian creation a frontier duchy on the Seguin II (died 846 called Mostelanicus, was the Count of Bordeaux and Saintes from 840 and Duke of Gascony from 845 William I ( French: Guillaume, Gascon: Guilhem, Spanish: Guillermo) was the Duke of Gascony, appointed in 846 ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate A later duke, Sancho Mitarra, even settled some at the mouth of the Adour in an act presaging that of Charles the Simple and the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte by which the Vikings were settled in Rouen, creating Normandy as a bulwark against other Vikings. Sancho III ( Basque: Antso, Sanzio, Santio, Sanxo, Santzo, Santxo, or Sancio; French: The Adour (Aturri is a River in southwestern France. It rises in High- Bigorre ( Pyrenees) at the Col du Tourmalet, and flows into Charles III ( September 17, 879 – October 7, 929) called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the contemporary The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte was signed in the autumn of 911 between Charles the Simple and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings for the purpose Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy.
By the mid 9th century, though apparently not before  there were Viking attacks on the coastal Kingdom of Asturias in the far northwest of the peninsula, though historical sources are too meagre to assess how frequent or how early raiding occurred. The Kingdom of Asturias was the first Christian political entity to be established in the Iberian peninsula after the collapse of the Visigothic By the reign of Alfonso III Vikings were stifling the already weak threads of sea communications that tied Galicia to the rest of Europe. Alfonso III (c 848– 20 December 910 ? called the Great, was the king of Galicia and Asturias from 866 until his death Galicia (occasionally Galiza) is an autonomous community in northwest Spain. Richard Fletcher attests raids on the Galician coast in 844 and 858: "Alfonso III was sufficiently worried by the threat of Viking attack to establish fortified strong points near his coastline, as other rulers were doing elsewhere. " In 861, a group of Vikings ransomed the king of Pamplona, whom they had captured the previous year, for 60,000 gold pieces.
Raiding continued for the next two centuries. In 968 Bishop Sisnando of Compostela was killed, the monastery of Curtis was sacked, and measures were ordered for the defence of the inland town of Lugo. Lugo is a city in northwestern Spain, in the autonomous community of Galicia. After Tui was sacked early in the 11th century, its bishopric remained vacant for the next half-century. Ransom was a motive for abductions: Fletcher instances Amarelo Mestáliz, who was forced to raise money on the security of his land in order to ransom his daughters who had been captured by the Vikings in 1015. Bishop Cresconio of Compostela (ca. Cresconius (Cresconio (c 1036–1066 was a Bishop of Iria Flavia and Santiago de Compostela during the eleventh century 1036 – 66) repulsed a Viking foray and built the fortress at Torres do Oeste (Council of Catoira) to protect Compostela from the Atlantic approaches. Catoira is a municipality in Galicia (Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula in the province of Pontevedra. The city of Póvoa de Varzim in Northern Portugal, then a town, was settled by Vikings around the 9th century and its influence kept strong until very recently, mostly due to the practice of endogamy in the community. Póvoa de Varzim (ˈpɔvuɐ dɨ vɐɾˈzĩ locally ˈpɔβuɐ dɨ bɐɾˈziŋ is a Portuguese city in the Northern Region and sub-region of Greater Porto Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. Cultures who practice endogamy require marriage between specified social groups classes or ethnicities
In the Islamic south, the first navy of the Emirate was built after the humiliating Viking ascent of the Guadalquivir in 844 when they sacked Seville. The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic خلافة قرطبة ruled the Iberian peninsula ( Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest River in Spain (after the Tagus, Ebro, Duero and Guadiana) and the longest in Nevertheless, in 859, Danish pirates sailed through Gibraltar and raided the little Moroccan state of Nakur. Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The king's harem had to be ransomed back by the emir of Cordoba. These and other raids prompted a shipbuilding program at the dockyards of Seville. Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. The Andalusian navy was thenceforth employed to patrol the Iberian coastline under the caliphs Abd al-Rahman III (912 – 61) and Al-Hakam II (961 – 76). Abd-ar-Rahman III ( ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh; Arabic: عبد الرحمن الثالث January 11 889 – October Al-Hakam II ( al-Ḥakam II ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III; Arabic: الحكم الثاني; January 13 915 - October 16 976 By the next century, piracy from North Africans superseded Viking raids.
