|The Victoria and Albert Museum|
|Location||Cromwell Gardens, South Kensington, London|
|Collection size||4. Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Cromwell Gardens is a short but major road in South Kensington, within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, England South Kensington is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. 6 million objects|
|Museum area||12. 5 acres / 145 galleries|
|Visitor figures||2,400,000 (2006) |
|Nearest tube station(s)||South Kensington|
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. Mark Jones is a British art historian and museum director he is director of the Victoria and Albert Museum. South Kensington is a London Underground station in Kensington, west London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. 5 million objects. Now named after Prince Albert and Queen Victoria, it was founded in 1852 as the South Kensington Museum, the V&A has since grown to now cover some 12. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year 5 acres (0. 05 km²) and 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, in virtually every medium, from the cultures of Europe, North America, Asia and North Africa. The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day Ethnographers commonly classify Indigenous peoples in the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various Cultures social structures and philosophical systems of " the East " The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara speak various dialects of Berber and Arabic, and almost exclusively follow Islam.
The holdings of ceramics, glass, textiles, costumes, silver, ironwork, jewellery, furniture, medieval objects, sculpture, prints and printmaking, drawings and photographs are among the largest and most comprehensive in the world. Ceramics and ceramic art in the art world means artwork made out of clay bodies and fired to form a ceramic. Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. The term costume can refer to Wardrobe and dress in general or to the distinctive style of dress of a particular people class or period Ironwork is any Weapon, artwork, Utensil or architectural feature made of Iron especially used for decoration Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones Furniture is the Mass noun for the movable objects which may support the human body (seating furniture and beds, provide storage or hold objects on horizontal An old master print is a work of art produced by a Printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World Printmaking is the Process of making artworks by Printing, normally on Paper. Drawing is a Visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an Image created by Light falling on a light-sensitive surface usually Photographic film or an electronic The museum possesses the world's largest collection of post-classical sculpture, the holdings of Italian Renaissance items are the largest outside Italy. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, China, Japan, Korea and the Islamic world. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings The East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection, alongside the Musée du Louvre and Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is amongst the largest in the world. Metalworking is craft and practice of working with Metals to create individual parts assemblies or large scale structures The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City,
Alongside other neighbouring institutions, including the Natural History Museum and Science Museum, the V&A is located in what is termed London's "Albertopolis", an area of immense cultural, scientific and educational importance. The Natural History Museum is one of three large Museums on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London (the others are the Science Museum For science museums in general check out Science museum. The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part Albertopolis is a nickname for the area centered around South Kensington, London, England, between Cromwell Road and Kensington Since 2001, the Museum has embarked on a major £150m renovation program which has seen a major overhaul of the departments including the introduction of newer galleries, gardens, shops and visitor facilities. Following in similar vein to other national UK museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001.
The V&A has its origins in The Great Exhibition of 1851, with which Henry Cole the museum's first director was involved in planning; initially it was known as The Museum of Manufactures, first opening in May 1852 at Marlborough House, but by September had been transferred to Somerset House. The Great Exhibition, also known as Crystal Palace, was an international exhibition that was held in Hyde Park, London, England, from 1 Sir Henry Cole ( 15 July 1808, Bath, England – 18 April 1882, London, England) was a Civil This article is about Marlborough House Westminster. For the property in Brighton, please see Marlborough House Brighton Marlborough Somerset House is a large building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo At this stage the collections covered both applied art and science.  Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection.  By February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed as the South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive. Gottfried Semper ( November 29 1803 - May 15 1879) was a German Architect, Art critic, and professor of The Board of Trade is a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, originating as a committee of inquiry in the 17th century and evolving gradually into a government  The site was occupied by Brompton Park House, this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857, the museum being the first in the world to provide such a facility.  The official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Click here for Indian Rebellion of 1857 Year 1857 ( MDCCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the  In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting. This was to enable in the words of Cole "to ascertain practically what hours are most convenient to the working classes" — this was linked to the use of the collections of both applied art and science as educational resources to help boost productive industry.  In these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of "High Art" at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum. London's National Gallery, founded in 1824 houses a rich collection of over 2300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London.  This led to the transfer to the museum of The School of Design that had been founded in 1837 at Somerset House, after the transfer it was referred to as the Art School or Art Training School, later to become the Royal College of Art which finally achieved full independence in 1949. Somerset House is a large building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo The Royal College of Art ( RCA) is a University in London, England. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the main museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. Exhibition Road is a street in South Kensington, London, England.  In 1893 the "Science Museum" had effectively come into existence when a separate director was appointed. 
The laying of the foundation stone to the left of the main entrance of the Aston Webb building, on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria and Albert Museum was made public.
The exhibition which the Museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, "A Grand Design," first toured in North America from 1997 (Baltimore Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston and the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco), returning to London in 1999. A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred is One hundred consecutive Years Centuries are numbered ordinally (e The Baltimore Museum of Art in Baltimore Maryland, was founded in 1914 The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the largest museums in the United States attracting over one million visitors a year The Royal Ontario Museum, commonly known as the ROM, is a major Museum for world culture and Natural history in the city of Toronto Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario The Museum of Fine Arts Houston ( MFAH) located in Houston, is one of the largest museums in the country The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, comprising the M H de Young Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park and the California Palace of the Legion of Honor  To accompany and support the exhibition, the Museum published a book, Grand Design, which it has made available for reading online on its website. 
The opening ceremony for the Aston Webb building by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra took place on 26 June 1909. Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Carolina Marie Charlotte Louise Julia 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925 was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting  In 1914 the construction commenced of the Science Museum signalling the final split of the science and art collections, since then the museum has maintained its role of one of the world's greatest decorative arts collections. For science museums in general check out Science museum. The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part At the outbreak of World War II most of the collection was packed away and sent either to an underground quarry in Wiltshire, Montacute House in Somerset, or to a disused tunnel near Aldwych tube station with larger items remaining in situ being sand bagged and bricked in. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Montacute House, situated in the South Somerset Village of Montacute, is described by its owners the National Trust, as "one of the glories Aldwych tube station is a disused station formerly on the Piccadilly Line of the London Underground.  During the war some of the galleries were used between 1941 and 1944 as a school for children evacuated from Gibraltar. Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar  The South Court became a canteen, first for the Royal Air Force and later for Bomb Damage Repair Squads.  Prior to the return of the collections after the war, the "Britain Can Make It" exhibition was held between September and November 1946, attracting nearly a million and a half visitors.  This was organised and held under the auspices of the Council of Industrial Design which had been established by central government in 1944 "to promote by all practicable means the improvement of design in the products of British industry"; the success of this exhibition led to the planning of the Festival of Britain. The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition which opened in London and around Britain in May 1951 By 1948 most of the collections had been returned to the museum.
In July 1973 - as part of its outreach programme to young people - the V&A became the first museum in Britain to present a rock concert. The V&A presented a combined concert/lecture by British progressive folk-rock band Gryphon, who explored the lineage of mediaeval music and instrumentation and related how those contributed to contemporary music 500 years later. Gryphon were a British Progressive rock band of the 1970s notable for their unusual sound and instrumentation This innovative approach to bringing young people to museums was a hallmark of the Directorship of Roy Strong and was subsequently emulated by some other British museums.
In the 1980s Sir Roy Strong renamed the museum as 'The Victoria and Albert Museum, the National Museum of Art and Design'. Sir Roy Colin Strong (born 23 August 1935) is an English Art historian, museum curator writer broadcaster and landscape designer Strong's successor Elizabeth Esteve-Coll oversaw a turbulent period for the institution in which the museum's curatorial departments were re-structured leading to public criticism from some staff. Dame Elizabeth Anne Loosemore Esteve-Coll (née Kingdon DBE, BA, FRSA (born 1938 is Chancellor of the University of Lincoln. Esteve-Coll's attempts to make the V&A more accessible included a criticised marketing campaign emphasising the cafe over the collection.
In 2001 "Future Plan" was launched, which involves redesigning all the galleries and public facilities in the museum that have yet to be remodelled. This is to ensure that the exhibits are better displayed, more information is available and the Museum meets modern expectations for museum facilities; it should take about ten years to complete the work.
The museum also runs the Museum of Childhood at Bethnal Green; and the Theatre Museum in Covent Garden and used to run Apsley House. The V&A Museum of Childhood in Bethnal Green in the East End of London is a branch of the Victoria and Albert Museum (the "V&A" Bethnal Green is an area in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, in the East End of London. The Theatre Museum in the Covent Garden district of London, England, was the United Kingdom 's National Museum of the Performing Arts Covent Garden (Pronunciation kɒvʌnt is a district in London, England, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest Apsley House, also known as Number One London, was the London residence of the Dukes of Wellington and stands alone at Hyde Park Corner The Theatre Museum is now closed, but the V&A Theatre Collections are to be redisplayed within the South Kensington building from November 2007.
The Victorian areas have a complex history, with piecemeal additions by different architects. Founded in May 1852, it was not until 1857 that the museum moved to the present site. This area of London was known as Brompton but had been renamed South Kensington. Brompton is a locality in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. South Kensington is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London. The land was occupied by Brompton Park House, which was extended, most notably by the "Brompton Boilers", which were starkly utilitarian iron galleries with a temporary look; they were later dismantled and used to build the V&A Museum of Childhood. The first building to be erected that still forms part of the museum was the Sheepshanks Gallery in 1857 on the eastern side of the garden; its architect was Captain Francis Fowke. Francis Fowke ( 7 July 1823 - 4 December 1865) was a British Engineer and Architect, and a Captain in the The next major expansions were designed by the same architect, these were the Turner and Vernon galleries built 1858-9 (Built to house the eponymous collections, which were later transferred to the Tate Gallery, now used as the picture galleries and tapestry gallery respectively), then the North and South Courts , both of which opened by June 1862. They now form the galleries for temporary exhibitions and are directly behind the Sheepshanks Gallery. On the very northern edge of the site is situated the Secretariat Wing, also built in 1862 this houses the offices and board room etc and is not open to the public.
An ambitious scheme of decoration was developed for these new areas: a series of mosaic figures depicting famous European artists of the Medieval and Renaissance period were produced. Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic These have now been removed to other areas of the museum. Also started were a series of frescos by Lord Leighton: Industrial Arts as Applied to War 1878–1880 and Industrial Arts Applied to Peace, which was started but never finished. Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or Frederic Leighton 1st Baron Leighton PRA ( 3 December 1830 &ndash 25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor To the east of this were additional galleries, the decoration of which was the work of another designer Owen Jones, these were the Oriental Courts (covering India, China and Japan) completed in 1863, none of this decoration survives, part of these galleries became the new galleries covering the 19th century, opened in December 2006. Owen Jones ( 15 February 1809 &ndash 19 April 1874) was a British Architect, Decorative artist author and educator The last work by Fowke was the design for the range of buildings on the north and west sides of the garden, this includes the refreshment rooms, reinstated as the Museum Café in 2006, with the silver gallery above, (at the time the ceramics gallery), the top floor has a splendid lecture theatre although this is seldom open to the general public. The ceramic staircase in the northwest corner of this range of buildings was designed by F. W. Moody; all the architectural details are produced in moulded and coloured pottery. All the work on the north range was designed and built in 1864–1869. The style adopted for this part of the museum was Italian Renaissance, much use was made of terracotta, brick and mosaic, this north façade was intended as the main entrance to the museum with its bronze doors designed by James Gamble & Reuben Townroe having six panels depicting: Humphry Davy (chemistry); Isaac Newton (astronomy); James Watt (mechanics); Bramante (architecture); Michelangelo (sculpture); Titian (painting); thus representing the range of the museums collections,Godfrey Sykes also designed the terracotta embellishments and the mosaic in the Pediment of the North Façade commemorating the Great Exhibition the profits from which helped to fund the museum, this is flanked by terracotta statue groups by Percival Ball. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar. Sir Humphry Davy 1st Baronet FRS MRIA (17 December 1778 &ndash 29 May 1829 was a British Chemist and inventor Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements James Watt ( 19 January 1736 &ndash 25 August 1819 Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman and both men eventually made fortunes Donato Bramante (1444 – March 11, 1514) was an Italian Architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Godfrey Sykes (born Malton, North Yorkshire, 1824 - died London 28 February 1866) was an English designer and painter A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of the triangular section found above the horizontal structure ( Entablature) typically supported by Percival Ball ( 17 February 1845 – 4 April 1900) was an English sculptor active in Australia. This building replaced Brompton Park House, which could then be demolished to make way for the south range.
