A videogame is a game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for Enjoyment and sometimes also used as an Educational tool The user interface (or Human Computer Interface) is the aggregate of means by which people&mdash the users '&mdash interact with the System A display device is an Output device for presentation of Information for Visual or Tactile reception acquired stored or transmitted  The word video in videogame traditionally referred to a raster display device. In Computer graphics, a raster graphics image or bitmap, is a Data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of Pixels  However, with the popular use of the term "videogame", it now implies any type of display device. A display device is an Output device for presentation of Information for Visual or Tactile reception acquired stored or transmitted The electronic systems used to play videogames are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and videogame consoles. Consumer electronics include electronic equipment intended for everyday use A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated These platforms are broad in range, from large computers to small handheld devices. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A mobile device (also known as cellphone device, handheld device, handheld computer, "Palmtop" or simply handheld) is a pocket-sized Specialized videogames such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. An arcade game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in businesses such as Restaurants Pubs Video arcades and Family Entertainment
The input device normally used to manipulate videogames is called a game controller, which varies across platforms. An input device is any Peripheral (piece of Computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a A game controller is an Input device used to control a Video game. For instance, a dedicated console controller might consist of only a button and a joystick, or feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling Early personal computer based games historically relied on the availability of a keyboard for gameplay, or more commonly, required the user to purchase a separate joystick with at least one button to play. In Computing, a keyboard is an Input device partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys For the television channel see GamePlay HD. Gameplay includes all player experiences during the interaction with game systems especially formal Many modern computer games allow the player to use a keyboard and mouse simultaneously. In Computing, a mouse (plural mice, mouse devices, or mouses)
Beyond the common element of visual feedback, videogames have utilized other systems to provide interaction and information to the player. Chief examples of these are sound reproduction devices, such as speakers and headphones, and an array of haptic peripherals, such as vibration or force feedback. Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are external speakers commonly equipped with a low-power internal amplifier Headphones (also known as earphones, earbuds, stereophones, headsets) are a pair of small Loudspeakers or less commonly a single
The formulative years of videogames consist of basic games that made use of interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example was in 1947, where the idea for a "Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device" was conceived by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann. The cathode ray tube (CRT is a Vacuum tube containing an Electron gun (a source of electrons and a Fluorescent screen with internal or Thomas Toliver Goldsmith Jr was an early Television pioneer the inventor of the First video game, and a professor of physics at Furman University. The two filed for a patent on January 25, 1947, which was issued on December 14, 1948 as U. Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. S. Patent 2455992.  Inspired by radar displays, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets represented by drawings fixed to the screen.  Other examples included the NIMROD computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain, Alexander S. The Nimrod was a special purpose computer that played the game of Nim, designed and built by Ferranti and displayed at the Exhibition of Science during the 1951 The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition which opened in London and around Britain in May 1951 Douglas's OXO for the EDSAC in 1952, William Higinbotham's interactive game called Tennis for Two in 1958, and MIT students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen's Spacewar! on a DEC PDP-1 computer in 1961. OXO (also known as Noughts and Crosses) is a Tic-tac-toe Computer game made for the EDSAC computer in 1952. Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator ( EDSAC) was an early British Computer. William (Willy A Higinbotham ( October 25, 1910 - November 10, 1994) an American Physicist, is credited with creating Tennis for Two was a game developed in 1958 on an Analog computer, which simulates a game of Tennis or Ping pong on an Oscilloscope Spacewar! is one of the earliest known digital Computer games Steve "Slug" Russell, Martin "Shag" Graetz and Wayne Wiitanen The PDP-1 ( P rogrammed D ata P rocessor- 1) was the first Computer in Digital Equipment Corporation 's Each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe, Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, and Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. Nim is a two-player mathematical Game of strategy in which players take turns removing objects from distinct heaps An oscilloscope (commonly abbreviated to scope or O-scope) is a type of Electronic test equipment that allows signal Voltages to be viewed Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the Computer industry The PDP-1 ( P rogrammed D ata P rocessor- 1) was the first Computer in Digital Equipment Corporation 's A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. 