The Vikings settled coastal areas along the Baltic Sea, and along inland rivers in Russian territories such as Staraya Ladoga, Novgorod and along major waterways to the Byzantine empire. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian The Rus' Khaganate Volkhov Rus, Ilmen Rus, or Novgorod Rus --> was a Polity that flourished during a poorly documented In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Staraya Ladoga (Ста́рая Ла́дога or the Aldeigjuborg of Norse sagas is a village ( selo) in the Volkhovsky Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod
The Varangians or Varyags (Russian, Ukrainian: Варяги, Varyagi) sometimes referred to as Variagians were Scandinavians who migrated eastwards and southwards through what is now Russia, Belarus and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries. Human migration denotes any movement by Humans from one locality to another sometimes over long distances or Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Engaging in trade, colonization, piracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, reaching and settling at the Caspian Sea and in Constantinople. Garðaríki (Anglicized Gardariki or Gardarike) or Garðaveldi is the Old Norse term used in medieval times for the states of The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
Two areas along Greenland's southwest coast were colonized by Norse settlers around 986. The land was marginal at best. The settlers arrived during a warm phase, when short-season crops such as rye and barley could be grown. Sheep and hardy cattle were also raised for food, wool, and hides. Their main export was walrus ivory, which was traded for iron and other goods which could not be produced locally. The walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered Marine mammal with a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the Arctic Ocean and Greenland became a dependency of the king of Norway in 1261. During the 13th century, the population may have reached as high as 5,000, divided between the two main settlements of Eystribygð (Eastern Settlement) and Vestribygð (Western Settlement). The Eastern Settlement (Eystribygð Eystribyggð was the larger of the two areas of Greenland settled in approximately 985 AD by Norse farmers from Iceland The Western Settlement (Vestribyggð was the smaller of the two areas of Greenland settled in around 985 AD by Norse farmers from Iceland (the other Greenland had several churches and a cathedral at Gardar. The Catholic diocese of Greenland was subject to the archdiocese of Nidaros. Nidaros was the old name of Trondheim (Trond(hjem sometimes Drontheim a city of Norway, in the Middle Ages. However, many bishops chose to exercise this office from afar. As the years wore on, the climate shifted (see little ice age). The Little Ice Age (LIA was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval Warm Period or Medieval Climate Optimum In 1379 the northernmost settlement was attacked by the Skrælings (Norse word for Inuit). Skræling (plural skrælingjar) is the name the Norse Greenlanders gave to the Thule people they encountered in Greenland and perhaps to Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting  Crops failed and trade declined. The Greenland colony gradually faded away. By 1450 it had lost contact with Norway and Iceland and disappeared from all but a few Scandinavian legends. 
Some exploration and expansion occurred still further west, in modern-day North America, with exploration led by Erik the Red and his son, Leif Eriksson from Iceland. As early as the 10th century Norse sailors (often referred to as Vikings explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeastern fringes of Erik the Red (950–c 1003 ( Old Norse: Eiríkr rauði; Icelandic: Eiríkur rauði; Norwegian: Eirik Raude; Danish Leif Ericson ( Old Norse: Leifr Eiríksson) (c 970 – c 1020 was a Norse Explorer who was probably the first European to land in Leif Eriksson, known from Icelandic sagas as a descendant from a line of Norwegian Viking chieftains, who had established the first European settlement in Greenland in about 985, was most likely the first people from the old world to discover America in about 1000. The Sagas of Icelanders ( Icelandic: Íslendingasögur)&mdashmany of which are also known as family sagas &mdashare prose histories describing Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America  Regular activity from Greenland extended to Ellesmere Island, Skraeling Island and Ruin Island for hunting and trading with Inuit groups. Ellesmere Island is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region of the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Skraeling Island lies off the east coast of Ellesmere Island in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting A short-lived seasonal settlement was established at L'Anse aux Meadows, located in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove" is an Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Norwegian Vikings called the new found territory "Vinland. Vinland was the name given to an area of North America by the Norseman Leifr Eiríksson, about the year A "
The motives driving the Viking expansion form a topic of much debate in Nordic history. One common theory posits that the Viking population had outgrown agricultural potential of their Scandinavian homeland. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. For a coastal population with superior naval technologies, it made sense to expand overseas in the face of a youth bulge effect. A population pyramid, also called age-sex pyramid and age structure diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a However, this theory does little to explain why the expansion went overseas rather than into the vast, uncultivated forest areas on the interior of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian Peninsula is a geographic region in northern Europe, consisting principally of the Mainland territories of Norway and Sweden Moreover, no such rise in population or decline in agricultural production has been definitively proven.