The interiors of the three refreshment rooms were assigned to different designers. The Green Dining Room 1866–68 was the work of Philip Webb and William Morris, displays Elizabethan influences, the lower part of the walls are panelled in wood with a band of paintings depicting fruit and the occasional figure, with moulded plaster foliage on the main part of the wall and a plaster frieze around the decorated ceiling and stained glass windows. Philip Speakman Webb ( 12 January, 1831 &ndash 17 April 1915) was an English Architect &mdash sometimes called the William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896 was an English Architect, Furniture and Textile designer artist writer and socialist associated Romance and reality The Victorian era and the early twentieth century idealised the Elizabethan era The Centre Refreshment Room 1865–77 was designed in a Renaissance style by James Gamble, the walls and even the Ionic columns are covered in decorative and moulded ceramic tile, the ceiling consists of elaborate designs on enamelled metal sheets and matching stained glass windows, the marble fireplace was designed and sculpted by Alfred Stevens and was removed from Dorchester House prior to that building's demolition in 1929. The Ionic order column forms one of the three '''orders''' or '''organizational systems''' of Classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Alfred Stevens ( January 28, 1818 – May 1, 1875) British sculptor, was born at Blandford Forum in Dorset The Grill Room 1876–81 was designed by Sir Edward Poynter, the lower part of the walls consist of blue and white tiles with various figures and foliage enclosed by wood panelling, above there are large tiled scenes with figures depicting the four seasons and the twelve months these were painted by ladies from the Art School then based in the museum, the windows are also stained glass, there is an elaborate cast iron grill still in place. Sir Edward John Poynter 1st Baronet KB PRA ( 20 March 1836 &ndash 26 July 1919) was a British painter
With the death of Fowke the next architect to work at the museum was Colonel (later Major General) Henry Scott (1822–83) also of the Royal Engineers. The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers ( RE) and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps He designed to the north west of the garden the five-storey School for Naval Architects (also known as the science schools), now the Henry Cole Wing in 1867–72. Scott's assistant J. H. Wild designed the impressive staircase that rises the full height of the building, made from Cadeby stone the steps are 7 feet in length, the balustrades and columns are Portland stone. It is now used to house the joint V&A and Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) architectural drawings library and the Sackler education centre to open in 2008. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA is a Professional body for Architects in the United Kingdom. Continuing the style of the earlier buildings, various designers were responsible for the decoration, the terracotta embellishments were again the work of Godfrey Sykes, although Sgraffito was used to decorate the east side of the building designed by F. Sgraffito ("scratched" plural Scraffiti and often also written Scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor produced by applying layers of Plaster tinted W. Moody, a final embellishment were the wrought iron gates made as late as 1885 designed by Starkie Gardner, these lead to a passage through the building. Scott also designed the two Cast Courts 1870–73 to the southeast of the garden (the site of the 'Brompton Boilers'), these vast spaces have ceilings 70 feet in height to accommodate the plaster casts of parts of famous buildings, including Trajan's Column (in two separate pieces). The final part of the museum designed by Scott was the Art Library and what is now the sculpture gallery on the south side of the garden, built 1877–83, the exterior mosaic panels in the parapet were designed by Reuben Townroe who also designed the plaster work in the library, Sir John Taylor designed the book shelves and cases, also this was the first part of the museum to have electric lighting. Sir John Taylor KCB FRIBA ( 15 November 1833 &ndash 30 April 1912) was a British Architect. This completed the northern half of the site but left the museum without a proper façade.
The main façade, built from red brick and Portland stone, stretches 720 feet along Cromwell Gardens and was designed by Aston Webb after winning a competition in 1891 to extend the museum. Portland stone is a Limestone from the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. Sir Aston Webb, RA, FRIBA, ( May 22 1849 - August 21 1930) was an English Architect, active in Construction took place between 1899 to 1909.  Stylistically it is a strange hybrid, although much of the detail belongs to the Renaissance there are medieval influences at work. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The main entrance consisting of a series of shallow arches supported by slender columns and niches with twin doors separated by pier is Romanesque in form but Classical in detail. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which Likewise the tower above the main entrance has an open work crown surmounted by a statue of fame, a feature of late Gothic architecture and a feature common in Scotland, but the detail is Classical. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. The main windows to the galleries are also mullioned and transomed, again a Gothic feature, the top row of windows are interspersed with statues of many of the British artists whose work is displayed in the museum.
Prince Albert appears within the main arch above the twin entrances, Queen Victoria above the frame around the arches and entrance, sculpted by Alfred Drury. for the Ontario politician see Charles Alfred Drury Alfred Drury (1859 - 1944 was an English architectural sculptor and figure in the New These façades surround four levels of galleries. Other areas designed by Webb include the Entrance Hall and Rotunda, the East and West Halls, the areas occupied by the shop and Asian Galleries as well as the Costume Gallery. The interior makes much use of marble in the entrance hall and flanking staircases, although the galleries as originally designed were white with restrained classical detail and mouldings, very much in contrast to the elaborate decoration of the Victorian galleries, although much of this decoration was removed in the early twentieth century. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of 
The Museum survived the Second World War with only minor bomb damage. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The worst loss was the Victorian stained glass on the Ceramics Staircase which was blown in when bombs fell near by; pock marks still visible on the façade of the museum were caused by shrapnel from the bombs. In the immediate post-war years there was little money available for other than essential repairs. The 1950s and early 1960s saw little in the way of building work, the first major work was the creation of new storage space for books in the Art Library in 1966 and 1967. This involved flooring over Aston Webb's main hall to form the book stacks, with a new medieval gallery on the ground floor (now the shop, opened in 2006). Then the lower ground floor galleries in the south west part of the museum were redesigned, opening in 1978 to form the new galleries covering Continental art 1600–1800 (late Renaissance, Baroque through Rococo and neo-Classical). In 1974 the museum had acquired what is now the Henry Cole wing from the Royal College of Science. For the Irish college of the same name see Royal College of Science (Ireland. In order to adapt the building as galleries, all the Victorian interiors except for the staircase were recast during the remodelling. To link this to the rest of the museum, a new entrance building was constructed on the site of the former boiler house, the intended site of the Spiral, between 1978 and 1982. This building is of concrete and very functional, the only embellishment being the iron gates by Christopher Hay and Douglas Coyne of the Royal College of Art. The Royal College of Art ( RCA) is a University in London, England. These are set in the columned screen wall designed by Aston Webb that forms the façade.
A few galleries were redesigned in the 1990s including: Indian, Japanese, Chinese, iron work, the main glass and the main silverware gallery, although this gallery was further enhanced in 2002 when some of the Victorian decoration was recreated. The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls Trajan's Column is a Monument in Rome raised in honour of the Roman emperor Trajan and constructed by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus This included two of the ten columns having their ceramic decoration replaced and the elaborate painted designs restored on the ceiling. As part of the 2006 renovation the mosaic floors in the sculpture gallery were restored — most of the Victorian floors were covered in linoleum after the Second World War. Linoleum is a Floor covering made from solidified Linseed oil (linoxyn in combination with Wood flour or cork dust over a Burlap or Canvas After the success of the British Galleries, opened in 2001, it was decided to embark on a major redesign of all the galleries in the museum; this is known as 'Future Plan'. The plan is expected to take about ten years and was started in 2002. To date several galleries have been redesigned, notably, in 2002: the main Silver Gallery, Contemporary; in 2003: Photography, the main entrance, The Painting Galleries; in 2004: the tunnel to the subway leading to South Kensington tube station, New signage through out the museum, architecture, V&A and RIBA reading rooms and stores, metalware, Members' Room, contemporary glass, the Gilbert Bayes sculpture gallery; in 2005: portrait miniatures, prints and drawings, displays in Room 117, the garden, sacred silver and stained glass; in 2006: Central Hall Shop, Islamic Middle East, the new café, sculpture galleries. South Kensington is a London Underground station in Kensington, west London. Several designers and architects have been involved in this work. Eva Jiricna designed the enhancements to the main entrance and rotunda, the new shop, the tunnel and the sculpture galleries. Eva Jiřičná CBE (born March 3, 1939) is a renowned Czech Architect, Entrepreneur Gareth Hoskins was responsible for contemporary and architecture, Softroom, Islamic Middle East and the Members' Room, McInnes Usher McKnight Architects (MUMA) were responsible for the new Cafe and are now designing the new Medieval and Renaissance galleries due to open in 2009. 
Recently, controversy surrounded the museum's proposed building of an £80 million extension called The Spiral, designed by Daniel Libeskind, which was criticised as out of keeping with the architecture of the original buildings. Daniel Libeskind, (born May 12 1946 in Łódź, Poland) is an American Architect, Artist, and Set designer of The Spiral's design was described by some as looking like jumbled cardboard boxes. In September 2004, the museum's board of trustees voted to abandon the design after failing to receive funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund. The Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF is a fund established in the United Kingdom under the National Lottery etc 
The central garden was redesigned by Kim Wilkie and opened as the John Madejski Garden, on 5 July 2005. John Robert Madejski OBE DL (born Robert John Hurst on April 28 1941 in Stoke-on-Trent) is an English businessman John Robert Madejski OBE DL (born Robert John Hurst on April 28 1941 in Stoke-on-Trent) is an English businessman Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The design is a subtle blend of the traditional and modern, the layout is formal; there is an elliptical water feature lined in stone with steps around the edge which may be drained to use the area for receptions, gatherings or exhibition purposes. This is in front of the bronze doors leading to the refreshment rooms, a central path flanked by lawns leads to the sculpture gallery; the north, east and west sides have herbaceous borders along the museum walls with paths in front which continues along the south façade; in the two corners by the north façade there is planted an American Sweetgum tree; the southern, eastern and western edges of the lawns have glass planters which contain orange and lemon trees in summer, these are replaced by bay trees in winter. Liquidambar styraciflua ( American Sweetgum, Redgum) is a Deciduous Tree in the genus ''Liquidambar'' native to warm At night both the planters and water feature may be illuminated, and the surrounding façades lit to reveal details normally in shadow, especially noticeable are the mosaics in the loggia of the north façade. Loggia is the name given to an Architectural feature originally of Italian design which is often a gallery or Corridor generally on the ground In summer a café is set up in the south west corner. The garden is also used for temporary exhibits of sculpture, for example a sculpture by Jeff Koons was shown in 2006. Jeff Koons (born January 21 1955) is an American artist whose work incorporates Kitsch imagery using painting sculpture and other forms
The education department has wide-ranging responsibilities. It provides information for the casual visitor as well as for school groups, including integrating learning in the museum with the National Curriculum; it provides research facilities for students at degree level and beyond, with information and access to the collections. The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary It also oversees the content of the Museum's web site in addition to publishing books and papers on the collections, research and other aspects of the Museum.
Several areas of the collection have dedicated study rooms, these allow access to items in the collection that are not currently on display, but in some cases require an appointment to be made.
The new Sackler education suite, occupying the two lower floors of the Henry Cole Wing is due to open in 2008. This will include lecture rooms and areas for use by schools, which will be available during school holidays for use by families, and will enable direct handling of items from the collection.
Research is a very important area of the Museum's work, and includes: identification and interpretation of individual objects; other studies contribute to systematic research, this develops the public understanding of the art and artefacts of many of the great cultures of the world; visitor research and evaluation to discover the needs of visitors and their experiences of the Museum. Since 1990 the Museum has published research reports these focus on all areas of the collections.
Conservation is responsible for the long-term preservation of the collections, and covers all the collections held by the V&A and the Museum of Childhood. The conservators specialise in particular areas of conservation. Areas covered by conservator's work include 'preventive' conservation this includes: performing surveys, assessments and providing advice on the handling of items, correct packaging, mounting and handling procedures during movement and display to reduce risk of damaging objects. Activities include controlling the Museum environment (for example, temperature and light) and preventing pests (primarily insects) from damaging artefacts. The other major category is 'interventive' conservation, this includes: cleaning and reintegration to strengthen fragile objects, reveal original surface decoration, and restore shape. Interventive treatment makes an object more stable, but also more attractive and comprehensible to the viewer. It is usually undertaken on items that are to go on public display.
The Victoria & Albert Museum is split into four Collections departments, Asia; Furniture, textiles and Fashion; Sculpture, Metalwork, Ceramics & Glass and Word & Image. The museum curators care for the objects in the collection and provide access to objects that are not currently on display to the public and scholars.
The collection departments are further divided into sixteen display areas, whose combined collection numbers over 6. 5 million objects, not all items are displayed or stored at the V&A. There is a repository, in Blythe Road, West Kensington, as well as annex institutions managed by the V&A , also the Museum lends exhibits to other institutions. The following lists each of the collections on display and the number of objects within the collection.
The museum has 145 galleries, but given the vast extent of the collections only a small percentage is ever on display. Many acquisitions have been made possible only with the assistance of the National Art Collections Fund. The Art Fund (originally known as The National Art Collections Fund) is an independent membership-based British charity, which raises funds to aid
In 2004, the V&A alongside RIBA opened the first permanent gallery in the UK covering the history of architecture with displays using models, photographs, elements from buildings and original drawings. With the opening of the new gallery, the RIBA Architectural Drawings Library has been transferred to the museum, joining the already extensive collection held by the V&A. With over 600,000 drawings, over 750,000 papers and paraphernalia, and over 700,000 photographs from around the world, together they form the world's most comprehensive architectural resource.
Not only are all the major British architects of the last four hundred years represented, but many European (especially Italian) and American architects' drawings are held in the collection. The holdings of drawings by Palladio are the largest in the world, other Europeans well represented are Jacques Gentilhatre and Antonio Visentini. Andrea Palladio ( November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580) was an Italian Architect, widely considered the most influential Antonio Visentini ( 21 November 1688 - 26 June 1782) was an Italian architectural designer painter and engraver known for his architectural British architects whose drawings, and in some cases models of their buildings, in the collection, include: Inigo Jones Sir Christopher Wren,Sir John Vanbrugh, Nicholas Hawksmoor, William Kent, James Gibbs, Robert Adam, Sir William Chambers, James Wyatt, Henry Holland, John Nash, Sir John Soane, Sir Charles Barry, Charles Robert Cockerell, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, Sir George Gilbert Scott, John Loughborough Pearson, George Edmund Street, Richard Norman Shaw, Alfred Waterhouse, Sir Edwin Lutyens, Charles Rennie MacKintosh, Charles Holden, Frank Hoar, Lord Richard Rogers, Lord Norman Foster, Sir Nicholas Grimshaw and Zaha Hadid. Iñigo Jones ( July 15, 1573 &ndash June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant British architect, and the first to bring Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer Sir John Vanbrugh (pronounced "Van'-bru" (24 January 1664? – 26 March 1726 was an English Architect and Dramatist, perhaps best known Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) was a British Architect born to a humble family in Nottinghamshire William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c 1685 &ndash 12 April 1748) was an eminent English Architect, Landscape James Gibbs (1682-1754 was one of Britain 's most influential Architects Born in Scotland, he trained as an architect in Rome, and practised Robert Adam ( 3 July 1728 &ndash 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical Architect, Interior designer Sir William Chambers ( 27 October 1723 &ndash 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Architect, born in Gothenburg This article refers to the English Architect. For the Game designer, see James Wyatt (game designer. Henry Holland ( July 20, 1745 – June 17, 1806) was an Architect to the English nobility who trained under Capability Brown John Nash ( 18 January 1752 – 13 May 1835) was an English Architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency Sir John Soane ( 10 September 1753 &ndash 20 January 1837) was an English Architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical Sir Charles Barry FRS ( 23 May 1795 &ndash 12 May 1860) was an English Architect, best known for his role Charles Robert Cockerell (1788–1863 was an English Architect, Archaeologist, and Writer. Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin ( 1 March 1812 – 14 September 1852) was an English Architect, designer and theorist of design now Sir George Gilbert Scott ( 13 July 1811 &ndash 27 March, 1878) was an English Architect of the Victorian Age John Loughborough Pearson ( Brussels, 5 July 1817 - 11 December 1897) was a 19th-century Architect renowned for his work George Edmund Street ( 20 June 1824 &ndash 18 December 1881) was an English Architect, born at Woodford in Essex Richard Norman Shaw RA ( Edinburgh, 7 May 1831 &ndash London, 17 November 1912) was the most influential British architect Alfred Waterhouse (19 July 1830 – 22 August 1905 was an English Architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic revival. Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA, LLD ( 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944 Charles Henry Holden (12 May 1875 - 1 May 1960 was an English architect best known for his designs of some of the 1920s and 1930s stations on the London Underground railway Harold Frank Hoar, FRIBA ( 13 September, 1907 &mdash 3 October 1976) was a British architect artist academic and architectural Richard George Rogers Baron Rogers of Riverside, CH, FRIBA (born 23 July 1933) is a British Architect noted Norman Robert Foster Baron Foster of Thames Bank, OM, FRIBA, RDI, (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company Sir Nicholas Grimshaw, CBE (born 9 October 1939 is a prominent English Architect, particularly noted for several Modernist buildings including London Zaha Hadid (زها حديد CBE (born October 31 1950 Baghdad, Iraq) is a notable British Iraqi deconstructivist Architect
As well as period rooms, the collection includes parts of buildings, for example the two top stories of the facade of Sir Paul Pindar's house dated c1600 from Bishopsgate with elaborately carved wood work and leaded windows, a rare survivor of the Great Fire of London, there is a brick portal from a London house of the English Restoration period and a fireplace from the gallery of Northumberland house. See Bishopsgate Insurance for the Australian insurance company bankrupted in 1982 This article is about the Great Fire of 1666 For other great fires in London see Early fires of London or Second Great Fire of London. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored European examples include a dormer window dated 1523–35 from the chateau of Montal. There are several examples from Italian Renaissance buildings including, portals, fireplaces, balconies and a stone buffet that used to have a built in fountain. The main architecture gallery has a series of pillars from various buildings and different periods, for example a column from the Alhambra. This article is about the Alhambra in Granada Spain For other meanings see Alhambra (disambiguation. Examples covering Asia are in those galleries concerned with those countries, as well as models and photographs in the main architecture gallery.