In 1971, Computer Space was released and was the first commercially sold, coin-operated videogame. Computer Space is a video Arcade game released in November 1971 by Nutting Associates. Created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, it used a standard television and game generated video signal for display (the game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green). Nolan K Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical Engineer and Entrepreneur who founded both Atari Inc Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972. Soylent Green " in popular culture the section "Cultural impact" was created as a "catch-all" of the cultural references to Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console. The Magnavox Odyssey is the world's first Video game console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it also used a standard television and game generated video signal. Ralph H Baer (born March 8, 1922) is a German -born American Inventor, noted for his many contributions to Games and the  These systems were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong; an arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975. Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972. Pong is a first generation Video game released originally as a Coin -operated Arcade game by Atari Inc  The commercial success of Pong led other companies to develop numerous Pong-clones and their own systems, spawning the videogame industry. The video game industry (formally referred to as Interactive entertainment) is the economic sector involved with the development, Marketing 
The term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic or computer hardware which, in conjunction with low-level software, allows a videogame to operate. Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of a Technology.  The term "system" is also commonly used.
In common usage a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer connected to a high-resolution video monitor. A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated A video monitor also called a broadcast monitor, is a device similar to a Television, used to monitor the output of a video-generating device such as a media A "console game" is played on a specialized electronic device that connects to a standard television set or composite video monitor. This article is about games played on consoles Video gaming is about this form of gaming in general A composite monitor is any analog video display that receives input in the form of an analog Composite video signal through a single Cable — in contrast A "handheld" gaming device is a self contained electronic device that is portable and can be held in a user's hands. A handheld game console is a lightweight portable electronic machine for playing Video games Unlike Video game consoles the controls screen and speakers "Arcade game" generally refers to a game played on an even more specialized type of electronic device that is typically designed to play only one game and is encased in a special cabinet. An arcade game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in businesses such as Restaurants Pubs Video arcades and Family Entertainment An arcade cabinet, also known as an arcade machine or coin-op, is the housing within which an Arcade game 's Hardware resides These distinctions are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. There are also platforms that have non videogame variations such as in the case of electro-mechanically based arcade machines. In Engineering, electromechanics combines the Sciences of Electromagnetism of Electrical engineering and mechanics. There are also devices with screens which have the ability to play games but are not dedicated videogame machines. Examples are mobile phones, PDAs, graphing calculators, GPS receivers, MP3 players, digital cameras, and watches. A graphing calculator (also known as a graphic calculator or graphical calculator) typically refers to a class of handheld Calculators that are capable of Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth A digital audio player, more commonly referred to as an MP3 player, is a Consumer electronics device that stores organizes and plays audio files Some Many compact digital still cameras can record Sound and moving Video as well as still Photograph.
A videogame, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into genres based on many factors such as method of game play, types of goals, and more. Because genres are dependent on content for definition, genres have changed and evolved as newer styles of videogames are created. As the production values of videogames have increased over the years both in visual appearance and depth of story telling, the videogame industry has been producing more life-like and complex games that push the boundaries of the traditional game genres. Some genres represent combinations of others, such as massively multiplayer online role-playing games. A massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) is a genre of Computer role-playing games (CRPGs in which a large number of players interact with It is also common to see higher level genre terms that are collective in nature across all other genres such as with action or horror-themed videogames.
Videogames are primarily meant for entertainment. However, some videogames are made (at least in part) for other reasons. These include advergames, educational games, propaganda games (e. Advergaming is the practice of using Video games to advertise a product organization or viewpoint Educational games are Games that have been specifically designed to teach people about a certain subject expand concepts reinforce development understand an historical event Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people g. militainment), and others. Militainment is a Portmanteau first coined by president Richard Nixon, that consists of " Mili tary" and "enter' tainment' Many of these fall under the category of serious games. A serious game is a term used to refer to a Software or Hardware application developed with game technology and Game design principles for
Videogame development and authorship, much like any other form of entertainment is frequently a cross disciplinary field. Game development is the process by which a Game is produced Today this term most commonly refers to the development of Video games Overview Development Videogame developers, as employees within this industry are commonly referred, primarily include programmers and graphic designers. A game programmer is a Programmer who primarily develops Video games or related Software (such as Game development tools. The term graphic design can refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines which focus on visual communication and presentation Although, over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that you might see prevalent in any movie or television program including sound designers, musicians, and other technicians; all of which are managed by producers. Sound design is a technical/conceptually creative field It covers all non-compositional elements of a film a play a music performance A musician is a person who plays or writes Music. Musicians can be classified by their roles in creating or performing music An instrumentalist plays a A game producer is the person in charge of overseeing development of a Video game.