Another explanation is that the Vikings exploited a moment of weakness in the surrounding regions. For instance, the Danish Vikings were aware of the internal divisions within Charlemagne's empire that began in the 830s and resulted in schism. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The Danish expeditions in England also profited from the disunity of the different English kingdoms. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role. Trade between western Europe and the rest of Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The expansion of Islam in the 7th century had also affected trade with western Europe. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Trade on the Mediterranean Sea was historically at its lowest level when the Vikings initiated their expansion. By opening new trade routes in Arabic and Frankish lands, the Vikings profited from international trade by expanding beyond their traditional boundaries. Finally, the destruction of the Frisian fleet by the Franks afforded the Vikings an opportunity to take over their trade markets. Frisia ( West Frisian: Fryslân; North Frisian: Fraschlönj, Freesklöön, Freeskluin, Fresklun, and
Viking expansion could also have originated as a means of resistance to forced Christianisation, in particular Charlemagne’s persecutions against all the Pagan people, who would’ve had to accept “conversion, or the massacre. "
Following a period of thriving trade and settlement, cultural impulses flowed from the rest of Europe to affect Viking dominance. Christianity had an early and growing presence in Scandinavia, and with the rise of centralized authority and the development of more robust coastal defense systems, Viking raids became more risky and less profitable. The Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people starting in the 8th century with
Snorri Sturluson in the saga of St. Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian poet and politician The sagas (from Icelandic saga, plural sögur) are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history about early Viking voyages Olafr chapter 73, describes the brutal process of Christianisation in Norway: “…those who did not give up paganism were banished, with others he (St. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Olafr) cut off their hands or their feet or extirpated their eyes, others he ordered hanged or decapitated, but did not leave unpunished any of those who did not want to serve God (…) he afflicted them with great punishments (…) He gave them clerks and instituted some in the districts. ”
As the new quasi-feudalilistic system became entrenched in Scandinavian rule, organized opposition sealed the Viking's fate – 11th century chronicles note Scandinavian attempts to combat the Vikings from the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, which eventually led to Danish and Swedish participation in the Baltic crusades during the 12th and 13th centuries, and contributed to the development of the Hanseatic League. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade 
Our knowledge about arms and armor of the Viking age is based on relatively sparse archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century. Our knowledge about arms and armour of the Viking age ( 8th to 11th centuries Europe is based on relatively sparse archaeological finds pictorial representation The sagas (from Icelandic saga, plural sögur) are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history about early Viking voyages
According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons, as well as permitted to carry them at all times. These arms were also indicative of a Viking's social status. A wealthy Viking would have a complete ensemble of a helmet, shield, chainmail shirt, and animal-skin coat, possibly reindeer hides, among various other armaments. A helmet is a form of Protective gear worn on the head to protect it from injuries a variation of the hat A shield is a protective device meant to intercept attacks The term often refers to a device that is held in the hand as opposed to Armour or a Bullet proof vest Mail (also maille, often given as chain mail or chain maille) is a type of Armour or jewellery that consists of small metal rings linked A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons A lesser off man, however, could only afford a single weapon, and perhaps a shield.
The spear and shield were the most basic armaments of the Viking warrior; most would probably also wear a knife of some description, commonly of the seax type. This is an article about a particle accelerator For uses of spear, see Spear or Spear (disambiguation. A shield is a protective device meant to intercept attacks The term often refers to a device that is held in the hand as opposed to Armour or a Bullet proof vest A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting Seax (also Hadseax, Sax, Seaxe, Scramaseax and Scramsax) in As an alternative, or perhaps in addition, to the spear a warrior might carry a bow or axe. A bow is a Weapon that projects arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow The axe, or ax, is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape split and cut Wood, Harvest timber, as a Weapon The wealthiest Vikings would have worn a sword in addition to his primary arms and have had access to body armor, such as a helmet and a mail hauberk. A helmet is a form of Protective gear worn on the head to protect it from injuries a variation of the hat A hauberk is a shirt of mail Armour. The term is usually used to describe a shirt reaching at least to mid-thigh and including sleeves
With a distinct lack of totally reliable written sources on the topic, much of the historical investigation of the Viking period relies on Archaeology. 
The vast majority number of runic inscriptions from the Viking period come from Sweden, especially from the tenth and eleventh century. A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula Runestone which tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone which tells of a warband in Eastern Europe. A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock The Viking Runestones are Runestones that mention Scandinavians who participated in Viking expeditions Varangian routespng|thumb|right|250px|A map of the main routes through Garðaríki Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions, among them the around 25 Ingvar Runestones in the Mälardalen district of Sweden erected to commemorate members of a disastrous expedition into present-day Russia in the early 11th century. See also Varangian Runestones The Ingvar Runestones (Ingvarstenarna is the name of c The Mälaren Valley (Mälardalen occasionally referred to as Stockholm-Mälaren Region ( Stockholm-Mälaren regionen) is the easternmost part of Svealand "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The runestones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the 'Viking' segment of the population (Sawyer, P H: 1997).