The V&As collection of Art from Asia numbers more than 160,000 objects, one of the greatest in existence. It has one of the world's most comprehensive and important collections of Chinese art whilst the collection of South Asian Art is the most important in the West. The museums coverage includes items from South and South East Asia, Himalayan Kingdoms, China, the Far East and the Islamic world.
The V&A holds over 19,000 items from the Islamic World, ranging from the early Islamic period (the 7th century) to the early 20th century. The Jameel Gallery of Islamic Art, opened in 2006, houses a representative display of 400 objects with the highlight being the Ardabil Carpet, the centrepiece of the gallery. The Ardabil Carpet ( Ardebil Carpet) is either of two famous Persian carpets which are currently held in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum The displays in this gallery cover objects from Spain, North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and Afghanistan. A masterpiece of Islamic art is a 10th-century ewer carved from a single block of rock crystal. Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally A pitcher is a container with a spout used for pouring its contents Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Many examples of Qur'āns with exquisite calligraphy dating from various periods are on display. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 A 15th-century Minbar from a Cairo mosque with ivory forming complex geometrical patterns inlaid in wood is one of the larger objects on display. A minbar ( Arabic: منبر also spelt mimbar) is a Pulpit in the Mosque where the Imam (leader of prayer stands to deliver sermons Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger Extensive examples of ceramics especially Iznik pottery, glasswork including 14th century lamps from mosques and metalwork are on display. The collection of Middle Eastern and Persian rugs and carpets is amongst the finest in the world, many were part of the Salting Bequest of 1909. The Persian carpet ( Pahlavi bōb Persian farš فرش meaning "to spread" and qāli) is an essential part of Examples of tile work from various buildings including a fireplace dated 1731 from Istanbul made of intricately decorated blue and white tiles and turquoise tiles from the exterior of buildings from Samarkand are also displayed. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of
The Museum's collections of South and South-East Asian art are the most comprehensive and important in the West comprising nearly 60,000 objects, including about 10,000 textiles and 6000 paintings, the range of the collection is immense. The Nehru gallery of Indian art, opened in 1991, contains art from about 500 BC to the 19th century. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू ʤəʋäɦəɾläl nɛɦɾu (14 November 1889 27 May 1964 was a major political leader of the Congress Party The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts There is an extensive collection of sculpture, mainly of a religious nature, Hindu, Buddhist and Jain. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. The gallery is richly endowed with art of the Mughal Empire, including fine portraits of the emperors and other paintings and drawings, jade wine cups and gold spoons inset with emeralds, diamonds and rubies, also from this period are parts of buildings such as a jaali and pillars. The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most A jali (or jaali) is the term for a perforated stone or Latticed Screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of Calligraphy India was a large producer of textiles, from dyed cotton chintz, muslin to rich embroidery work using gold and silver thread, coloured sequins and beads is displayed, as are carpets from Agra and Lahore. Chintz is calico cloth printed with flowers and other devices in different colours Muslin is a type of finely-woven Cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century Embroidery is the Art or Handicraft of decorating fabric or other Materials with designs stitched in strands of thread or Agra ( pronounced) (आगरा آگرا is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, ( lahor is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. Examples of clothing are also displayed. One of the more unusual items on display in the Indian Gallery is 'Tipu's Tiger', an automaton and mechanical organ made in Mysore around 1795. Tipu's Tiger (aka Tippoo's Tiger is an Automaton, representing a Tiger savaging a European soldier or employee of the British East India Company This article is about a self-operating machine For other uses of Automaton see Automaton (disambiguation or Automata (disambiguation. Mysore (maɪˈsɔɚ in English; renamed to Mysuru|ಮೈಸೂರು) (ಮೈಸೂರು is the second largest city in the state of Karnataka, India It represents a tiger mauling a soldier or officer of the British East India Company. The tiger ( Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family the largest and the most powerful of the four " Big cats quot in the Genus The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or It is named after the ruler of Mysore who commissioned it, Tipu Sultan. In 1879–80 the collections of the British East India Company's India Museum were given to the V&A and the British Museum.
The Far Eastern collections include more than 70,000 works of art from the countries of East Asia: China, Japan and Korea. The T. T. Tsui Gallery of Chinese art opened in 1991, displaying a representative collection of the V&As approximately 16,000 objects from China, dating from the 4th millennium BC to the present day. Chinese art ( Chinese: 中國藝術/中国艺术 has varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling Dynasties of China and changing Though the majority of art works on display date from the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, there are exquisite examples of objects dating from the Tang Dynasty and earlier periods. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Notably, a metre high bronze head of Buddha dated to the c750 AD and one of the oldest items a 2,000 year old jade horse head from a burial, other sculptures include life size tomb guardians. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Jade is an Ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different Silicate minerals. Classic examples of Chinese manufacturing are displayed which include lacquer, silk, porcelain, jade and cloisonné enamel. In a general sense lacquer is a clear or coloured Varnish, that dries by solvent evaporation and often a curing process as well that produces a hard durable finish in any Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures Jade is an Ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different Silicate minerals. Cloisonné, an ancient Metalworking technique is a multi-step enamel process used to produce Jewelry, Vases and other decorative items Two large ancestor portraits of a husband and wife painted in watercolour on silk date from the 18th century. There is a unique lacquer table, made in the imperial workshops during the reign of Emperor Xuande. The Xuande Emperor ( February 25, 1398 – January 31, 1435) was Emperor of China ( Ming dynasty) between 1425–1435 Examples of clothing are also displayed. One of the largest objects is a mid 17th century bed. The work of contemporary Chinese designers is also displayed.
The Toshiba gallery of Japanese art opened in December 1986. ( is a multinational conglomerate manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media including ancient pottery sculpture in wood and bronze ink painting on silk and paper and a myriad of other types of works of The majority of exhibits date from 1550 to 1900, but one of the oldest pieces displayed is the 13th-century sculpture of Amida Nyorai. Examples of classic Japanese armour from the mid 19th century, steel sword blades (Katana), Inro, lacquerware including the Mazarin Chest dated c1640 is one of the finest surviving pieces from Kyoto, porcelain including Imari, Netsuke, woodblock prints including the work of Ando Hiroshige, graphic works include printed books, as well as a few paintings, scrolls and screens, textiles and dress including kimonos are some of the objects on display. A is a type of Japanese sword ( nihontō) and often is called a "samurai sword An was a case for holding small objects Because traditional Japanese garb lacked pockets objects were often carried by hanging them from the obi, or sash (IPA /kʲoːto / is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. Imari porcelain is the European collectors' name for Japanese porcelain wares made in the town of Arita, in the former Hizen Province, northwestern Kyūshū Netsuke (Japanese根付 are miniature sculptures that were invented in 17th century Japan to serve a practical function (the two Japanese characters ne+tsuke mean "root" For the use of the technique in art see Woodcut on the technique and Old master print for the history in Europe and Woodblock printing in Japan. was a Japanese Ukiyo-e artist and one of the last great artists in that tradition The is the National costume of Japan. Originally the word "kimono" literally meant thing to wear ( ki wearing and mono thing but now has come One of the finest objects displayed is Suzuki Chokichi's bronze incense burner (koro) dated 1875, standing at over 2. Koro ( Japanese: 香炉 kōro) is a Japanese Incense burner or Censer often used in Japanese tea ceremonies. 25 metres high and 1. 25 metres in diameter it is also one of the largest examples made.
The smaller galleries cover Korea, the Himalayan kingdoms and South East Asia. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Korean displays include green-glazed ceramics, silk embroideries from officials' robes and gleaming boxes inlaid with mother-of-pearl made between 500 AD and 2000. Himalayan items include important early Nepalese bronze sculptures, repoussé work and embroidery. Repoussé (ʀəpuse)or repoussage ʀəpusaʒ is a Metalworking technique in which a Malleable Metal Embroidery is the Art or Handicraft of decorating fabric or other Materials with designs stitched in strands of thread or Tibetan art from the 14th to the 19th century is represented by notable 14th- and 15th-century religious images in wood and bronze, scroll paintings and ritual objects. Art from Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka in gold, silver, bronze, stone, terracotta and ivory represents these rich and complex cultures, the displays span the 6th to 19th centuries. Refined Hindu and Buddhist sculptures reflect the influence of India; items on show include betel-nut cutters, ivory combs and bronze palanquin hooks.