In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a videogame. As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more. This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone as this still occurs in the casual gaming and handheld markets where single screen games are more prevalent due to technical limitations of the target platform (such as cellphones and PDAs).
With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry the problem of cost has become more critical then ever. Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly on the look to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment. Typically, a videogame console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding 100. The growth of team size combined with greater pressures to get completed projects into the market to begin recouping production costs has led to a greater occurrence of missed deadlines and unfinished products; Duke Nukem Forever is the quintessential example of these problems. Duke Nukem
Games running on a PC are often designed with end-user modifications in mind, and this consequently allows modern computer games to be modified by gamers without much difficulty. Mod or modification is a term generally applied to Computer games especially First-person shooters RPGs and Real-time strategy games These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. Mod or modification is a term generally applied to Computer games especially First-person shooters RPGs and Real-time strategy games The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they have become an increasingly important factor in the commercial success of some games. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Developers such as id Software, Valve Software, Crytek, Epic Games and Blizzard Entertainment ship their games with the very development tools used to make the game in the first place, along with documentation to assist mod developers, which allows for the kind of success seen by popular mods such as the (previously) Half-Life mod Counter-Strike. id Software (ɪd officially is an American computer game developer based in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. Valve Corporation is an American video game development company based in Bellevue Washington, USA that was founded in 1996, and made famous Crytek is a German Video game company founded in 1999 by three Turkish-German brothers Cevat Avni and Faruk Yerli Epic Games, also known as Epic and formerly as Epic MegaGames, is a Video game development company based in Cary North Carolina, United Blizzard Entertainment is an American Video game developer and publisher headquartered in Irvine California. Counter-Strike (commonly abbreviated to CS) is a tactical First-person shooter Video game which originated from a
Cheating in computer games may involve cheat codes implemented by the game developers, modification of game code by third parties, or players exploiting a software glitch. A Cheat code (also called debug code or backdoor) is a code that can be entered into a computer program to alter the run-time behavior or configuration of that program Modifications are facilitated by either cheat cartridge hardware or a software trainer.  Cheats usually make the game easier by providing an unlimited amount of some resource; for example lives, health, and/or ammunition.  Other cheats might provide an unusual or amusing feature, like altered game colors or graphical appearances.
Software errors not detected by software testers during development can find their way into released versions of computer and videogames. A glitch is a short-lived Fault in a system The term is particularly common in the Computing and Electronics industries and in Circuit bending This may happen because the glitch only occurs under unusual circumstances in the game, was deemed too minor to correct, or because the game development was hurried to meet a publication deadline. Glitches can range from minor graphical errors to serious bugs that can delete saved data or cause the game to malfunction. Glitches in games for home computers, and now in consoles like the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3, may be later corrected if the developers release a patch. The Xbox 360 is the second Video game console produced by Microsoft, and was developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, and SiS.
Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of videogames for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities. Game studies is the still-young field of analyzing games from a multi- and inter-disciplinary perspective The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narratology is the theory and study of Narrative and Narrative structure and the ways they affect our perception Narrativists approach videogames in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama". Janet Murray is a Professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where she is the director of graduate studies in the School of Literature Communication and Culture That is to say, their major concern is with videogames as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction. Murray puts videogames in the context of the Holodeck, a fictional piece of technology from Star Trek, arguing for the videogame as a medium in which we get to become another person, and to act out in another world. A holodeck is a Simulated reality facility located on Starships and Starbases in the fictional Star Trek universe  This image of videogames received early widespread popular support, and forms the basis of films such as Tron, eXistenZ, and The Last Starfighter. Tron is a 1982 Disney Science fiction film starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and his counterpart inside the electronic world eXistenZ is a 1999 Psychological thriller / Science fiction film by Canadian director David Cronenberg. The Last Starfighter is a 1984 Science fiction Adventure film directed by Nick Castle.
