In older video cameras, before the 1990s, a video camera tube or pickup tube was used instead of a charge-coupled device (CCD). A video camera is a Camera used for electronic Motion picture acquisition initially developed by the Television industry but now common in other applications A charge-coupled device ( CCD) is an analog Shift register, that enables the transportation of analog signals (electric charges through successive stages (capacitors Several types were in use from the 1930s to the 1980s. These tubes are a type of cathode ray tube. The cathode ray tube (CRT is a Vacuum tube containing an Electron gun (a source of electrons and a Fluorescent screen with internal or
Some clarification of terminology is in order. Any vacuum tube which operates using a focused beam of electrons is called a cathode ray tube or CRT. However, in the popular lexicon CRT is usually used to refer to the type of tube used as a television or computer monitor picture tube. The proper term for these display tubes is actually kinescope. Kinescope (ˈkɪnɨskoʊp originally referred to the Cathode ray tube used in Television receivers as named by inventor Vladimir Zworykin in 1929 Kinescopes are simply one of many types of cathode ray tubes. Others include the types of display tubes used in oscilloscopes, radar displays, and the camera pickup tubes described in this article. An oscilloscope (commonly abbreviated to scope or O-scope) is a type of Electronic test equipment that allows signal Voltages to be viewed Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships (In the interest of avoiding further confusion it will be noted that the word "kinescope" has an alternate meaning as it has become the popular name for a television film recording made by focusing a motion picture film camera onto the face of a kinescope cathode ray tube as was commonly done before the invention of video tape recording. )
The image dissector was invented by Philo Farnsworth, one of the pioneers of electronic television, in 1927. Philo Taylor Farnsworth ( August 19, 1906 – March 11, 1971) was an American inventor Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic It is a type of cathode ray tube occasionally employed as a camera in industrial television systems. The cathode ray tube (CRT is a Vacuum tube containing an Electron gun (a source of electrons and a Fluorescent screen with internal or The image dissector had very poor light sensitivity, and was useful only where scene illumination exceeded 685 cd/m², but it was ideal for high light levels such as when engineers wanted to monitor the bright, hot interior of an industrial furnace. Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 The candela (kanˈdɛlə /-ˈdiːlə/ symbol cd) is the SI base unit of Luminous intensity; that is power emitted by a light source in a particular M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here Owing to its lack of sensitivity, the image dissector was rarely used in TV broadcasting, except to scan film and other transparencies. It was, however, the beginning of the electronic TV age.
The image dissector sees the outside world through a glass lens, which focuses an image through the clear glass wall of the tube onto a special plate which is coated with a layer of caesium oxide. When light strikes caesium oxide, the material emits electrons, somewhat like a mirror that reflects an image made of electrons, rather than light (see photoelectric effect). Introduction When a Metallic surface is exposed to Electromagnetic radiation above a certain threshold Frequency, the light is absorbed and Electrons These electrons are aimed and accelerated by electric and magnetic fields onto the dissector's single electron detector so that only a small portion of the electron image hits the detector at any given moment. As time passes the electron image is deflected back and forth and up and down so that the entire image, portion by portion, can be read by the detector. The output from the detector is an electric current whose magnitude is a measure of brightness at a specific point on the image. Electrons that do not hit the single detector are wasted, rather than stored on the target as in the image orthicon (described below) which accounts in part for its low sensitivity (approximately 3000 lux). LUX is the principal centre for the promotion and distribution of experimental Film and Video works in the UK. It has no "storage characteristic".
In 1931, five years after Kálmán Tihanyi's electronic camera tube in 1926, Vladimir Zworykin filed for a patent on a camera tube that projected an image on a special plate on which was set a mosaic of photosensitive material, a pattern comparable to the receptors of the human eye. Kálmán Tihanyi ( April 28, Uzbeg, Hungary 1897 - February 26, 1947) was a Hungarian physicist Electrical Eyes are organs that detect Light, and send signals along the Optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain Emission of photoelectrons from each granule in proportion to the amount of light received resulted in a charge image being formed on the mosaic. Each granule, together with the conductive plate behind the mosaic, formed a small capacitor, all of these having a common plate. A capacitor is a passive electrical component that can store Energy in the Electric field between a pair of conductors An electron beam was then swept across the image plate from an electron gun, discharging the capacitors in succession; the resulting changes in potential at the metal plate constituted the picture signal. Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of Electrons observed in Vacuum tubes i An electron gun (also called electron emitter) is an electrical component that produces an Electron beam that has a precise Kinetic energy and is most often Unlike the Farnsworth image dissector, the Zworykin model was much more sensitive, to about 75 000 lux. It was also easier to manufacture and produced a very clear image. The iconoscope was the primary camera tube used in American broadcasting from 1936 until 1946, when it was replaced by the image orthicon tube. 
The image entered through the series of lenses at upper right, and was projected onto a photosensitive surface. The mosaic of photosensitive elements emitted an electric charge in variance with the amount of light hitting them. The cathode ray at the right swept the image plate, discharging the electrostatic charges. The successive discharges from the image plate were carried out the left side of the tube and amplified.