These fifteen galleries — which opened in November 2001 — contain around 4000 items. The displays in these galleries are based around three major themes: 'Style', 'Who Led Taste' and 'What Was New'. The period covered is 1500 to 1900, the galleries fall into three major subdivisions; Tudor and Stuart Britain 1500–1714, This covers the Renaissance, Elizabethan, Jacobean, Restoration and Baroque styles; Georgian Britain 1714–1837, this covers Palladianism, Rococo, Chinoiserie, Neoclassicism, the Regency, as well as continuing classical influences includes Chinese, Indian and Egyptian styles, also the Gothic Revival; Victorian Britain 1837–1901, this covers the later more scholarly phase of the Gothic Revival, French influences, Classical and Renaissance revivals, Aestheticism, Japanese style, continuing influence from China, Indian and the Islamic world, the Arts and Crafts movement and the Scottish School. Social and economic revolution Following the Black Death Plagues and the agricultural depression of the late 14th century population growth The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Romance and reality The Victorian era and the early twentieth century idealised the Elizabethan era The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc The arts Especially during the mid-18th century the period was marked by cultural vibrancy with the establishment of the British Museum in 1753 and the contributions PLEASE DO NOT ADD AN INFO BOX TO THIS PAGE --> Palladian architecture is a European style of Architecture derived from the designs of the Italian Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. Chinoiserie, a French term signifying "Chinese-esque" refers to a recurring theme in European artistic styles since the seventeenth century which reflecting Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Artistic trends Regency architecture Regency fashions Regency dance Regency novels The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities This article is about aestheticism a term with a root meaning of sensuous Not to be confused with the religious practice of Asceticism: an abstinence from the sensual Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media including ancient pottery sculpture in wood and bronze ink painting on silk and paper and a myriad of other types of works of The Arts and Crafts Movement was a British, Canadian, and American Aesthetic movement occurring in the last years of the 19th century and the
Not just the work of British artists and craftspeople is on display, but work produced by European artists that was purchased or commissioned by British patrons. Also imports from Asia, including porcelain, cloth and wallpaper. Designers and artists whose work is on display in the galleries include Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Grinling Gibbons, Daniel Marot, Louis Laguerre, Antonio Verrio, Sir James Thornhill, William Kent, Sir William Chambers, Robert Adam, Canaletto, Josiah Wedgwood, Matthew Boulton, Eleanor Coade, Canova, John Constable, Thomas Chippendale, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, William Morris, William Burges, Charles Robert Ashbee, Christopher Dresser, James McNeill Whistler and Charles Rennie Mackintosh. "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Master Wood carver Grinling Gibbons ( 4 April 1648 - 3 August 1721) was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands Daniel Marot (1661-1752 was a French Protestant, an Architect, Furniture designer and engraver at the forefront of the classicizing Late Louis Laguerre (1663-1721 was a French decorative painter mainly working in England. Antonio Verrio ( 1639 -17 June 1707 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active in England. See also English school of painting Sir James Thornhill ( 25 July 1675 or 1676 – May 4, 1734) was an English William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c 1685 &ndash 12 April 1748) was an eminent English Architect, Landscape Sir William Chambers ( 27 October 1723 &ndash 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Architect, born in Gothenburg Robert Adam ( 3 July 1728 &ndash 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical Architect, Interior designer This is about the first and better known artist "Canaletto" for his nephew and pupil sometimes also called "Canaletto" especially in Poland and Germany see Josiah Wedgwood ( July 12, 1730 - January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter credited Matthew Boulton ( September 3, 1728 &ndash 18 August 1809) was an English Manufacturer and Engineer. Eleanor Coade (alternatively Elinor Coade) (1733 - 1821 (when she went into business to be respectable she followed the normal practice of the day and called herself 'Mrs Coade' John Constable ( 11 June 1776 &ndash 31 March 1837 Thomas Chippendale ( Otley, near Leeds baptised - November 1779 was a London Cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin ( 1 March 1812 – 14 September 1852) was an English Architect, designer and theorist of design now William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896 was an English Architect, Furniture and Textile designer artist writer and socialist associated William Burges ( 2 December, 1827 &ndash 20 April, 1881) was an English Architect and Designer. Charles Robert Ashbee (London May 17, 1863 &ndash Sevenoaks, Kent May 23, 1942) was a designer Christopher Dresser ( Glasgow, July 4, 1834 – Mulhouse, November 24, 1904) was a Designer and writer on design Patrons who have influenced taste are also represented by works of art from their collections, these include: Horace Walpole (a major influence on the Gothic Revival), William Thomas Beckford and Thomas Hope. Horace Walpole 4th Earl of Orford ( 24 September, 1717 &ndash 2 March, 1797) more commonly known as Horace Walpole, was a politician William Thomas Beckford ( 1 October 1760 &ndash 2 May 1844) usually known as William Beckford, was an English Novelist Henry Thomas Hope ( 30 August 1769 &ndash 3 February 1830 /1831 was a British author philosopher and art collector best known for his novel "Anastasius" 
Over the four centuries covered, the people influencing style are seen to change over time, in the early sixteenth century the Church prior to the Reformation and the British Monarchy dominated taste, but as time passed first the aristocracy, then also the middle class begin to have a greater and greater influence on taste. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy This mirrors rising national wealth and power, as British trade spread around the globe followed by the founding and expansion of the British Empire. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
There are five complete rooms from demolished buildings displayed in the galleries, these are: The parlour from the Old Palace Bromley-by-Bow dated 1606 with carved Renaissance-style oak panelling, overmantel and richly decorated plaster ceiling: the parlour from 2 Henrietta Street London dated 1727–28 designed by James Gibbs with an elaborate ceiling with in set paintings and carved fireplace; the Norfolk House Music Room, St James Square London dated 1756, designed by Matthew Brettingham and Giovanni Battista Borra, the white panelling and ceiling have carved and gilded Rococo decoration with matching mirrors; the Strawberry Room from Lee Priory Kent, dated 1783–94 designed by James Wyatt in a Gothick style: the Ante-room from The Grove Harborne, Birmingham 1877–78 designed by John Henry Chamberlain in High-Victorian Neo-Gothic style. Bromley-by-Bow, historically and officially Bromley, is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. James Gibbs (1682-1754 was one of Britain 's most influential Architects Born in Scotland, he trained as an architect in Rome, and practised Norfolk House, at 31 St James's Square, London, was built in 1722 for the Duke of Norfolk. This article refers to the English Architect. For the Game designer, see James Wyatt (game designer. The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began John Henry Chamberlain ( June 21, 1831 – October 22, 1883) generally known professionally as J H Chamberlain, was a nineteenth century The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began Further there are displays of parts of rooms: the Hayes Grange Room c1585–c1620, attributed to the amateur architect John Osborne is an early example for Britain of the correct use of the classical orders, only the end wall and part of the ceiling is displayed due to the size of the room. A classical order is one of the ancient styles of building design in the classical tradition, distinguished by their proportions and their characteristic profiles and details There are parts of two Robert Adam designed rooms on show, a section of a wall from the Glass Drawing Room from Northumberland House dated 1773–1775, the main panels consist of glass backed by red foil, the pilasters glass backed with green foil and covered by elaborate carvings of gilded wood, and there is a neo-classical painting inset above the door, the other room comes from the Adelphi Buildings c1772, demolished in 1936, only the ceiling and fireplace survive. Robert Adam ( 3 July 1728 &ndash 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical Architect, Interior designer Northumberland House was a large Jacobean mansion in London, which was so called because for most of its history it was the London residence of the A pilaster is a slightly-projecting flattened Column built into or applied to the face of a wall Adelphi (Greek adelphoi, "brothers" is a district of London, England in the City of Westminster. 
Some of the more notable works displayed in the galleries include: Pietro Torrigiani's coloured terracotta bust of Henry VII dated 1509–11; The Dacre Heraldic Beasts, extraordinary 2 metre high carvings of a bull, gryphon, ram and salmon, in realistic colours, dated 1519-21; Henry VIII's writing box dated 1525 made from walnut and oak, lined with leather and painted and gilded with the king's coat of arms; A spinet dated 1570–1580 for Elizabeth I: the Great Bed of Ware, dated 1590–1600, an elaborately carved four poster with head board inlaid with marquetry, said to sleep twelve people; portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger dated c1620 of Margaret Laton and the actual embroidered jacket that the sitter is wearing in the painting; Bernini's bust of Thomas Barker dated c1638; the Mortlake tapestry dated to the mid-seventeenth century part of a series covering the story Venus and Vulcan; the wood relief of The Stoning of St Stephen dated c1670 by Grinling Gibbons; the state bed from Melville House dated 1700, over 4. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of A spinet is a smaller type of Harpsichord or other keyboard instrument such as a Piano or organ. The Great Bed of Ware is an extremely large Oak Four poster bed, carved with Marquetry, that was originally housed in the White Hart Inn in Marquetry is the Craft of covering a structural carcass with pieces of veneer forming decorative patterns designs or pictures Marcus Gheeraerts (also written as Gerards or Geerards) was an Artist of the Tudor court, born in Bruges in 1561 or 1562 and was brought to "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Mortlake is a district of London, England and part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Venus was a major Roman Goddess principally associated with Love, Beauty and fertility, the equivalent of the Greek goddess In ancient Roman religion and Hellenic neopaganism, Vulcan is the god of beneficial and hindering fire including the fire of Volcanoes He is also Melville House, lies to the southside of Monimail in Fife. It was built in 1697 by the architect James Smith (c 6 metres high with hangings of crimson Italian velvet and Chinese silk linings; Embroidery hangings from Stoke Edith dated c1710-20; a unique set of silverware is the Macclesfield Wine Set, dated 1719–1720, it consists of a large wine cooler, cistern and fountain the last for washing wine glasses, the work of Anthony Nelme, this is the only complete set known to survive; the life size sculpture of George Frederick Handel dated 1738 by Louis-François Roubiliac; the sculpture of Castor and Pollux dated 1767 by Joseph Nollekens; a bureau dressing table dated 1771-5 by Thomas Chippendale; the Duchess of Manchester's cabinet dated 1776, designed by Robert Adam and incorporating Pietra Dura plaques made by Baccio Cappelli; there are two sculptures by Canova that are displayed alternately, The Three Graces dated 1815–17, when this is on display at The National Galleries of Scotland, then The Sleeping Nymph dated 1822 is displayed instead. Stoke Edith is a village in the English county of Herefordshire, situated on a road leading from Hereford to Ledbury. Louis-François Roubiliac (more correctly Roubillac) ( 1695 - January 11, 1762) 18th century French sculptor. Joseph Nollekens ( August 11, 1737 - April 23, 1823) was a sculptor from London generally considered to be the finest British Robert Adam ( 3 July 1728 &ndash 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical Architect, Interior designer Pietre dure (or Parchin kari, in South Asia is an art-historical term for the technique of using small exquisitely cut and fitted highly-polished colored stones to create Antonio Canova ’s Statue The Three Graces is a Neo-Classical Sculpture, in marble of the mythological three Charites, The National Gallery of Scotland, in Edinburgh, is the national Art gallery of Scotland. The painting of Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds, dated 1823 by John Constable; the sculpture of Bashaw dated 1831–34, this is a life like sculpture of the Earl of Dudley's dog made from coloured marble, the dog has a paw on a writhing snake equally life like, the sculptor was Matthew Cotes Wyatt; A Carpet and tapestry by William Morris; the Sideboard dated 1867–70 of ebonized mahogany and silver-plated metal work by Edward William Godwin, furniture by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Edward William Godwin ( Bristol, May 26, 1833 – October 6, 1886) was a progressive English architect-designer who began 
The influences on design that were new in different periods and explored in the displays, include: in the Tudor period, the spread of the printed book, the increasing employment of European artists and craftsmen and in the late 16th century, the establishment of tapestry weaving at the Sheldon works; in the Stuart period the increase in trade especially with Asia brought luxuries like carpets, lacquerware furniture, silk and porcelain, with in reach of more of the population, new forms of furniture appearing in the domestic setting such as bookcases and sofas and the increasing use of upholstery; in the Georgian age there is a growth in entertainment Vauxhall Gardens being an example, the growth in tea drinking and associated paraphernalia such as china, caddies and tables, the influence of the Grand Tour on taste, the growth of mass production as the Industrial Revolution takes hold, producing entrepreneurs such as Josiah Wedgwood, Matthew Boulton and Eleanor Coade; displays on the Victorian era investigate the impact of new technology on manufacturing with examples of the use of newly invented machinery, also for the first time since the reformation the church both Anglican and Roman Catholic have a major impact on art and design especially the Gothic revival commissioning art and architecture on a large scale, there is a large display on the Great Exhibition, that amongst other things led to the founding of the V&A, there is also the backlash against industrialisation led by John Ruskin, that would lead to the Arts and Crafts movement a pioneer of which was William Morris. Vauxhall Gardens /vɒks'ɔl/ was a pleasure garden, one of the leading venues for public entertainment in London, England from the mid 17th century to Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market The Grand Tour was the traditional travel of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Josiah Wedgwood ( July 12, 1730 - January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter credited Matthew Boulton ( September 3, 1728 &ndash 18 August 1809) was an English Manufacturer and Engineer. Eleanor Coade (alternatively Elinor Coade) (1733 - 1821 (when she went into business to be respectable she followed the normal practice of the day and called herself 'Mrs Coade' John Ruskin (8 February 1819 &ndash 20 January 1900 is best known for his work as an Art critic, sage writer, and Social critic, but is remembered
One of the most dramatic parts of the museum is the Cast Courts in the sculpture wing, comprising two large, skylighted rooms two storeys high housing hundreds of plaster casts of sculptures, friezes and tombs. The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls This article is on plaster copies made of sculptures and other objects In Architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an Entablature and may be plain or &ndash in the Ionic or Corinthian order &ndash For the New York prison see The Tombs. A Tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. One of these is dominated by a full-scale replica of Trajan's Column, cut in half in order to fit under the ceiling. Trajan's Column is a Monument in Rome raised in honour of the Roman emperor Trajan and constructed by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus The other includes reproductions of various works of Italian Renaissance sculpture and architecture, including a full-size replica of Michelangelo's David. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest David is a Masterpiece of Renaissance Sculpture sculpted by Michelangelo from 1501 to 1504 Replicas of two earlier Davids by Donatello and Verrocchio, are also included, although for conservation reasons the Verrocchio replica is displayed in a glass case. David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian Andrea del Verrocchio, born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, (c
The two courts are divided by corridors on both storeys, and the partitions that used to line the upper corridor (the Gilbert Bayes sculpture gallery) were removed in 2004 in order to allow the courts to be viewed from above.
Room 46a; Cast Court — Plaster Casts of various European monuments
Room 46b; Cast Court — Plaster Cast of Central doorway of S. The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls Santiago de Compostela Cathedral is situated in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls Petronio, Siena by Jacopo della Quercia
This is the largest and most comprehensive collection in the world with over 75,000 objects in the collection, covering the entire globe, every populated continent is represented. Jacopo della Quercia (c 1374 &ndash October 20, 1438) was an Italian sculptor of the Italian Renaissance a contemporary of Brunelleschi, The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls David is a Masterpiece of Renaissance Sculpture sculpted by Michelangelo from 1501 to 1504 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all
Well represented in the collection is Meissen porcelain, this factory being the first in Europe to discover the Chinese method of making porcelain, amongst the finest examples is the Meissen Vulture dating from 1731. Meissen porcelain is the first European Hard-paste porcelain that was developed from 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. Examples from the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres are extensive, especially the 18th and 19th centuries. The manufacture nationale de Sèvres is a Porcelain factory located in Sèvres, France. The collection of 18th century British porcelain is the largest and finest in the world, examples from every factory are represented, the collection of Chelsea porcelain and Worcester Porcelain being especially fine. The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45 is the first important Porcelain manufactory in England; its earliest Soft-paste porcelain Royal Worcester manufactures Bone china and in particular Porcelain. All the major nineteenth century British factories are also represented. A major boost to the collections was the Salting Bequest made in 1909, which covered amongst other areas Chinese and Japanese ceramics, this forms part of the finest collection of East Asian pottery and porcelain in the world, Kakiemon being amongst the wares displayed. From the mid-17th century Kakiemon wares were produced at the factories of Arita, Saga Prefecture,
Many famous potters, such as Josiah Wedgwood, William Frend De Morgan and Bernard Leach as well as Mintons Ltd & Royal Doulton are represented in the collection, as indeed is pottery from earlier periods. Josiah Wedgwood ( July 12, 1730 - January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter credited William Frend De Morgan ( 16 November, 1839 – 15 January, 1917) was an English potter and tile designer Bernard Howell Leach CBE CH ( January 5, 1887 &ndash May 6, 1979) was a British Studio potter and Mintons Ltd, was a major ceramics manufacturing company originated with Thomas Minton (1765-1836 the founder of "Thomas Minton and Sons" who established The Royal Doulton Company was one of the most renowned English companies producing Tableware and Collectables, with a history dating back to 1815 There is an extensive collection of Delftware produced in both Britain and Holland which includes a flower pyramid c1695 over a metre in height. Delftware, or Delft Pottery, denotes blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed Pottery Bernard Palissy has several examples of his work in the collection including dishes, jugs and candlesticks. Bernard Palissy (c 1510 - c 1589 was a French potter and craftsman famous for having struggled for 16 years to imitate Chinese porcelain. The largest objects in the collection are a series of ceramic stoves mainly dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, made in Germany and Switzerland, they have elaborate mouldings and ornament and some are decorated with coloured schemes. There is unrivalled collection of Italian maiolica and lustreware from Spain. Maiolica designates Italian Tin-glazed pottery dating from the Renaissance. Lusterware is a type of Pottery or Porcelain with a Metallic glaze that gives the effect of Iridescence, produced by metallic Oxides The collection of Iznik pottery from Turkey is the largest in the world. All the ceramics galleries are presently closed except on advertised dates, but with the help of a grant from the Headley Trust the first of the remodelled galleries should open in 2009.