Ludologists break sharply and radically from this. They argue that a videogame is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys. Espen J. Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay. Espen J Aarseth (born 1965 is a major figure in the emerging fields of Video game studies and Electronic literature. For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the curvaceous heroine of the game Tomb Raider, saying that "the dimensions of Lara Croft's body, already analyzed to death by film theorists, are irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently. Tomb Raider is a Video game developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive. Lara Croft is a Fictional character and the protagonist of Eidos Interactive 's Tomb Raider video game series Film theory debates the essence of the cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to Reality, the other Arts individual . . When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it. " Simply put, ludologists reject traditional theories of art because they claim that the artistic and socially relevant qualities of a videogame are primarily determined by the underlying set of rules, demands, and expectations imposed on the player.
The November 2005 Nielsen Active Gamer Study, taking a survey of 2,000 regular gamers, found that the U. S. games market is diversifying. The age group among male players has expanded significantly into the 25-40 age group. For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile cell phone games, the gender divide is more or less equal between males and females. Females have been shown to be significantly attracted to playing certain online multi-user videogames that offer a more communal experience, and small amount of young females have been shown to play aggressive games that are sometimes thought of as being "traditionally male" games. According to the ESRB almost 41% of PC gamers are women.  With such videogame social networks as Miss Videogame and Guild Cafe having a large percentages of female gamers, the "traditionally male" games are now considered cross-gendered.
Video gaming has traditionally been a social experience. A multiplayer game is a Game which is played by several players. From its early beginnings, videogames have commonly been playable by more than a single player. Multiplayer videogames are those that can be played either competitively or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by hotseating. A multiplayer game is a Game which is played by several players. Hotseat or hot seat is a multiplayer mode provided by some Computer games and Video games (usually Turn-based games, which allows two Tennis for Two, arguably the first videogame, was a two-player game, as was its successor Pong. Tennis for Two was a game developed in 1958 on an Analog computer, which simulates a game of Tennis or Ping pong on an Oscilloscope Pong is a first generation Video game released originally as a Coin -operated Arcade game by Atari Inc The first commercially available game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, had two controller inputs. The Magnavox Odyssey is the world's first Video game console.
Since then, most consoles have been shipped with two or four controller inputs. Some have had the ability to expand to four, eight or as many as twelve inputs with additional adapters, such as the Multitap. Multi-tap also refers to a text-entry system for mobile phones Multiplayer arcade games typically feature play for two to four players. An arcade game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in businesses such as Restaurants Pubs Video arcades and Family Entertainment
Many early computer games for non-PC descendant based platforms featured multiplayer support. Personal computer systems from Atari and Commodore both regularly featured at least two game ports. Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972. Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was a US-American Electronics company based in West Chester Pennsylvania PC-based computer games started with a lower availability of multiplayer options because of technical limitations. A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather PCs typically had either one or no game ports at all. Network games for these early personal computers were generally limited to only text based adventures or MUDs that were played remotely on a dedicated server. In computer gaming, a MUD ( Multi-User Dungeon, Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of This was due both to the slow speed of modems (300-1200-bit/s), and the prohibitive cost involved with putting a computer online in such a way where multiple visitors could make use of it. However, with the advent of widespread local area networking technologies and Internet based online capabilities, the number of players in modern games can be 32 or higher, sometimes featuring integrated text and/or voice chat. MMOs can offer extremely high numbers of simultaneous players; EVE Online set a record with just under 36,000 players on a single server in 2006. 
It has been shown that action videogame players have better visuomotor skills, such as their resistance to distraction, their sensitivity to information in peripheral vision, and their ability to count briefly presented objects than nonplayers. Distraction is the diversion of Attention of an individual or group from the chosen object of attention onto the source of distraction Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze  They found that such enhanced abilities could be acquired by training with an action game, involving challenges to switch attention to different locations, but not with a game requiring concentration on single objects. Playing videogames does not have any particularly negative affects, it has been shown. 
As a form of multimedia entertainment, modern videogames contain a unique synthesis of 3D art, CG effects, architecture, artificial intelligence, sound effects, dramatic performances, music, storytelling, and, most importantly, interactivity. Multimedia is media and content that utilizes a combination of different content forms. 3D computer graphics (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data that is stored in the computer Computer graphics are Graphics created by Computers and more generally the Representation and Manipulation of Pictorial Data This interactivity enables the player to explore environments that range from simulated reality to stylized, artistic expressions (something no other form of entertainment can allow) where the actions of the player operating as a single, irreducible variable. In this respect, every game scenario will play out a slightly different way every time. Even if the game is highly scripted, this can still feel like a large amount of freedom to the person who is playing the game.