Runestones attest to voyages to locations, such as Bath, Greece, Khwaresm, Jerusalem, Italy (as Langobardland), London, Serkland (i. Bath is a city in Somerset in the south west of England It is situated west of London and south-east of Bristol. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Khwarezm were a series of States centered on the Amu Darya River delta of the Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Old Norse sources such as Sagas and Runestones Særkland or Serkland was the name of the Abbasid Caliphate and probably e. the Muslim world), England, and various locations in Eastern Europe. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
The word Viking appears on several runestones found in Scandinavia. A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well
There are numerous burial sites associated with Vikings. The Vikings often cremated their dead in Ship burials known from archaeology Sagas Old Norse poetry, and notably from the account of Ahmad As well as providing information on Viking religion, burial sites also provide information on social structure, and the items buried with the deceased often give some indication as to what was considered important to possess in the afterlife.  Some examples of notable burial sites include:
There were two distinct classes of Viking ships: the longship (sometimes erroneously called "drakkar", a corruption of "dragon" in Norse) and the knarr. Viking ship is a collective term for ships used during the Viking Age (793–1066 in Northern Europe Longships, or longboats were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxon people to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European A knarr is a type of Norse Merchant Ship famously used by the Vikings The knarr (also known as knorr or knörr) is of the The longship, intended for warfare and exploration, was designed for speed and agility, and were equipped with oars to complement the sail as well as making it able to navigate independently of the wind. The longship had a long and narrow hull, as well as a shallow draft, in order to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water. The knarr, on the other hand, was a slower merchant vessel with a greater cargo capacity than the longship. It was designed with a short and broad hull, and a deep draft. It also lacked the oars of the longship.
Longships were used extensively by the Leidang, the Scandinavian defence fleets. The institution known as leiðangr ( Old Norse) leidang ( Norwegian) leding, ( Danish) ledung The term "Viking ships" has entered common usage, however, possibly because of its romantic associations (discussed below).
In Roskilde are the well-preserved remains of five ships, excavated from nearby Roskilde Fjord in the late 1960s. Roskilde Fjord is the fjord north of Roskilde, Denmark, and is located at. The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel, thus protecting the city, which was then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault. These five ships represent the two distinct classes of Viking ships, the longship and the knarr. The remains of these ships can be found on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde is the Danish national museum for ships seafaring and boatbuilding in the prehistoric and medieval period
Longships are not to be confused with longboats. Not to be confused with Vikings ' Longships In the days of sailing ships a vessel would carry several boats for various uses
The Vikings’ prolific expansion is still exhibited in modern genetics. Relatively high frequencies of Haplogroup R1a1 are found in Northern Europe, the largest being 23% in Iceland, and it is believed to have been spread across Europe by the Indo-Europeans and later migrations of Vikings, which accounts for the existence of it in, among other places, the British Isles. A Subclade of R1, R1a is a Y-chromosome haplogroup found at high frequency in the extreme north of India among the Kashmiri Pandits Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan 
In England the Viking Age began dramatically on June 8, 793 when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Events By Place Europe June 8 - Viking age: Vikings sack the Monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria An abbey (from Latin abbatia derived from Syriac abba "father" is a Christian Monastery or Lindisfarne () (variant spelling Lindesfarne is a Tidal island off the north-east coast of England. The devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal Courts of Europe to the Viking presence. "Never before has such an atrocity been seen," declared the Northumbrian scholar, Alcuin of York. Alcuin of York (Alcuinus or Ealhwine, nicknamed Albinus or Flaccus (c More than any other single event, the attack on Lindisfarne demonized perception of the Vikings for the next twelve centuries. Not until the 1890s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills and seamanship. 