These galleries are dedicated to temporary exhibits showcasing both trends from recent decades and the latest in design and fashion.
The costume collection is the most comprehensive in Britain, containing over 14,000 outfits plus accessories, it mainly covers the last four centuries and the latest in couture is added to the collection, there are also designs on paper. As everyday clothing from previous eras has not generally survived the collection is dominated by fashionable clothes made for special occasions. Some of the oldest items in the collection are medieval vestments especially Opus Anglicanum. Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions especially the Latin Rite and other Roman Catholics Opus Anglicanum or English work is a contemporary term for fine Needlework of Medieval England done for ecclesiastical or secular use on Clothing One of the most important items in the collection is the wedding suit of James II of England this is displayed in the British Galleries. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James Some of the largest bequests of costume were in 1913 the Harrods collection containing 1,442 costumes and items, in 1971 the Cecil Beaton collection of 1,200 costumes and items, and in 2002 the Costiff collection of 178 Vivienne Westwood costumes. Harrods is a Department store located on Brompton Road in Knightsbridge, London, England. Dame Vivienne Westwood, DBE, RDI, (born 8 April, 1941) is an English Fashion designer largely responsible for bringing Other famous designers with work in the collection include Coco Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, Zandra Rhodes, Mary Quant, Christian Lacroix, Jean Muir and Pierre Cardin. Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel ( August 19, 1883 &ndash January 10, 1971) was a pioneering French Fashion designer Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent, known as Yves Saint Laurent ( August 1 1936 &ndash June 1 2008) was an Algerian Zandra (Lindsey Rhodes CBE (born 19 September 1940 Chatham Kent is a British fashion designer Mary Quant OBE FCSD (born 11 February 1934 in Blackheath, London, England) is an English Christian Marie Marc Lacroix ( May 16 1951 in Trinquetaille, France) is a high-end French Fashion designer. Jean Elizabeth Muir CBE FCSD ( July 17 1928 - May 28 1995) was an English fashion designer (though she herself preferred the description Pierre Cardin is an Italian -born French Fashion designer, who was born on July 7, 1922, near Treviso. 
The jewellery collection with over 6,000 items, covers, amongst other periods, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, the Medieval period, Elizabethan jewels, the 17th century, 18th century, 19th century and on to the present day, there are also designs on paper. Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Some of the finest pieces are by Cartier, Peter Carl Fabergé and Lalique, other items in the collection include diamond dress ornaments made for Catherine the Great, bracelet clasps once belonging to Marie Antoinette and the Beauharnais emerald necklace presented by Napoleon to his adopted daughter Hortense de Beauharnais in 1806. Pierre Cartier ( 1878 - October 27, 1964) was a jeweler He was one of three sons of Alfred Cartier and the brother of Jacques Cartier Peter Carl Fabergé original name Carl Gustavovich Fabergé ( May 30, 1846 &ndash September 24, 1920) was a Russian René Jules Lalique was born in Ay Marne, Marne, France on April 6, 1860, and died May 5, 1945. Catherine II, called Catherine the Great (Екатерина II Великая Yekaterina II Velikaya;) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (November 2 1755 &ndash October 16 1793 known to history as Marie Antoinette ( pronounced /maʀi ɑ̃ntwanɛt/ Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte ( Née de Beauharnais) Queen Consort of Holland ( 10 April 1783 - 5 October 1837  Modern jewellery is represented by designers such as Gerda Flockinger and Wendy Ramshaw. Not just western jewellery is in the collection, but also African and Asian. Major bequests include; Reverend Chauncy Hare Townshend's collection of 154 gems bequeathed in 1869; Lady Cory's who in 1951 gave a collection of jewels that included major diamond jewellery from the 18th and 19th centuries; Dame Joan Evans, a pre-eminent jewellery scholar, bequethed in 1977 more than 800 jewels, dating from the Middle Ages to the early 19th century. Dame Joan Evans, DBE (1893 - 1977 was a British historian of French and English Mediaeval art. A new jewellery gallery, donated by William and Judith Bollinger, is opened on May 24, 2008. 
The furniture and furnishings collection covers Britain, Europe and America from the Middle Ages to the present. The collection contains over 14,000 items that: include, complete rooms, musical instruments, clocks, as well as furniture mainly western dating from the Middle Ages to the present, though the majority of the furniture is British dating between 1700 and 1900, the finest examples are displayed in the British Galleries. Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, or Clock is a gene which encodes proteins regulating Circadian rhythm. British designers with works in the collection include: William Kent, Henry Flitcroft, Matthias Lock, Thomas Chippendale, James Stuart, William Chambers, Robert Adam, John Gillow, James Wyatt, Thomas Hopper, Charles Heathcote Tatham, A. Henry Flitcroft ( 30 August 1697 &ndash 25 February 1769) was a major English Architect in the second generation of Palladianism Matthias Lock was an English 18th century Furniture designer and cabinet-maker James "Athenian" Stuart (1713 - 2 February 1788) was an English Archaeologist, Architect and artist best Thomas Hopper (1776 – 1856 was an English Architect of the late 18th and early 19th centuries much favoured by King George IV, and particularly notable W. N. Pugin, William Burges, William Morris, Charles Voysey, Charles Robert Ashbee, Baillie Scott, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Edwin Lutyens, Edward Maufe, Wells Coates & Robin Day. Charles Robert Ashbee (London May 17, 1863 &ndash Sevenoaks, Kent May 23, 1942) was a designer Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott ( October 23, 1865 &ndash February 10, 1945) was a British architect and Artist He Sir Edward Brantwood Maufe was an English Architect born 12 December 1883 in Ilkley. Wells Wintemute Coates OBE ( December 17, 1895 – June 17, 1958) was an architect designer and writer Also the national collection of wallpaper is held by the museum.
There are two complete 18th-century rooms from the continent on display: the Boudoir de Madame de Sévilly, dated 1781-2 from Paris, the architect was Claude Nicolas Ledoux, with exquisitely painted panelling the work of Jean Simeon Rousseau de la Rottiere and a glittering Italian 'cabinet' of 1780, elliptical in plan with a mirrored domed ceiling and elaborate parquet floor and carved panelling. Claude Ledoux redirects here For the Belgian composer see Claude Ledoux (composer. Jean Simeon Rousseau de la Rottiere (1747&ndash1820 the youngest son of Jules Antoine Rousseau ( sculpteur du Roi) was a French decorative painter
The Soulages collection of Italian and French Renaissance objects were acquired between 1859 and 1865, this included several cassone dating from the 15th & 16th centuries. Among Furniture in Italy a cassone is a rich and showy type of chest, which may be inlaid or carved prepared with gesso ground then painted and gilded The John Jones Collection covering French 18th century art and furnishings was left to the museum in 1882, then valued at £250,000, one of the most important pieces in this collection is a marquetry commode by the ébéniste Jean-Henri Riesener dated c1780, other signed pieces of furniture in the collection include a bureau by Jean-François Oeben, a pair of pedastles with inlaid brass work by André-Charles Boulle, a commode by Bernard Vanrisamburgh and a work-table by Martin Carlin, and as well as furniture there are also, paintings, ceramics including an outstanding collection of Sèvres, goldsmiths' work, ormolu work, enamels, sculpture, tapestry, books and prints. Marquetry is the Craft of covering a structural carcass with pieces of veneer forming decorative patterns designs or pictures A Commode is any of several pieces of Furniture. The English word commode comes from French roots meaning "convenient" or "suitable" Ébéniste is the French word for a Cabinetmaker, as Menuisier denotes a woodcarver or chairmaker Jean-Henri Riesener (Johann Heinrich Riesener ( 4 July 1734 - 6 January 1806) born in Gladbeck near Essen in Germany Jean-François Oeben, or Johann Franz Oeben ( 9 October 1721 Heinsberg near Aachen - Paris 21 January 1763) was a André-Charles Boulle ( 11 November, 1642 – 28 February, 1732) was the French cabinetmaker who is generally considered Martin Carlin (ca 1730 — 1785 was a Parisian ébéniste, born at Freiburg, who was received master at Paris in 1766 Other 18th century ébénistes represented in the Museum collection include Adam Weisweiler, David Roentgen, Gilles Joubert & Pierre Langlois. Adam Weisweiler (c1744 &ndash c1820 was a French master Cabinetmaker in the Louis XVI period David Roentgen, ( Herrenhag 1743&ndash February 12 1807) was the single most famous German cabinetmaker of the eighteenth century Gilles Joubert (1689 — 1775 was a Parisian ébéniste who worked for the Garde-Meuble of Louis XV for two and a half decades beginning in From the 19th century Jacob-Desmalter. In 1901 Sir George Donaldson presented several pieces of art nouveau furniture to the museum which he acquired from the Paris Exposition Universelle, though this was criticised at the time, the result being that the museum ceased to collect contemporary items, and did not do so again until the 1960s. The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a World's fair held in Paris, France, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate In 1986 the Lady Abingdon collection of French Empire furniture was bequeathed by Mrs T. R. P. Hole.
There are a set of beautiful inlaid doors, dated 1580 from Antwerp City Hall, attributed to Hans Vredeman de Vries. The City Hall (Stadhuis of Antwerp, Belgium, stands on the western side of Antwerp's Grote Markt (Great Market Square Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527 – c 1607 was a Dutch Renaissance architect and engineer One of the finest pieces of continental furniture in the collection is the Rococo Augustus Rex Bureau Cabinet dated c1750 from Germany, with especially fine marquetry and ormolu mounts. Ormolu (from French or moulu, signifying gold ground or pounded is an 18th-century English term for applying finely ground high-karat gold to an object in bronze One of the grandest pieces of 19th century furniture is the highly elaborate French Cabinet dated 1861–1867 made by M. Fourdinois, made from ebony inlaid with box, lime, holly, pear, walnut and mahogany woods as well as marble with gilded carvings. Furniture designed by Ernest Gimson, C. Ernest William Gimson (Leicester Dec 21, 1864 - Sapperton August 12, 1919) was an English Furniture designer and Architect F. A. Voysey, Adolf Loos and Otto Wagner are among the late 19th and early 20th century examples in the collection. Adolf Loos (10 December 1870 &ndash 23 August 1933 was one of the most important and influential Austrian and Czechoslovak Architects of European Otto Koloman Wagner ( 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian Architect. The work of modernists in the collection include Le Corbusier, Marcel Breuer, Charles and Ray Eames, Giò Ponti and Eileen Gray. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) was a Swiss Marcel Lajos Breuer ( 21 May 1902 Pécs, Hungary &ndash 1 July 1981 New York City) Architect and Charles (1907-1978 and Ray (1912–1988 Eames (ˈiːmz were American designers married in 1941 who worked and made major contributions in many fields of design Gio Ponti (18 November 1891 Milan - 16 September 1979 Milan was one of the most important Italian Architects, industrial designers furniture designers Kathleen Eileen Moray Gray ( August 9, 1878 &ndash October 31, 1976) was an Irish Furniture Designer and Architect The work of Frank Lloyd Wright is represented by the Kaufmann Office designed and constructed between 1934 and 1937 for the owner of a Pittsburgh department store; not currently on display due to the closure of the Cole Wing for redevelopment as the new education centre — as well as other furniture and furnishings. Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8 1867 &ndash April 9 1959 was an American (of Welsh descent Architect, Interior designer, Writer, and educator who Contemporary designers represented in the collection include Ron Arad. Ron Arad (born 1951 is an industrial designer artist and architect
The most important musical instrument in the collection is a violin by Antonio Stradivari dated 1699, the most unusual musical instrument on display is the giant double bass attributed to Gasparo da Salò and once owned by Domenico Dragonetti. Antonio Stradivari (1644 &ndash December 18 1737 was an Italian Luthier, a crafter of Stringed instruments such as Violins cellos Gasparo da Salò ( May 20 1540 - April 14 1609) is the name given to Gasparo di Bertolotti one of the earliest violin makers of which Domenico Carlo Maria Dragonetti ( April 7, 1763 - April 16, 1846) was an Italian Double bass Virtuoso. Edward Burne-Jones designed the grand piano in 1883 that was part of the Ionides's bequest, built by Broadwood and Sons, of stained oak decorated with gold and silver-gilt gesso. Broadwood and Sons is the oldest piano company in the world named after its founder John Broadwood. Most of the musical instruments are either keyboard: pianos, spinets, harpsichords, organs or various string instruments, often with elaborate inlays or carving.
One of the oldest clocks in the collection is an astronomical clock of 1588 by Francis Nowe, one of the largest is James Markwick the youngers longcase clock of 1725 nearly 3 metres in height and japanned. A longcase clock, also tall-case clock, grandfather clock or floor clock, is a freestanding weight-driven Pendulum clock with the Japanning is a word originating from the 17th century used to describe the European imitation of Asian Lacquerwork, originally used on Furniture Other clock makers with work in the collection include: Thomas Tompion, Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, John Ellicott & William Carpenter. Thomas Tompion (1639&ndash1713 was an English master clockmaker and watchmaker known today as the father of English watchmaking.