The image orthicon tube (often abbreviated as IO) was common until the 1960s. A combination of Farnsworth's image dissector and RCA's orthicon technologies, it replaced the iconoscope/orthicon, which required a great deal of light to work adequately. Philo Taylor Farnsworth ( August 19, 1906 – March 11, 1971) was an American inventor The image dissector was an early all-electronic television camera tube invented by Philo Farnsworth. RCA Corporation, founded as Radio Corporation of America, was an electronics company in existence from 1919 to 1986 In older Video cameras before the mid to late 1980s a video camera tube or pickup tube was used instead of a Charge-coupled device (CCD The Iconoscope was the name given to an early television camera tube in which a beam of high-velocity Electrons scans a photoemissive Mosaic. In older Video cameras before the mid to late 1980s a video camera tube or pickup tube was used instead of a Charge-coupled device (CCD Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700
The image orthicon tube was developed by Dr. Albert Rose, Paul K. Weimer, and Harold B. Law in the employ of the RCA. It represented a considerable advance in the television field, and after further development work, RCA created original models about 1939–1940. Recognizing the merit of the tube, the National Defense Research Council entered into a contract with RCA whereby NDRC bore the expense of further development. RCA's development of the more sensitive image orthicon tube was sufficiently advanced at the end of 1943 to allow the execution of a production contract with the U.S. Navy, and the first tubes under the contract were delivered in January of 1944.  RCA began production of image orthicon cameras for civilian use in the second quarter of 1946. 
While the iconoscope and the intermediate orthicon used capacitance between a multitude of small but discrete light sensitive collectors and an isolated signal plate for reading video information, the IO employed direct charge readings off of a continuous electronically charged collector. The Iconoscope was the name given to an early television camera tube in which a beam of high-velocity Electrons scans a photoemissive Mosaic. In older Video cameras before the mid to late 1980s a video camera tube or pickup tube was used instead of a Charge-coupled device (CCD The resultant signal was immune to most extraneous signal "crosstalk" from other parts of the target, and could yield extremely detailed images. For instance, IO cameras were used for capturing Apollo/Saturn rockets nearing orbit long after the networks had phased them out, as only they could provide sufficient detail.
A properly constructed image orthicon could take television pictures by candlelight owing to the more ordered light-sensitive area and the presence of an electron multiplier at the base of the tube, which operated as a high-efficiency amplifier. It also had a logarithmic light sensitivity curve similar to the human eye, so the picture looked more natural. Definition and base Logarithmic scales are either defined for ratios of the underlying quantity or one has to agree to measure Eyes are organs that detect Light, and send signals along the Optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain Its defect was that it tended to flare if a shiny object in the studio caught a reflection of a light, generating a dark halo around the object on the picture (an anomaly referred to as "blooming" in the broadcast industry when IO tubes were the standard). Lens flare is the light scattered in lens systems through generally unwanted image formation mechanisms such as internal reflection and Scattering from Image orthicons were used extensively in the early color television cameras, where their increased sensitivity was essential to overcome their very inefficient optical system.
An engineer's nickname for the tube was the "immy", which later was feminized to become the "Emmy".
An IO consists of three parts: an image store ("target"), a scanner that reads this image (an electron gun), and a multiplicative amplifier. In the image store, light falls upon a photosensitive plate, and is converted into an electron image (borrowed from Farnsworth's image dissector). These electrons ("rain") are then accelerated towards the target, causing a "splash" of electrons to be discharged (secondary electrons). Secondary electrons are electrons generated as ionization products Each image electron ejects, on average, more than one "splash" electron, and these excess electrons are soaked up by a positively-charged mesh very near and parallel to the target (the image electrons also pass through this mesh, whose positive charge also helps to accelerate the image electrons). The result is an image painted in positive charge, with the brightest portions having the largest positive charge.
A sharply focused beam of electrons (a cathode ray) is then scanned over the back side of the target. The electrons are slowed down just before reaching the target so that they are absorbed without ejecting more electrons. This adds negative charge to the positive charge until the region being scanned reaches some threshold negative charge, at which point the scanning electrons are reflected rather than absorbed. These reflected electrons return down the cathode ray tube toward an electron detector (multiplicative amplifier) surrounding the electron gun. The number of reflected electrons is a measure of the target's original positive charge, which, in turn, is a measure of brightness. In analogy with the image dissector, this beam of electrons is scanned around the target so that the image is read one small portion at a time.
Multiplicative amplification is also performed via the splashing of electrons: a stack of charged pinwheel-like disks surround the electron gun. As the returning electron beam hits the first pinwheel, it ejects electrons exactly like the target. These loose electrons are then drawn toward the next pinwheel back, where the splashing continues for a number of steps. Consider a single, highly-energized electron hitting the first stage of the amplifier, causing 2 electrons to be emitted and drawn towards the next pinwheel. Each of these might then cause two each to be emitted. Thus, by the start of the third stage, you would have four electrons to the original one.