The first challenges to anti-Viking sentiments in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Pioneering scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins for rural idioms and proverbs. The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities The Sagas of Icelanders ( Icelandic: Íslendingasögur)&mdashmany of which are also known as family sagas &mdashare prose histories describing 
In Scandinavia, the 17th century Danish scholars Thomas Bartholin and Ole Worm, and Olof Rudbeck of Sweden were the first to set the standard for using runic inscriptions and Icelandic Sagas as historical sources. Thomas Bartholin ( Thomas Bartolinus) ( October 20, 1616 – December 4, 1680) was a Danish Physician, Mathematician Ole Worm ( May 13, 1588 &ndash August 31, 1655) (pronounced "Olə Vorm" who often went by the Latinized form of his name Olaus Rudbeck (also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder, to distinguish him from his son and occasionally with the surname Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius) (1630-1702 During the Age of Enlightenment and the Nordic Renaissance, historical scholarship in Scandinavia became more rational and pragmatic, as witnessed by the works of a Danish historian Ludvig Holberg and Swedish historian Olof von Dalin. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Ludvig Holberg Baron of Holberg ( December 3, 1684 – January 28, 1754) was a writer essayist philosopher historian and playwright born in Olof von Dalin (1708-1763 the Swedish poet was born on 29 August 1708 in the parish of Vinberg in Halland, where his father was the minister Until recently, the history of the Viking Age was largely based on Icelandic sagas, the history of the Danes written by Saxo Grammaticus, the Russian Primary Chronicle and the The War of the Irish with the Foreigners. "Saxo" redirects here For the car see Citroën Saxo and for the bank see Saxo Bank Saxo Grammaticus (c The Primary Chronicle (ѣѣтъ Пóвесть временны́х лет Povest' vremennykh let; Пóвість врéм'яних літ Povist' vremjanykh The War of the Irish with the Foreigners (Irish Cogad Gaedel re Gallaib) is a two-part medieval Irish chronicle that claims to record the depredations Although few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, historians nowadays rely more on archeology and numismatics, disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period. 
Until the 19th century reign of Queen Victoria, public perceptions in Britain continued to portray Vikings as violent and bloodthirsty. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 The chronicles of medieval England had always portrayed them as rapacious 'wolves among sheep'. In 1920, a winged-helmeted Viking was introduced as a radiator cap figure on the new Rover car, marking the start of the cultural rehabilitation of the Vikings in Britain. The Rover Company was a British Motor vehicle manufacturing company originating in Coventry in 1904 which moved to Solihull after World War II
Norse mythology, sagas and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes. Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland The sagas (from Icelandic saga, plural sögur) are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history about early Viking voyages Old Norse literature refers to the vernacular literature of the Scandinavian peoples up to ca However, early transmission of this information was primarily oral, and later texts were reliant upon the writings and transcriptions of Christian scholars, including the Icelanders Snorri Sturluson and Sæmundur fróði. Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian poet and politician Sæmundr Sigfússon or Sæmundr fróði ( Sæmundr the Learned) (1056 &ndash 1133 was an Icelandic priest and scholar Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the Icelanders' continued interest in Norse literature and law codes. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland (
The 200 year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonization, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants. The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Ruslan chronicles, and many brief mentions by the Fosio bishop from the first big attack on the Byzantine empire. Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod Ahmad Ibn Fadlān ibn al-Abbās ibn Rašīd ibn Hammād (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن رشيد بن حماد was a 10th century Arab Muslim
Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen, who wrote "There is much gold here (in Zealand), accumulated by piracy. Adam of Bremen (also Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German Medieval Chroniclers He lived and worked in the second half of the Zealand (also Sealand Danish: Sjælland;) is the largest Island (7031 km² of Denmark (excluding Greenland These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king" in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, and Egil Skallagrimsson, who mentioned that "Björn was a great traveler; sometimes as Viking, sometimes as tradesman. Egill Skallagrímsson (910-c990 was a Viking Skald and the great Anti-hero of Icelandic literature. "
In 991, the Battle of Maldon between Viking raiders and the inhabitants of the town of Maldon in Essex, England was commemorated with a poem of the same name. The Battle of Maldon took place on 10 August 991 near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex England, during the reign of Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common
Early modern publications, dealing with what we now call Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e. Early modern publications dealing with Old Norse ( Viking Age) culture appeared in the 16th century e Combat reenactment is a side of Historical reenactment which aims to depict historical forms of Combat. g. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (Olaus Magnus, 1555), and the first edition of the 13th century Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus in 1514. "Saxo" redirects here For the car see Citroën Saxo and for the bank see Saxo Bank Saxo Grammaticus (c The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda (notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of 1665). This page refers to the Eddur poems and tales of Norse Mythology