The collection covers 4000 years of glass making, and has over 6000 items from Africa, Britain, Europe, America and Asia. Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many The earliest glassware on display comes from Ancient Egypt and continues through the Ancient Roman, Medieval, Renaissance covering areas such as Venetian glass and Bohemian glass and more recent periods, including Art Nouveau glass by Louis Comfort Tiffany and Émile Gallé, the Art Deco style is represented by several examples by René Lalique. Venetian glass is a type of Glass object made in Venice, Italy, primarily on the island of Murano. Bohemian glass or Bohemia crystal (glass and crystal have the same meaning in the Czech language in the context of grind-decorated glass is a decorative Glass made in Louis Comfort Tiffany ( February 18, 1848 &ndash January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts Émile Gallé ( Nancy, 8 May 1846 &ndash Nancy, September 23, 1904) was a French artist who worked in Glass There are many examples of crystal chandeliers both English, displayed in the British galleries and foreign for example Venetian (attributed to Giuseppe Briati) dated c1750 are in the collection. The Stained Glass collection is possibly the finest in the world, covering the medieval to modern periods, and covering Europe as well as Britain. For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art Several examples of English sixteenth century Heraldic glass is displayed in the British Galleries. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. Many well known designers of stained glass are represented in the collection including, from the nineteenth century: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris. There is also an example of Frank Lloyd Wright's work in the collection. Twentieth century designers include Harry Clarke, John Piper, Patrick Reyntiens, Veronica Whall and Brian Clarke. Harry Clarke ( March 17, 1889 –1931 was an Irish Stained glass artist and book illustrator John Egerton Christmas Piper CH ( December 13, 1903 – June 28, 1992) was a 20th-century English painter and Printmaker Patrick Reyntiens, OBE, (born 1925 is an English Stained glass Artist. Veronica Whall was a British Stained glass artist the daughter of Christopher Whall, a leader of the Arts & Crafts Movement in Stained Brian Clarke (born in Oldham Lancashire, England, July 2, 1953) is a British Artist known for his work in Stained 
The main gallery was redesigned in 1994, the glass balustrade on the staircase and mezzanine are the work of Danny Lane, the gallery covering contemporary glass opened in 2004 and the sacred silver and stained glass gallery in 2005. In this latter gallery stained glass is displayed along side silverware starting in the 12th century and continuing to the present. Some of the most outstanding stained glass, dated 1243-1248 comes from the Sainte Chapelle, which will be displayed along with other examples in the new medieval galleries due to open in 2009. La Sainte-Chapelle (The Holy Chapel is a Gothic Chapel on the Île de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. Examples of British stained glass are displayed in the British Galleries. One of the most spectacular items in the collection is the chandelier by Dale Chihuly in the rotunda at the Museum's main entrance. A chandelier is a branched decorative ceiling-mounted light fixture with two or more arms bearing lights Dale Patrick Chihuly (b September 20, 1941 in Tacoma Washington, U
This collection of over 45,000 items covers decorative ironwork, both wrought and cast, bronze, silverware, arms and armour, pewter, brassware and enamels (including many examples from Limoges). Ironwork is any Weapon, artwork, Utensil or architectural feature made of Iron especially used for decoration QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons Armour (or armor) is protective covering most commonly manufactured from metals to prevent damage from being inflicted to an individual or a vehicle through use of direct contact Pewter is a Metal Alloy, traditionally between 85 and 99 percent Tin, with the remainder consisting of Copper and Antimony, acting Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties In a discussion of Material science, enamel (or vitreous enamel or porcelain enamel in U Limoges ( Lemòtges / Limòtges in the Limousin dialect of Occitan language) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture The main iron work gallery was redesigned in 1995.
There are over 10,000 objects made from silver or gold in the collection, the display (about 15% of the collection) is divided into secular and sacred covering both Christian (Roman Catholic, Anglican and Greek Orthodox) and Jewish liturgical vessels and items. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs The Greek Orthodox Church ( Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) is formed by several autocephalous churches PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The main silver gallery is divided into these areas: British silver pre-1800; British silver 1800 to 1900; modernist to contemporary silver; European silver. The collection includes the earliest known piece of English silver with a dated hallmark, this is a silver gilt beaker dated 1496–97. Silversmiths' whose work is represented in the collection include Paul de Lamerie and Paul Storr whose Castlereagh Inkstand dated 1817–19 is one of his finest works. Paul de Lamerie ( 1688 - 1751) was the best-known English Silversmith of his generation Paul Storr (b 1771- d 4 March 1844 was a British sculptor Goldsmith and designer working in the Neoclassical style.
The main Iron Work gallery covers European wrought and cast iron from the Medieval period to the Early 20th century. The master of wrought ironwork Jean Tijou is represented by both examples of his work and designs on paper. Jean Tijou was a French Huguenot ironworker He is known solely through his work in England, where he worked on several of the key English Baroque One of the largest items is the Hereford Screen, weighing nearly 8 tonnes, 10. 5 metres high and 11 metres wide, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 1862 for the chancel in Hereford Cathedral, from which it was removed in 1967. Sir George Gilbert Scott ( 13 July 1811 &ndash 27 March, 1878) was an English Architect of the Victorian Age The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, dates from 1079 It was made by Skidmore & Company. Its structure of timber and cast iron is embellished with wrought iron, burnished brass and copper. Much of the copper and ironwork is painted in a wide range of colours. The arches and columns are decorated with polished quartz and panels of mosaic. 
One of the rarest items in the collection is the 58 cm high Gloucester Candlestick, dated to c1110, made from gilt bronze; with highly elaborate and intricate intertwining branches containing small figures and inscriptions, it is a tour de force of bronze casting. Gloucester (ˈɡlɒstɚ) is a city, district and County town of Gloucestershire in the South West region of England. Also of importance is the Becket Casket dated c1180 to contain relics of St Thomas Becket, made from gilt copper, with enamelled scenes of the saint's martyrdom. St Thomas Becket (c 1118 &ndash December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170 Another highlight is the Reichenau Crozier dated 1351. Reichenau may refer to Reichenau Island, a German island in Lake Constance site of a Benedictine abbey Reichenau Baden-Württemberg, A crosier ( crozier, pastoral staff, paterissa, pósokh) is the stylized staff of office ( Pastoral staff) carried by high-ranking These items will be displayed in the new medieval galleries due to open in 2009.
The Burghley Nef, a salt-cellar, French, dated 1527-28, uses a nautilus shell to form the hull of a vessel, which rests on the tail of a parcelgilt mermaid, who rests on a hexagonal gilt plinth on six claw-and-ball feet. Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, 'sailor' is the common name of any marine creatures of the Cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole Both masts have main and top-sails, and battlemented fighting-tops are made from gold. This will be displayed in the new Renaissance Galleries due to open 2009.
The collection includes about 1130 British and 650 European oil paintings; 6800 British watercolours, pastels and 2000 miniatures, for which the museum holds the national collection. Oil painting is the process of painting with Pigments that are bound with a medium of Drying oil — especially in early modern Europe Linseed oil Watercolor ( US) or Watercolour ( UK) (and "aquarelle" in French is a Painting method Pastel is an Art medium in the form of a stick consisting of pure powdered Pigment and a binder A portrait miniature is a miniature Portrait painting usually executed in Gouache or watercolor. Also on loan to the museum, from Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth II, are the Raphael Cartoons: the seven surviving (there were ten) full scale designs for tapestries in the Sistine Chapel, of the lives of Peter and Paul from the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The Raphael Cartoons are seven large Cartoons for tapestries, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, painted by the High Renaissance Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina is the best-known Chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in Vatican City. Peter is a popular male Given name. It comes from the Greek word πετρος (petros meaning "rock" Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. There is also on display a fresco by Pietro Perugino dated 1522 from the church of Castello di Fortignano Perugia and is amongst the painter's last works. Pietro Perugino (1446–1524 was the leading painter of the Umbrian school who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance Perugia is the capital City of the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river and the capital of the Province of Perugia One of the largest objects in the collection is the Spanish tempera on wood, 670 x 486 cm, retable of St George, c1400, consisting of many scenes and painted by Andrés Marzal De Sax in Valencia. A retable is a term of ecclesiastical art and ecclesiastical architecture, applied in modern English usage to an Altar -ledge or shelf raised slightly Valencia ( Valencian: València, Valencia Spanish phonology --> is the capital of the Spanish autonomous
Nineteenth century British artists are well represented. John Constable and J.M.W. Turner are represented by oil paintings, water colours and drawings. Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775 &ndash 19 December 1851 was an English Romantic landscape painter, Watercolourist and One of the most unusual objects on display is Thomas Gainsborough's experimental showbox with its back-lit landscapes, which he painted on glass, which allowed them to be changed like slides. Thomas Gainsborough (christened 14 May 1727 &ndash died 2 August 1788 was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. Other landscape painters with works on display include Philip James de Loutherbourg, Peter de Wint and John Ward. Philip James de Loutherbourg, also seen as Philippe-Jacques and Philipp Jakob and with the appellation the Younger ( 31 October 1740 Peter De Wint ( 21 January 1784 - 30 January 1849) was an English Landscape painter. John Ward may refer to John Ward (pirate (c 1553-c 1622 English pirate and Barbary Corsair John Ward (composer (1571-1638 English
In 1857 John Sheepshanks gifted 233 paintings, mainly by contemporary British artists, and a similar number of drawings to the museum with the intention of forming a 'A National Gallery of British Art', a role since taken on by Tate Britain; artists represented are William Blake, James Barry, Henry Fuseli, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, Sir David Wilkie, William Mulready, William Powell Frith, Millais and Hippolyte Delaroche. Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and John Sheepshanks (1787 - 1863 British manufacturer and art collector was born in Leeds, and became a partner in his father's business as a cloth manufacturer Tate Britain is a part of the Tate gallery network in Britain, with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives. William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827 was an English poet, painter, and Printmaker. James Barry ( 11 October 1741 &ndash 22 February 1806) Irish painter, best remembered for his six part series of Henry Fuseli (in German Johann Heinrich Füssli; February 7, 1741 – April 16, 1825) was a British painter Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, RA ( March 7, 1802 in London – October 1 1873) was an English painter, Sir David Wilkie may refer to Sir David Wilkie (artist (1785-1841 Scottish painter Sir David Wilkie (surgeon (1882-1938 British William Mulready ( April 1 1786 &ndash July 7, 1863) was an Irish genre painter living in London. William Powell Frith ( January 19, 1819 &ndash November 9, 1909) was an English painter specialising in portraits and Sir John Everett Millais 1st Baronet, PRA ( June 8, 1829 &ndash August 13, 1896) was an English painter Hippolyte Delaroche, commonly known as Paul Delaroche ( July 17, 1797 &ndash November 4, 1856) was a French painter Although some of Constable's works came to the museum with the Sheepshanks bequest, the majority of the artist's works were donated by his daughter Isabel in 1888, including the large number of sketches in oil, the most significant being the 1821 full size oil sketch for the The Hay Wain. The Hay Wain is an oil on canvas painting by John Constable. It was finished in 1821 and shows a hay Wain near Flatford Mill Other artists with works in the collection include: Bernardino Fungai, Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, Domenico di Pace Beccafumi, Fioravante Ferramola, Jan Brueghel the Elder, Anthony van Dyck, Ludovico Carracci, Antonio Verrio, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Domenico Tiepolo, Canaletto, Francis Hayman, Pompeo Batoni, Benjamin West, Paul Sandby, Richard Wilson, William Etty, Henry Fuseli, Sir Thomas Lawrence, James Barry, Francis Danby, Richard Parkes Bonington & Alphonse Legros. Marcus Gheeraerts (also written as Gerards or Geerards) was an Artist of the Tudor court, born in Bruges in 1561 or 1562 and was brought to Domenico di Pace Beccafumi (1486&ndash May 18 1551) was an Italian Renaissance - Mannerist painter active predominantly Fioravante Ferramola (? - 3 July 1528) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period active mainly in Brescia. Jan Brueghel the Elder (b 1568 Brussels - January 13 1625, Antwerp) was a Flemish painter, son of Pieter Brueghel Ludovico (or Lodovico) Carracci ( 21 April 1555 &ndash 13 November 1619) was an Italian, early- Baroque Antonio Verrio ( 1639 -17 June 1707 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active in England. See also Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (or Giandomenico Tiepolo) or Lorenzo Baldissera Tiepolo, both sons of Giovanni Battista Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo ( August 30, 1727 - March 3, 1804) was a painter and Printmaker in Etching, son of artist This is about the first and better known artist "Canaletto" for his nephew and pupil sometimes also called "Canaletto" especially in Poland and Germany see Francis Hayman ( 1708 - 2 February 1776) was an English painter and Illustrator who became one of the founding members of Pompeo Girolamo Batoni ( 25 January, 1708 - 4 February, 1787) was an Italian painter whose style incorporated elements of the French Benjamin West RA ( October 10, 1738 – March 11, 1820) was an Anglo - American painter of historical Paul Sandby (1731 (baptised - 9 November 1809) was an English Map -maker turned landscape painter in Watercolours who Richard Wilson ( 1 August 1714 &ndash 15 May 1782) was a Welsh landscape painter, and one of the founder members William Etty ( 10 March, 1787 &ndash 13 November, 1849) was an English painter, best known for his paintings of nudes Henry Fuseli (in German Johann Heinrich Füssli; February 7, 1741 – April 16, 1825) was a British painter Sir Thomas Lawrence RA ( April 13, 1769 &ndash January 7, 1830) was a notable English painter, mostly of portraits James Barry ( 11 October 1741 &ndash 22 February 1806) Irish painter, best remembered for his six part series of Francis Danby (16 November 1793 &ndash 9 February 1861 was a British painter of the Romantic era Richard Parkes Bonington ( 25 October 1802 - 23 September 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter. Alphonse Legros ( 8 May 1837 - 8 December 1911) painter and Etcher, was born in Dijon.
Richard Ellison's collection of 100 British watercolours was given by his widow in 1860 and 1873 'to promote the foundation of the National Collection of Water Colour Paintings'. Over 500 British and European oil paintings, watercolours and miniatures and 3000 drawings and prints were bequeathed in 1868-9 by the clergymen Chauncey Hare Townshend and Alexander Dyce.