The mysterious "dark halo" around bright objects in an IO-captured image is based in the very fact that the IO relies on the splashing caused by highly energized electrons. When a very bright point of light (and therefore very strong electron stream emitted by the photosensitive plate) is captured, a great preponderance of electrons is ejected from the image target. So many are ejected that the corresponding point on the collection mesh can no longer soak them up, and thus they fall back to nearby spots on the target much as splashing water when a rock is thrown in forms a ring. Since the resultant splashed electrons do not contain sufficient energy to eject enough electrons where they land, they will instead neutralize any positive charge in that region. Since darker images result in less positive charge on the target, the excess electrons deposited by the splash will be read as a dark region by the scanning electron beam.
This effect was actually "cultivated" by tube manufacturers to a certain extent, as a small, carefully-controlled amount of the dark halo has the effect of "crispening" the viewed image. (That is, giving the illusion of being more sharply-focussed that it actually is). The later Vidicon tube and its descendants (see below) do not exhibit this effect, and so could not be used for broadcast purposes until special "detail correction" circuitry could be developed.
A vidicon tube (sometimes called a hivicon tube) is a video camera tube in which the target material is made of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3). Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a Sulfide Mineral with the formula Sb 2 S 3 Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16
The terms vidicon tube and vidicon camera are often used indiscriminately to refer to video cameras of any type. The principle of operation of the vidicon camera is typical of other types of video camera tubes.
The vidicon is a storage-type camera tube in which a charge-density pattern is formed by the imaged scene radiation on a photoconductive surface which is then scanned by a beam of low-velocity electrons. A photoresistor or Light Dependent Resistor or CdS Cell is a Resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J The fluctuating voltage coupled out to a video amplifier can be used to reproduce the scene being imaged. Generally an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes usually increases the amplitude of a signal. The electrical charge produced by an image will remain in the face plate until it is scanned or until the charge dissipates.
Pyroelectric photocathodes can be used to produce a vidicon sensitive over a broad portion of the infrared spectrum. Pyroelectricity is the ability of certain materials to generate an Electrical potential when they are heated or cooled In a Photomultiplier or Phototube, a photocathode is a negatively charged Electrode coated with a Photosensitive compound Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of
Vidicon tubes are notable for a particular type of interference they suffered from, known as vidicon microphony. Since the sensing surface is quite thin, it is possible to bend it with loud noises. The artifact is characterized by a series of many horizontal bars evident in any footage (mostly pre 1990) in an environment where loud noise was present at the time of recording or broadcast. A studio where a loud rock band was performing or even gunshots or explosions would create this artifact.
Plumbicon is a registered trademark of Philips. Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV ( Royal Philips Electronics Inc. It was mostly used in broadcast camera applications. These tubes have low output, but a high signal-to-noise ratio. Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is an Electrical engineering concept also used in other fields (such as scientific Measurements They had excellent resolution compared to Image Orthicons, but lacked the artificially sharp edges of IO tubes, which caused some of the viewing audience to perceive them as softer. CBS Labs invented the first outboard edge enhancement circuits to sharpen the edges of Plumbicon generated images.
Compared to Saticons, Plumbicons had much higher resistance to burn in, and coma and trailing artifacts from bright lights in the shot. Saticons though, usually had slightly higher resolution. After 1980, and the introduction of the diode gun plumbicon tube, the resolution of both types was so high, compared to the maximum limits of the broadcasting standard, that the Saticon's resolution advantage became moot.
While broadcast cameras migrated to solid state Charged Coupled Devices, plumbicon tubes remain a staple imaging device in the medical field.
Narragansett Imaging is the only company now making Plumbicons, and it does so from the factories Philips built for that purpose in Rhode Island, USA. While still a part of the Philips empire, the company purchased EEV's (English Electric Valve) lead oxide camera tube business, and gained a monopoly in lead oxide tube production.
The company says, "In comparison to other image tube technologies, Plumbicon tubes offer high resolution, low lag and superior image quality. "
Surface: PbO — Lead Oxide.
Saticon is a registered trademark of Hitachi also produced by Thomson and Sony. () is a Multinational corporation specializing in high-technology and services headquartered in Marunouchi Itchome Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with Its surface consists of SeAsTe — Selenium Arsenic Tellurium.
Pasecon is a registered trademark of Heimann. Its surface consists of CdSe — Cadmium selenide.
Newvicon is a registered trademark of Matsushita. The Newvicon tubes were characterized by high light sensitivity. Its surface consists of ZnSe, ZnCdTe — Zinc Selenide, Zinc Cadmium Telluride.
Trinicon is a registered trademark of Sony. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with It uses a vertically striped RGB color filter over the faceplate of the imaging tube to segment the scan into corresponding red, green and blue segments. Only one tube was used in the camera, instead of a tube for each color, as was standard for color cameras used in television broadcasting. It is used mostly in low-end consumer cameras and camcorders, though Sony also used it in some moderate cost professional cameras in the 1980s, such as the DXC-1800 and BVP-1 models.
http://www.labguysworld.com/Sony_DXC-1600.htm for a more detailed explanation of the Trinicon tube.