The word Viking was popularized, with positive connotations, by Erik Gustaf Geijer in the poem, The Viking, written at the beginning of the 19th century. Erik Gustaf Geijer ( January 12, 1783 - April 23, 1847) was a Swedish writer composer and historian. The word was taken to refer to romanticized, idealized naval warriors, who had very little to do with the historical Viking culture. This renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had political implications. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the A myth about a glorious and brave past was needed to give the Swedes the courage to retake Finland, which had been lost in 1809 during the war between Sweden and Russia. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809 The Geatish Society, of which Geijer was a member, popularized this myth to a great extent. The Geatish Society, or Gothic League ( Götiska Förbundet) was created by a number of Swedish Poets and Authors in 1811, as a social Another Swedish author who had great influence on the perception of the Vikings was Esaias Tegnér, member of the Geatish Society, who wrote a modern version of Friðþjófs saga ins frœkna, which became widely popular in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom and Germany. Esaias Tegnér ( 13 November 1782 in Kyrkerud, Värmland &ndash 2 November 1846) was a Swedish Writer The Geatish Society, or Gothic League ( Götiska Förbundet) was created by a number of Swedish Poets and Authors in 1811, as a social Friðþjófs saga hins frœkna is a Legendary saga from Iceland which in its present form is from ca 1300. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
A focus for early British enthusiasts was George Hicke, who published a Linguarum vett. septentrionalium thesaurus in 1703 – 05. During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and Nordic culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations as well as original poems, extolling Viking virtues and increased interest in anything Runic that could be found in the Danelaw, rising to a peak during Victorian times. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities
Political organizations of the same tradition, such as the Norwegian fascist party, Nasjonal Samling, used an amount of Viking symbolism combined with Roman symbolism and imagery widely in their propaganda and aesthetical approach. This article describes speculative theories about Nazism Semi-religious developments within post-1945 Nazism are discussed under the term Neo-völkisch movements. Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for "National Gathering" or "National Unification" hereafter abbreviated as NS was a fascist party in Norway
Similar to Wagnerian mythology, the romanticism of the heroic Viking ideal appealed to the Germanic supremacist thinkers of Nazi Germany. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Political organizations of the same tradition, such as the Norwegian fascist party, Nasjonal Samling, used Viking symbolism and imagery widely in its propaganda. Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for "National Gathering" or "National Unification" hereafter abbreviated as NS was a fascist party in Norway The Viking legacy had an impact in parts of Europe, especially the Northern Baltic region, but in no way was the Viking experience particular to Germany. However, the Nazis did not claim themselves to be the descendants of any Viking settlers. Instead, they resorted to the historical and ethnic fact that the Vikings were descendants of other Germanic peoples; this fact is supported by the shared ethnic-genetic elements, and cultural and linguistic traits, of the Germans, Anglo-Saxons, and Viking Scandinavians. In particular, all these peoples also had traditions of Germanic paganism and practiced runelore. Germanic paganism refers to the religious beliefs of the Germanic peoples preceding Christianization. This common Germanic identity became - and still is - the foundation for much National Socialist iconography. For example, the runic emblem of the SS utilized the sig rune of the Elder Futhark and the youth organization Wiking-Jugend made extensive use of the odal rune. The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the Sig is the name given by Guido von List for the Sigel or s Rune of the Armanen Futharkh, and is also used by Karl Maria Wiligut The Elder Futhark (or Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark) is the oldest form of the Runic alphabet, used by Germanic tribes The " Wiking-Jugend " (WJ " Viking youth" was a German Neo-Nazi organization modelled after the Hitlerjugend. The Elder Futhark Odal Rune ( represents the o sound Its reconstructed Proto-Germanic name is * ôþalan. This trend still holds true today (see also fascist symbolism). As there were many different manifestations of Fascism, especially during the interwar years there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements.
Since the 1960s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. "Reenactment" redirects here For the 1968 Romanian film see The Reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of re-enactors has increased.
On 1 July 2007, the reconstructed Viking ship Skuldelev 2, renamed Sea Stallion, began a journey from Roskilde, Denmark to Dublin, Ireland. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a 1962 excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. This multi-national experimental archeology project saw 70 crew members sail the ship back to its home in Ireland. Tests of the original wood show that it was made out of Irish trees. The Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August 2007. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents. The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society. The ship was built using Viking tools, materials and much the same methods as the original ship.
Germanic neopagan groups place emphasis on reconstructing the culture and pre-Christian beliefs of the Germanic peoples, including the Viking era of Norse culture. Germanic Neopaganism, Heathenism or Heathenry is the modern revival of historical Germanic paganism.