Several French paintings entered the collection as part of the 260 paintings and miniatures (not all the works were French, for example Carlo Crivelli's Virgin and Child) that formed part of the Jones bequest of 1882 and as such are displayed in the galleries of continental art 1600-1800, including the portrait of the Duc d'Alençon by François Clouet, Gaspard Dughet and works by François Boucher including his portrait of Madame de Pompadour dated 1758, Jean François de Troy, Jean-Baptiste Pater and their contemporaries. "Crivelli" redirects to this page See Crivelli (surname for more Several counts and then royal dukes of Alençon have figured in French history François Clouet (c 1510 &ndash 22 December 1572) son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance Miniaturist and painter particularly Gaspard Dughet (also known as Gaspard Poussin; 1613 - 27 May 1675) was a French painter. François Boucher ( September 29 1703 – May 30 1770) was a French painter, a proponent of Rococo taste Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson marquise de Pompadour, also known as Madame de Pompadour ( December 29, 1721 &ndash April 15, 1764 Jean François de Troy ( January 27, 1679, Paris - January 26, 1752, Rome) was a French Rococo painter Jean-Baptiste Pater ( December 29 1695 – July 25 1736) was a French Rococo painter
Another major Victorian benefactor was Constantine Alexander Ionides, who left 82 oil paintings to the museum in 1901, including works by Botticelli, Tintoretto, Adriaen Brouwer, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet, Eugène Delacroix, Théodore Rousseau, Edgar Degas, Jean-François Millet, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones, plus watercolours and over a 1000 drawings and prints
The Salting Bequest of 1909 included, amongst other works, water colours by J.M.W. Turner. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and Adriaen Brouwer (1605 Oudenaarde - January 1638 Antwerp) was a Flemish genre painter active in Flanders and the Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot ( July 17, 1796 &ndash February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter and Printmaker For the French Admiral see Admiral Courbet (1828-1885 Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet ( 10 June 1819 &ndash Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 &ndash 13 August 1863 was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of Pierre Étienne Théodore Rousseau ( April 15, 1812 - December 22, 1867) French painter of the Barbizon school Jean-François Millet ( October 4, 1814 &ndash January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon Dante Gabriel Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882 was an English poet Illustrator, painter and Translator. Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones 1st Baronet (28 August 1833 &ndash 17 June 1898 was an English Artist and Designer closely associated with the later Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775 &ndash 19 December 1851 was an English Romantic landscape painter, Watercolourist and Other water colourists include: William Gilpin, Thomas Rowlandson, William Blake, John Sell Cotman, Paul Sandby, William Mulready, Edward Lear, James Abbott McNeill Whistler and Paul Cezanne. The Reverend William Gilpin ( June 4, 1724 –1804 was an English artist clergyman schoolmaster and author best known as one of the originators of the Thomas Rowlandson ( July 14, 1756 – April 22, 1827) was an English artist and Caricaturist. William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827 was an English poet, painter, and Printmaker. John Sell Cotman ( 16 May 1782 &ndash 24 July 1842) was an artist of the Norwich school and an associate of John Crome Paul Sandby (1731 (baptised - 9 November 1809) was an English Map -maker turned landscape painter in Watercolours who William Mulready ( April 1 1786 &ndash July 7, 1863) was an Irish genre painter living in London. Edward Lear ( 12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an English Artist, Illustrator and Writer known
There is a copy of Raphael's School of Athens over 4 metres by 8 metres in size, dated 1755 by Anton Raphael Mengs on display in the eastern Cast Court. For the Raphael painting see The School of Athens The Academy (Ἀκαδήμεια was founded by Plato in ca Anton Raphael Mengs ( March 12, 1728 &ndash June 29, 1779) was an eminent German painter active in Rome Madrid and Saxony who became one
Miniaturists represented in the collection include Jean Bourdichon, Hans Holbein the Younger, Nicholas Hilliard, Isaac Oliver, Peter Oliver, Jean Petitot, Alexander Cooper, Samuel Cooper, Thomas Flatman, Rosalba Carriera, Christian Friedrich Zincke, George Engleheart, John Smart, Richard Cosway & William Charles Ross. Nicholas Hilliard (c 1547&ndash January 7, 1619) was an English Goldsmith and limner best known for his Portrait miniatures Isaac Oliver (c 1565 &ndash bur October 2, 1617) was a French -born English Portrait miniature painter Peter Oliver (1594-1648 was an English Miniaturist. Born in Isleworth, Middlesex, he was the eldest son of Isaac Oliver, probably Jean Petitot ( July 12, 1607 - April 3, 1691) was a French - Swiss enamel painter was born at Geneva, a member Alexander Cooper (before 1609 - 1660 was an English miniature painter Samuel Cooper (1609 &ndash May 5, 1672) was an English miniature painter, and younger brother of Alexander Cooper Thomas Flatman (1637–1688 was an English Poet and miniature painter As Snuff -taking became popular Carriera began painting Miniatures for the lids of snuff-boxes and was the first painter to use ivory for this purpose Christian Friedrich Zincke (b Dresden, 1683-5 d London, 24 March 1767) was a German miniature painter active in England in the 18th George Engleheart (born in October 1752 at Kew; died 1829 in Blackheath) English Portrait miniature painter and great rival of Richard John Smart (painter (c 1740 - 1811 English miniature painter was born in Norfolk; he became a pupil of Cosway, and is frequently alluded to in Richard Cosway ( 5 November 1742 &ndash 4 July 1821) was a leading English Portrait painter&mdashmore accurately a Sir William Charles Ross (1794-1860 was a British painter. Early in his career he was known for Historical paintings but he later gained fame for
Drawings in the collection of c10,000 British and c2,000 old master works, include work by: Dürer, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, Bernardo Buontalenti, Rembrandt, Antonio Verrio, Paul Sandby, John Russell (painter), Angelica Kauffmann, John Flaxman, Hugh Douglas Hamilton, Thomas Rowlandson, Thomas Girtin, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, David Wilkie, John Martin (painter), Samuel Palmer, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, Lord Frederic Leighton, Sir Samuel Luke Fildes and Aubrey Vincent Beardsley. Albrecht Dürer (ˈalbʀɛçt ˈdyʀɐ ( May 21, 1471 &ndash April 6, 1528) was a German painter, Printmaker Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (baptized March 23, 1609 - 1664 was an Italian Baroque artist painter Printmaker and draftsman Bernardo Buontalenti, byname of Bernardo Delle Girandole (1536? – June 25 or 26 1608 was an Italian stage designer architect theatrical designer Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. Antonio Verrio ( 1639 -17 June 1707 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active in England. Paul Sandby (1731 (baptised - 9 November 1809) was an English Map -maker turned landscape painter in Watercolours who John Russell ( March 29, 1745 – April 20, 1806) was an English painter renowned for his Portrait work Maria Anna Angelika/Angelica Katharina Kauffmann ( October 30, 1741 &ndash November 5, 1807) was a Swiss-Austrian painter. John Flaxman ( 6 July 1755 - 7 December 1826) was an English sculptor and draughtsman. Hugh Douglas Hamilton (c 1734/1739 &ndash February 10, 1808) was an Irish artist during the mid to late 18th century Thomas Rowlandson ( July 14, 1756 – April 22, 1827) was an English artist and Caricaturist. Thomas Girtin ( 18 February 1775 – 9 November 1802) was an English painter and Etcher, who played a key role David Wilkie may refer to Sir David Wilkie (artist (1785-1841 Scottish painter Sir David Wilkie (surgeon (1882-1938 British surgeon John Martin ( 19 July 1789 &ndash 17 February, 1854) was an important and influential English painter of the nineteenth Samuel Palmer ( January 27 1805 – May 24 1881) was an English landscape painter, Etcher and Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, RA ( March 7, 1802 in London – October 1 1873) was an English painter, Frederic Leighton 1st Baron Leighton PRA ( 3 December 1830 &ndash 25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor Sir Samuel Luke Fildes RA (1843-1927 was an English painter and illustrator born at Liverpool and trained in the South Kensington and Aubrey Vincent Beardsley ( August 21, 1872 &ndash March 16, 1898) was an influential English Modern British artists represented in the collection include: Paul Nash, Percy Wyndham Lewis, Eric Gill, Stanley Spencer, John Piper, Graham Sutherland, Lucien Freud and David Hockney. Paul Nash is the name of Paul Nash (artist (1889–1946 British artist Paul Nash (athlete, South African sprinter Percy Wyndham Lewis ( November 18, 1882 &ndash March 7, 1957) was an English painter and Author (he dropped Arthur Eric Rowton Gill ( 22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was a British sculptor, typeface designer, Sir Stanley Spencer ( 30 June 1891 &ndash 14 December 1959) was an English painter. John Egerton Christmas Piper CH ( December 13, 1903 – June 28, 1992) was a 20th-century English painter and Printmaker Graham Vivian Sutherland OM ( August 24, 1903 &ndash February 17, 1980) was an English Artist. Lucian Michael Freud, OM, CH (born 8 December 1922 is a British painter of German Origin David Hockney, CH, RA, (born 9 July 1937 is an English Artist, based in Los Angeles California, United States In order to conserve the drawings, the displays in the gallery are changed regularly.
TIEPOLO - St Leo in Glory
These galleries cover an entire period in western design, objects on display cover all areas of the museum's collections relevant to that period, these are: Medieval and Renaissance; Baroque and Rococo; 18th century including Neoclassicism; 19th century including, Empire Style, Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau; 20th century including, Art Deco and Modernism. The Portrait of Smeralda Bandinelli is a painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli, c Pietro Perugino (1446–1524 was the leading painter of the Umbrian school who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance For depictions in painting and sculpture see Nativity of Jesus in art. See also Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (or Giandomenico Tiepolo) or Lorenzo Baldissera Tiepolo, both sons of Giovanni Battista The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and The Empire Style, sometimes considered the second phase of Neoclassicism, is an early-19th-century Design movement in Architecture, Furniture The Arts and Crafts Movement was a British, Canadian, and American Aesthetic movement occurring in the last years of the 19th century and the Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century All these galleries are closed but due to reopen by 2008 or 2009.
The collection contains over 500,000 images dating from the advent of photography, the oldest image dating from 1839. Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing The gallery displays a series of changing exhibits and is closed when between exhibitions to allow re-display.
The collection includes the work of many photographers from Fox Talbot, Julia Margaret Cameron, Clementina Maude, Gustave Le Gray, Benjamin Brecknell Turner, Frederick Hollyer, Samuel Bourne, Roger Fenton, Man Ray, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Ilse Bing, Bill Brandt, Cecil Beaton (there are over 8000 of his negatives), Don McCullin, David Bailey and Helen Chadwick to the present day. William Henry Fox Talbot (11 February 1800 – 17 September 1877 was the inventor of the negative / positive photographic process the precursor to most photographic processes of Julia Margaret Cameron ( 11 June 1815 &ndash 26 January 1879) was a British Photographer. Clementina Maude Viscountess Hawarden ( 1 June 1822 &ndash 19 January 1865) was a Portrait photographer of the 1860s Jean-Baptiste Gustave Le Gray (August 30 1820 – July 30 1884 has been called "the most important French Photographer of the nineteenth century because of his technical Samuel Bourne (1834&ndash 24 April 1912) was a British Photographer known for his work in India. Roger Fenton ( March 20, 1819 - August 8, 1869) was a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers Man Ray, born Emmanuel Radnitzky ( August 27 1890 &ndash November 18 1976) in Philadelphia PA and raised Henri Cartier-Bresson ( August 22, 1908 &ndash August 3 2004) was a French Ilse Bing ( 23 March 1899 – 10 March 1998) was a German Avant-garde and commercial Photographer who produced Bill Brandt ( May 3, 1904 &ndash December 20, 1983) was an influential British Photographer and photojournalist Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton ( 14 January 1904 &ndash 18 January 1980) was an English fashion and portrait Photographer In photography a negative may refer to three different things although they are all related Donald McCullin FRPS CBE (b October 9, 1935, London, England) is an internationally-regarded British photojournalist David Bailey CBE (born 2 January 1938 in Leytonstone, London) is a celebrated English Photographer. Helen Chadwick (1953 – March 15, 1996) was a British Artist.
One of the more unusual collections is that of Eadweard Muybridge's photographs of Animal Locomotion of 1887, this consists of 781 plates. Eadweard J Muybridge ( April 9, 1830 &ndash May 8, 1904) was an English photographer, known primarily for his early use These sequences of photographs taken a fraction of a second apart capture images of different animals and humans performimg various actions. There are several of John Thomson's 1876-7 images of Street Life in London in the collection. John Thomson ( 14 June, 1837 – 7 October, 1921) was a pioneering Scottish photographer, geographer and One of the most interesting of the collections are the James Lafayette society portraits, the collection contains over 600 photographs dating from the late 19th to early 20th centuries. James Lafayette was the pseudonym of James Stack Lauder (1853–1923 The subjects covered include: bishops, generals, society ladies, Indian maharajas, Ethiopian rulers and other foreign leaders, actresses, people posing in their motor cars and a series covering the famous fancy dress ball held at Devonshire House in 1897 to celebrate Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee. Devonshire House in Piccadilly was the London residence of the Dukes of Devonshire, one of England 's most prominent aristocratic families for
In 2003 and 2007 Penelope Smail and Kathleen Moffat, generously donated Curtis Moffat's extensive archive to the Museum. He created dynamic abstract photographs, innovative colour still-lives and glamorous society portraits during the 1920s and 1930s. He was also a pivotal figure in Modernist interior design. In Paris during the 1920s, Moffat collaborated with Man Ray, producing portraits and abstract photograms or 'rayographs'. A photogram is a photographic image made (without a Camera) by placing objects directly onto the surface of a photo-sensitive material such as photographic paper
The museum houses the National Art Library,, containing over 750,000 books, it is one of the world's largest libraries dedicated to the study of fine and decorative arts. The library covers all areas and periods of the museum's collections with special collections covering illuminated manuscripts, rare books and artists' letters and archives. An illuminated manuscript is a Manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration such as decorated Initials borders and
The Library consists of three large public rooms, with around a hundred individual study desks. These are the West Room, Centre Room and Reading Room. The West Room is currently closed but will reopen in 2007. The centre room contains 'special collection material'.
One of the great treasures in the library is the Codex Forster, some of Leonardo da Vinci's note books. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer The Codex consists of three parchment-bound manuscripts, Forster I, Forster II, and Forster III, quite small in size, dated between 1490 and 1505.