A related property is that of emergent behavior. For other uses see Emergence (disambiguation, Emergent, and Emergency. While many games including card games and sports rely on emergent principles, videogames commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game. This is something that some gamers find appealing as it introduces a certain level of randomness to a game. The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player. " Emergent behavior is not limited to sophisticated games, however- generally any place where event driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will inevitably exist. For instance, take a racing game in which cars are programmed to avoid crashing, and they encounter an obstacle in the track: the cars might then maneuver to avoid the obstacle causing the cars behind them to slow and/or maneuver to accommodate the cars in front of them and the obstacle. The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game.
In Steven Johnson's book, Everything Bad Is Good For You, he argues that videogames in fact demand far more from a player than traditional games like Monopoly. Steven Berlin Johnson (born June 6, 1968) is an American Popular science Author. Everything Bad Is Good for You How Today's Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter is a book by Steven Berlin Johnson. Monopoly is a Board game published by Parker Brothers, a subsidiary of Hasbro. To experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them. They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and HUDs. In Video gaming, the HUD is the method by which information is visually relayed to the player as part of a game's User interface. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers, videogames are based upon the player navigating (and eventually mastering) a highly complex system with many variables. This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function. Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books.  Some research suggests videogames may even increase players' attention capacities. 
Learning principles found in videogames have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U. S education system.  It has been noticed that gamers adopt an attitude while playing that is of such high concentration, they don't realise they're learning- and that if the same attitude could be adopted at school, education would enjoy significant benefits. 
Online multiplayer games provide players with the opportunity to compete in real time with other players from across the globe over the internet. Online games are games played over some form of computer network. MMORPGs build on this concept with the establishment of vast, online communities existing in persistent virtual worlds. A massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) is a genre of Computer role-playing games (CRPGs in which a large number of players interact with Millions of players around the globe are attracted to video gaming simply because it offers such unprecedented ability to interact with large numbers of people engaged simultaneously in a structured environment where they are all involved in the same activity.
Even simple games offer potential benefits to the player. Games like Tetris and Pac-man or Galaga are well-designed games that are easy to pick up but difficult to master, much like chess or poker. Tetris (Тетрис is a Video puzzle game originally designed and programmed by Alexey Pajitnov in June 1985 while working for the Dorodnicyn is an Arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution Galaga is a Fixed shooter Arcade game and the sequel to Galaxian. Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. Poker is a type of Card game in which players bet on the value of the card combination (" hand " in their possession by placing a bet into Despite their simplicity, simple games may also feature online capabilities or powerful AI. Depending on the game, players can develop and test their techniques against an advanced computer player or online against other human players.
The U.S. army has deployed machines such as the PackBot which makes use of a game-style hand controller intended to make it more familiar to use by young people. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. PackBot is a series of Robots by IRobot. PackBot EOD (Explosive ordnance disposal can be controlled by radio or wired control to handle situations involving A game controller is an Input device used to control a Video game. 
Like related forms of media, computer and videogames have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advergaming (a form of advertising in games), consumption of drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, or profanity in some games. Similar to other forms of media Video games have been the subject of debate and Censorship. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes An organism's sex is defined by the gametes it produces males produce male gametes (spermatozoa or Sperm) while females produce female gametes (ova or Egg cells; individual Advergaming is the practice of using Video games to advertise a product organization or viewpoint Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Recreational drug use is the use of Psychoactive drugs for Recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people The original meaning of the adjective profane (from the Latin for "in front of or outside the Temple " was to refer to items not belonging to the church Among others, critics of videogames sometimes include parents' groups, politicians, organized religious groups, and other special interest groups, even though all of these can be found in all forms of entertainment and media. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos An interest group (also advocacy group, lobby group, pressure group or special interest group) is an organized collection of people who seek Various games have been accused of causing addiction and even violent behavior. Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes "Videogame censorship" is defined as the use of state or group power to control the playing, distribution, purchase, or sale of videogames or computer games. Videogame controversy comes in many forms, and censorship is a controversial subject. Proponents and opponents of censorship are often very passionate about their individual views.