Spearheaded by the operas of German composer Richard Wagner such as Der Ring des Nibelungen, Vikings and the Romanticist Viking Revival have inspired many works of fiction, from historical novels directly based on historical events like Frans Gunnar Bengtsson's The Long Ships (which was also filmed) to extremely loosely based historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings, Michael Crichton's Eaters of the Dead (movie version called The 13th Warrior) and the comedy film Erik the Viking. Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung) is a cycle of four epic Music dramas by the German composer Frans Gunnar Bengtsson ( October 4, 1894 - December 19, 1954) was a Swedish novelist essayist poet and biographer The Long Ships or Red Orm (original Swedish Röde Orm) is a best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson The Long Ships is a 1964 British - Yugoslavian adventure film directed by Jack Cardiff and vaguely based on the Swedish novel The Vikings was an action/adventure film directed by Richard Fleischer in 1958, produced by and starring Kirk Douglas, and based on the novel John Michael Crichton, ˈkraɪtən, (born October 23 1942 is an American author Film producer, Film director, Medical doctor, and Television producer Eaters of the Dead The Manuscript of Ibn Fadlan Relating His Experiences with the Northmen in A The 13th Warrior is a 1999 Action film based on Michael Crichton 's Novel Eaters of the Dead, directed by Erik the Viking is a 1989 Film written and directed by Terry Jones, who also makes an appearance in it
Modern influence is also exhibited in the genre of Viking metal. Viking metal is a subgenre of Heavy metal music characterised by its galloping pace keyboard-rich anthemic sound bleakness and dramatic emphasis on Norse mythology A popular sub-genre of heavy metal music, originating in the early 1990s as an off-shoot of the black metal sub-genre. Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It often employs fast tempos shrieked vocals highly distorted guitars played with Tremolo picking, This style is notable for its lyrical and theatrical emphasis on Norse mythology as well as Viking lifestyles and beliefs. Popular bands that contribute to this genre include Turisas, Amon Amarth, Einherjer, Valhalla, Týr, Ensiferum, Falkenbach, and Enslaved. Turisas are a Finnish Viking metal band from Hämeenlinna. They were founded in 1997 by Mathias Nygård and Jussi Wickström Amon Amarth is a Viking -themed Melodic death metal band from Tumba, Sweden founded in 1992 Einherjer is a Viking metal band from Haugesund, Norway, founded in 1993 Týr (tʰʊɪːɹ is a band from the Faroe Islands which plays a combination of heavy metal and Folk music, with strong Progressive metal elements Ensiferum (Latin ensĭfĕrum (neuter adjective meaning "sword bearing" is a heavy metal Falkenbach is a Viking metal one-man project from Germany that is currently signed to Napalm Records. Enslaved is a progressive Black metal band formed in 1991 in Haugesund, Norway, and currently based out of Bergen
Apart from two or three representations of (ritual) helmets – with protrusions that may be either stylized ravens, snakes or horns – no depiction of Viking Age warriors' helmets, and no actually preserved helmet, has horns. European Bronze Age and Iron Age helmets with horns are known from a few depictions and even fewer actual finds In fact, the formal close-quarters style of Viking combat (either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands") would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.
Therefore it can be ruled out that Viking warriors had horned helmets, but whether or not they were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes remains unproven. The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet, founded in 1811 in Stockholm, Sweden, with the aim of promoting the suitability of Norse mythology as subjects of high art and other ethnological and moral aims. The Geatish Society, or Gothic League ( Götiska Förbundet) was created by a number of Swedish Poets and Authors in 1811, as a social ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the
The Vikings were also often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity, especially in depictions of Norse gods. This was done in order to legitimize the Vikings and their mythology, by associating it with the Classical world which has always been idealized in European culture.
The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with glimpses of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2,000 years earlier, for which actual horned helmets, probably for ceremonial purposes, are attested both in petroglyphs and by actual finds (see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets). Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative Provinces of Sweden ( landskap in Swedish situated on the west coast of the country Veksø is a small town located between Ballerup and Stenløse in Egedal municipality near Copenhagen on the island of Zealand (Sjælland
The cliché was perpetuated by cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking, and sports uniforms such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders football teams. Hägar the Horrible (sometimes referred to as simply Hagar) is the title and the name of the main character of a syndicated Comic strip Vicky the Viking, known as Wickie und die starken Männer in Germany and Austria and in Japan, is an Austrian-German-Japanese The Minnesota Vikings are a professional American football team based out of Minneapolis Minnesota. The Canberra Raiders are an Australian professional Rugby league football team based in the city of Canberra Australian Capital Territory.
The regular Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for the regular troops and the iron helmet with mask and chain mail for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel age helmets from central Sweden. Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland.The village overlooks a long inland stretch of water Vendelsjön near which the Vendel river has its confluence with the The only true Viking helmet found, is that from Gjermundbu in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.
Despite images of Viking marauders who live for plunder and warfare, the heart of Viking society was reciprocity, on both a personal, social level and on a broader political level. Looting ( Hindi lūṭ akin to Sanskrit luṭhati steals also Latin latro, latronis Endemic warfare is the state of continual low-threshold Warfare in a tribal Warrior society The Vikings lived in a time when numerous societies were engaged in many violent acts, and the doings of the Vikings put into context are not as savage as they seem. Others of the time period were much more savage than the Vikings, such as the Frankish king, Charlemagne, who cut off the heads of 4,500 Saxons for practicing paganism (Bloody Verdict of Verden) in one day. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal The Massacre of Verden (Blutgericht von Verden was an alleged massacre of Saxons in 782 near the present town of Verden in Lower Saxony, Most Vikings were traders, although some did plunder, often monasteries around Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England, as they had a lot of valuables in gold and silver. As monasteries were centers of learning and writing, their experiences were much more likely to enter the historical record. However, considerable literature in the monasteries would have been destroyed during the plunderings.
One of the Vikings' largest profit-centers was the slave trade; any group that acts as slave-takers is likely to be viewed with disdain by their victims. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history During the period of the Vikings, slavery was common throughout Northern Europe, and the fact that many slaves were captured persons was irrelevant in law. Slavery in early Medieval Europe was relatively common It was widespread at the end of antiquity. A person from Poland could be captured and later sold in England, for example. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Slavery was common amongst the Scandinavians themselves, as well.
In the 300-year period where Vikings were most active, there were approximately 347 recorded attacks that spread from the British Isles to Morocco, Portugal, and Turkey. In Ireland, where the Vikings are most famous for attacking monasteries, there were 430 known attacks during this 300-year period. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism.
The use of human skulls as drinking vessels is also ahistorical. The use of a defeated enemy's Skull as a drinking cup is reported by numerous authors through history among various peoples especially nomads roaming the Steppes The rise of this myth can be traced back to an Ole Worm's Runer seu Danica literatura antiquissima of 1636), warriors drinking ór bjúgviðum hausa [from the curved branches of skulls, i. e. from horns] were rendered as drinking ex craniis eorum quos ceciderunt [from the skulls of those whom they had slain]. The skull-cup allegation may also have some history in relation with other Germanic tribes and Eurasian nomads, such as the Scythians and Pechenegs. Eurasian Nomads are a large group of peoples of the Eurasian Steppe. The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic The Pechenegs or Patzinaks ( Turkish: Peçenekler, Hungarian: Besenyő, Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi or Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι/Πατζινακίται
The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.  Non-Scandinavian Christians are responsible for most surviving accounts of the Vikings and, consequently, a strong possibility for bias exists. This attitude is likely attributed to Christian misunderstandings regarding paganism. Viking tendencies were often misreported and the work of Adam of Bremen, among others, told largely disputable tales of Viking savagery and uncleanliness. Adam of Bremen (also Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German Medieval Chroniclers He lived and worked in the second half of the
However, it is now known that the Vikings used a variety of tools for personal grooming such as combs, tweezers, razors or specialized "ear spoons". Personal grooming (also called titivating) is the art of cleaning grooming and maintaining parts of the body A comb is a device made of solid material generally flat always toothed and is used in hair care for straightening and cleaning hair or other fibers Tweezers are tools used for picking up small objects that are not easily handled with the Human Hands They are probably derived from Tongs, Pincers A razor is a Bladed Tool primarily used in the Shaving off of unwanted Body hair. Ear picks, also called ear scoops, or ear spoons, are a type of Curette used to clean the ear canal of Ear wax (cerumen In particular, combs are among the most frequent artifacts from Viking Age excavations. The Vikings also made soap, which they used to bleach their hair as well as for cleaning, as blonde hair was ideal in the Viking culture. SOAP (see below for name and origins is a protocol for exchanging XML -based messages over Computer networks normally using
The Vikings in England even had a particular reputation for excessive cleanliness, due to their custom of bathing once a week, on Saturdays (unlike the local Anglo-Saxons). England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south To this day, Saturday is referred to as laugardagur / laurdag / lørdag / lördag, "washing day" in the Scandinavian languages, though the original meaning is lost in modern speech in most of the Scandinavian languages ("laug" still means "bath" or "pool" in Icelandic). The North Germanic languages or Scandinavian languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages
As for the Rus', who had later acquired a subjected Varangian component, Ibn Rustah explicitly notes their cleanliness, while Ibn Fadlan is disgusted by all of the men sharing the same, used vessel to wash their faces and blow their noses in the morning. Rus’ (Русь rusʲ Русичи Русы are an ancient people whose name survives in the cognates Russians, Rusyns, and Ruthenians The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian Ibn Rustah (in Persian احمد ابن رسته اصفهانی - Aḥmad ebn Roste Eṣfahānī was a 10th century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta Ahmad Ibn Fadlān ibn al-Abbās ibn Rašīd ibn Hammād (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن رشيد بن حماد was a 10th century Arab Muslim Ibn Fadlan's disgust is probably motivated by his ideas of personal hygiene particular to the Muslim world, such as running water and clean vessels. While the example intended to convey his disgust about the customs of the Rus', at the same time it recorded that they did wash every morning.