Historically, this type of controversy and criticism is not unique to videogames. A moral panic can be defined as "the intensity of feeling expressed by a large number of people about a specific group of people who appear to threaten the social order at a given The same situation has been applied to comic books, motion pictures, dancing and to some extent music and books. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative For the television broadcasting term please see Production code number. Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) is an Art form that generally refers to movement of the body usually rhythmic The Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC was an American committee formed in 1985 by four women Tipper Gore, wife of Senator and later Vice President Many societies have banned certain Books This is a partial list of books that have been banned. As long ago as the nineteenth century, similar accusations were made about "penny dreadfuls". Penny Dreadful (also called penny number) was a term applied to nineteenth century British Fiction publications usually lurid serial stories appearing in parts  Moreover, it appears to be a question of age. Since these art forms have been around longer, the backlash against them occurred further in the past, beyond the remembrance of today's youth. In both cases, the attempts at censorship in the United States were struck down as a violation of First Amendment rights, and they have gone on to become fully integrated facets of society. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the United States Bill of Rights that expressly prohibits the United States Congress A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics An organization known as the Entertainment Software Ratings Board or ESRB rates software for certain age groups; however, publishers are not required to submit games for ratings, and parents are not always aware of the existence of these ratings. The Entertainment Software Rating Board ( ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, Advertising guidelines and 
The three largest producers of and markets for computer and videogames (in order) are North America (US and Canada), Japan and the United Kingdom. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Other significant markets include Australia, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Mexico, France and Italy. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  Both India and China are considered emerging markets in the videogame industry and sales are expected to rise significantly in the coming years. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
Sales of different types of games vary widely between these markets due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase console games over computer games, with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes. In South Korea, computer games are preferred, especially MMORPG games and real-time strategy games; there are over 20,000 PC bang Internet cafés where computer games can be played for an hourly charge. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː A massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) is a genre of Computer role-playing games (CRPGs in which a large number of players interact with A real-time strategy ( RTS) Video game is a strategic game that is distinctly not turn-based.
The NPD Group tracks computer and videogame sales in the United States. The NPD Group Inc (formerly National Purchase Diary) is a leading global market research company founded in 1967 and provides consumer and retail information to manufacturers It reported that:
Also note that PC games that are digitally distributed either directly or by distribution networks such as Steam are not tracked by the NPD, and Steam does not list sales numbers for games downloaded through their service. Digital distribution (Also known as digital delivery and Electronic software distribution) is the principle of providing digital information and content Steam is a Digital distribution, Digital rights management, Multiplayer Software piracy is also more rampant on the PC. The Copyright infringement of Software (also known as software piracy) refers to several practices which involve the unauthorized copying of computer 
These figures are sales in dollars, not units; unit shipments for each category were higher than the dollar sales numbers indicate, as more software and hardware was sold at reduced prices compared to 2003. However, with the release of the Next-Gen Consoles in 2006, these numbers have increased dramatically. The game and film industries are also becoming increasingly intertwined, with companies like Sony having significant stakes in both. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with A large number of summer blockbuster films spawn a companion game, often launching at the same time to share the marketing costs.
There is also controversy relating videogames in Australia and other PAL regions. PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is a colour -encoding system used in Broadcast television systems in large parts of the world In general when compared to the US, PAL gamers have to pay up to 40% to 50% more.  More of a problem in Australia is where games are constantly delayed for no apparent reason, most notably games released by Nintendo. As English is the main language in the Australian region there is no need for any translation and the complications of differences between the PAL and NTSC video formats are not existent, as the majority of video displays in Australia are fully capable of running at a 60 Hz format. NTSC ( National Television System Committee) is the Analog television system used in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico There is also the problem of regional lockout in Australia, with most DVD players release coming region free in order to comply with local laws , but videogame consoles are still sold fully region locked. Regional lockout is the programming practice code chip or physical barrier used to prevent the playing of media designed for a device from the country where it is marketed on the Some efforts to increase awareness of the issue, specifically to Nintendo of Australia, was in the form of a formal report outlining the issues, published by Aaron Rex Davies.  The report has gone on to gain a lot of attention in the public media. 
Video game industry
|Activities||Jobs||Types of video games||Companies|
|Video game developer|
Video game publisher
List of video game companies
List of publishers
|Lists of video games|
List of video game industry people