Their contents include a large collection of sketches and references to the equestrian sculpture commissioned by the Duke of Milan Ludovico Sforza to commemorate his father Francesco Sforza. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer John Forster ( April 2, 1812 &ndash February 2, 1876) was an English Biographer and Critic, born at Ludovico Sforza Duke of Milan ( Ludovico il Moro, "The Moor" July 27, 1452 &ndash May 27, 1508) a member Francesco I Sforza ( July 23, 1401 - March 8, 1466) was an Italian Condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in These were bequeathed with over 18,000 books to the museum in 1876 by John Forster. John Forster ( April 2, 1812 &ndash February 2, 1876) was an English Biographer and Critic, born at  The Reverend Alexander Dyce was another benefactor of the library, leaving over 14,000 books to the museum in 1869. Alexander Dyce (30 June 1798 - 15 May 1869 was a Scottish dramatic editor and literary historian Amongst the books he collected are early editions in Greek and Latin of the poets and playwrights Aeschylus, Aristotle, Homer, Livy, Ovid, Pindar, Sophocles and Virgil. Aeschylus (ˈɛskɨləs or /ˈiːskɨləs/ Greek: Ασχύλος, Aischylos, 525 BC/524 BC 456 BC/455 BC was an ancient Greek Playwright Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including Pindar (ˈpɪndɚ (or Pindarus, Greek:) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos) was an Ancient Sophocles (ˈsɒfəkliːz Ancient Greek, sopʰoklɛ̂ːs circa Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or More recent authors include Giovanni Boccaccio, Dante, Racine, Rabelais and Molière. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, also known by his Stage name, Molière, ( January 15, 1622 – February 17 1673) was a French
Writers whose papers are in the library are as diverse as Charles Dickens and Beatrix Potter.  Illuminated manuscripts in the library dating from the 12th to 16th centuries include: the Eadwine Psalter, Canterbury; Pocket Book of Hours, Rheims; Missal from the Royal Abbey of Saint Denis, Paris; the Simon Marmion Book of Hours, Bruges; 1524 Charter illuminated by Lucas Horenbout, London; the Armagnac manuscript of the trial and rehabilitation of Joan of Arc, Rouen. A Psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms and which often contains other devotional material Canterbury ( ˈkæntəbɹ̩i is a City in eastern Kent in the South East region of England. A book of hours is the most common type of surviving Medieval Illuminated manuscript. Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; riːmz in English and /ʁɛ̃s/ in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern A missal is a Liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Lucas Horenbout, often called Hornebolte in England ( Ghent c Joan of Arc (c 1412 Joan asserted that she had visions from God that told her to recover her homeland from English domination late in the Hundred Years' Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital  also the Victorian period is represented by William Morris.
The print collection has over 500,000 items, covering: posters, greetings cards, book plates, as well as prints from the renaissance to the present, including works by Rembrandt, William Hogarth, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Canaletto, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Henri Matisse and Sir William Nicholson. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. William Hogarth (10 November 1697 &ndash 26 October 1764 was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic This is about the first and better known artist "Canaletto" for his nephew and pupil sometimes also called "Canaletto" especially in Poland and Germany see Karl Friedrich Schinkel ( March 13, 1781 – October 9, 1841) was a German Architect Henri Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954 was a French Artist, known for his use of Colour and his fluid brilliant and original draughtsmanship Sir William Newzam Prior Nicholson ( February 5, 1872 &ndash May 16, 1949) was an English painter, also known for
The Sculpture collection at the V&A is the most comprehensive holding of post-classical European sculpture in the world. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer John Forster ( April 2, 1812 &ndash February 2, 1876) was an English Biographer and Critic, born at There are approximately 17,500 objects in the collection that cover the period from about 400 AD to 1914. This covers amongst other periods Byzantine and Anglo Saxon ivory sculptures, British, French and Spanish medieval statues and carvings, the Renaissance, Baroque, Neo-Classical, Victorian and Art Nouveau periods. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south Ivory is formed from Dentine and constitutes the bulk of the Teeth and Tusks of animals such as the Elephant, Hippopotamus, Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international All uses of sculpture are represented, from tomb and memorial, to portrait, allegorical, religious, mythical, statues for gardens including fountains, as well as architectural decorations. An allegory (from αλλος allos "other" and el αγορευειν agoreuein "to speak in public" is a figurative mode of representation See also Mythology Myth is derived from the Greek word μύθος mythos, which simply means 'story' Materials used include, marble, alabaster, stone, terracotta, wood (history of wood carving), ivory, gesso, plaster, bronze, lead and ceramics. Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction From the remotest ages the decoration of wood has been a foremost art " Gesso " is the Italian word for " Board chalk " (akin to the Greek word " Gypsum " and is a powdered form of the
The collection of Italian, Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical sculpture (both original and in cast form) is unequalled outside of Italy. "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Neptune and Triton is an early sculpture by the 17th century Italian sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini. It includes Canova's The Three Graces, which the museum jointly owns with National Galleries of Scotland. The National Galleries of Scotland are the five national galleries of Scotland and two partner galleries Italian sculptors whose work is held by the museum include: Bartolomeo Bon, Bartolomeo Bellano, Luca della Robbia, Giovanni Pisano, Donatello, Agostino di Duccio, Andrea Riccio, Antonio Rossellino, Andrea del Verrocchio, Antonio Lombardo, Andrea Riccio, Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi, Andrea della Robbia, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, Michelangelo (represented by a freehand wax model and casts of his most famous sculptures), Jacopo Sansovino, Alessandro Algardi, Antonio Calcagni, Benvenuto Cellini (Medusa's head dated c1547), Agostino Busti, Bartolomeo Ammanati, Giacomo della Porta, Giambologna (Samson Slaying a Philistine c1562, his finest work outside Italy), Bernini (Neptune and Triton c1622–3), Giovanni Battista Foggini, Vincenzo Foggini (Samson and the Philistines), Massimiliano Soldani Benzi, Antonio Corradini, Andrea Brustolon, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Innocenzo Spinazzi, Canova, Carlo Marochetti and Rafaelle Monti. Bartolomeo Bon (also spelled Buon; died after 1464 was an Italian sculptor and architect from Campione d'Italia. Bartolomeo Bellano, also known as Bartolomeo Vellano, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor and architect who was born in Padua in 1437 or 1438 Luca della Robbia (1400-1482 was an Italian sculptor from Florence, noted for his Terracotta roundels Giovanni Pisano (c 1250 – c 1315 was an Italian sculptor, painter and architect Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian Agostino di Duccio (1418 &ndash c 1481 was an Italian early Renaissance sculptor Andrea Riccio (c 1470 &ndash 1532 was an Italian sculptor and occasional architect whose real name was Andrea Briosco, but is usually known by his Soubriquet Antonio Gamberelli (1427 &ndash c 1478/1481 nicknamed Antonio Rossellino for the colour of his hair was an Italian sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, (c Antonio Lombardo ( Venice c 1458 &ndash Ferrara 1516 was an Italian Renaissance sculptor brother of Tullio Lombardo and son of Pietro Lombardo Andrea Riccio (c 1470 &ndash 1532 was an Italian sculptor and occasional architect whose real name was Andrea Briosco, but is usually known by his Soubriquet Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi (c 1460 &ndash 1528 called "L'Antico" by his contemporaries for the refined interpretation of the Antique they recognized Andrea della Robbia ( October 24 1435 - August 4 1525) was an Italian Renaissance sculptor especially in Ceramics He was Michelozzo di Bartolomeo Michelozzi (1396 - 1472 was an Italian Architect and sculptor. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Jacopo d'Antonio Sansovino ( July 2 1486 &ndash November 27 1570) was an Italian sculptor and architect known best for his works Alessandro Algardi (July 31 1598 &ndash June 10 1654 was an Italian high- Baroque sculptor active almost exclusively in Rome, where for the latter Benvenuto Cellini In Greek mythology, Medusa ( Greek: Μέδουσα (Médousa "guardian protectress" was a monstrous Chthonic female character gazing upon Agostino Busti, or Bambaia (c 1483 &ndash 11 June 1548) was a High Renaissance Italian Sculptor. Bartolomeo Ammanati ( June 18 1511 - April 13 1592) was a Florentine Architect and sculptor. Giacomo della Porta (c 1533 &ndash 1602 was an Italian architect and sculptor who worked for many important buildings in Rome including St Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna ( 1529 - August 13 1608) was "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Neptune and Triton is an early sculpture by the 17th century Italian sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Giovanni Battista Foggini ( April 25, 1652 - April 12, 1737) was an Italian sculptor active in Florence, renowned mainly Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi or Massimiliano Soldani ( 15 July 1656 — 23 February 1740) was an Italian sculptor and medallist Antonio Corradini ( 6 September 1668 - 29 June 1752) was a Venetian Rococo Sculptor. Andrea Brustolon ( 20 July 1662 &ndash 25 October 1732) was an Italian sculptor in wood Innocenzo Spinazzi (1726–1798 was an Italian sculptor of the Rococo period active in Rome and Florence. Baron Carlo (Charles Marochetti (1805-1867 was a sculptor born in Turin, but raised in Paris as a French citizen Raffaelle Monti (1818-1881 was born in Milan, Italy He studied under his father the noted sculptor Gaetano Matteo Monti. An unusual sculpture is the ancient Roman statue of Narcissus restored by Valerio Cioli c1564 with plaster. There are several small scale bronzes by Donatello, Alessandro Vittoria, Tiziano Aspetti & Francesco Fanelli in the collection. Alessandro Vittoria (1525&ndash1608 was an Italian Mannerist sculptor of the Venetian school, "one of the main representatives of Tiziano Aspetti (1557/1559 - 1606 was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance. Francesco Fanelli (c 1590-1653 was an Italian sculptor born in Florence, who spent most of his career in England The largest item from Italy is the Chancel Chapel from Santa Chiara Florence dated 1493–1500, designed by Giuliano da Sangallo it is 11. Giuliano da Sangallo (c 1443 – 1516 was an Italian sculptor architect and Military engineer active during the Italian Renaissance 1 metres in height by 5. 4 metres square, it includes a grand sculpted tabernacle by Antonio Rossellino and coloured terracotta decoration. 
Rodin is represented by over 20 works in the museum collection, making it one of the largest collections of the sculptor's work outside France; these were gifted to the museum by the sculptor in 1914, as acknowledgement of Britain's support of France in World War I, although the statue of St John the Baptist had been purchased in 1902 by public subscription. Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian A bas-relief (baʁəljɛf in French; French for "low relief" derived from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a Sculpture Auguste Rodin (born François-Auguste-René Rodin; November 12 1840–November 17 1917 was a French artist most famous as a sculptor. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. Other French sculptors with work in the collection are Hubert Le Sueur, François Girardon, Michel Clodion, Jean-Antoine Houdon, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and Jules Dalou. Hubert Le Sueur (c 1580 - 1658 was a French sculptor with the contemporaneous reputation of having trained in Giambologna 's Florentine workshop who assisted François Girardon ( March 17, 1628 - September 1, 1715) was a French sculptor. Claude Michel, known as Clodion ( December 20, 1738 – March 29, 1814) was a French sculptor in the Rococo Jean-Antoine Houdon ( March 20, 1741 &ndash July 15, 1828) was a French neoclassical sculptor Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux ( May 11 1827 – October 12 1875) was a French Sculptor and painter. Aimé-Jules Dalou ( 31 December 1838 - 15 April 1902) was a French sculptor.
There are also several Renaissance works by Northern European sculptors in the collection including work by: Veit Stoss, Tilman Riemenschneider, Hendrick de Keyser, Jan van Schayck, Hans Daucher & Peter Flotner. Veit Stoss (Wit Stwosz (ca 1445-1450 in Horb am Neckar - 20 September 1533 in Nuremberg) was along with Adam Kraft and Tilman Riemenschneider (c 1460 - July 7, 1531) was a German sculptor and woodcarver active in Würzburg Hendrick de Keyser ( 15 May 1565 – 15 May 1621) was a Dutch sculptor and architect Baroque works from the same area include the work of, Adriaen de Vries & Sébastien Slodtz. Adriaen de Vries ( The Hague c 1556 - Prague 1626 was a Late Mannerist sculptor born in the Netherlands whose international style crossed the Sébastien Slodtz (1655-1726 was a French sculptor the father of a trio of brothers who helped shape official French sculpture between the Baroque and the Rococo The Spanish sculpters with work in the collection include Alonso Berrugete and Luisa Roldán represented by her Virgin and Child with St Diego of Alcala c1695. Luisa Ignacia Roldán (1652 - 1706 called La Roldana, was a Spanish sculptress of the Baroque Era.
Sculptors both British and Europeans who were based in Britain and whose work is in the collection include: Nicholas Stone, Caius Gabriel Cibber, Grinling Gibbons, John Michael Rysbrack, Louis-Francois Roubiliac, Peter Scheemakers, Sir Henry Cheere, Agostino Carlini, Thomas Banks, Joseph Nollekens, Joseph Wilton, John Flaxman, Sir Francis Chantrey, John Gibson, Edward Hodges Baily, Lord Leighton, Alfred Stevens, Thomas Brock, Alfred Gilbert, George Frampton, Eric Gill. Nicholas Stone (1586 &ndash August 24, 1647) was an English sculptor and Architect. Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630-1700 was a Danish sculptor, who enjoyed great success in England and was the father of the actor and author Colley Cibber. Master Wood carver Grinling Gibbons ( 4 April 1648 - 3 August 1721) was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands Johannes Michel or John Michael Rysbrack (born June 27, 1693 in Antwerp; died January 8, 1770 in London) was Louis-François Roubiliac (more correctly Roubillac) ( 1695 - January 11, 1762) 18th century French sculptor. Peter Scheemakers ( 1691 &ndash 1781) was a Flemish Roman Catholic sculptor who worked for most of his life in London. Agostino Carlini (1718?-August 1790 was an Italian sculptor and painter who was born in Genoa but settled in England. Thomas Banks ( December 29, 1735 &mdash February 2, 1805) English sculptor, son of a surveyor who was Joseph Nollekens ( August 11, 1737 - April 23, 1823) was a sculptor from London generally considered to be the finest British Joseph Wilton ( 16 July 1722 &ndash 1803 was an English sculptor and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 (and John Flaxman ( 6 July 1755 - 7 December 1826) was an English sculptor and draughtsman. Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey ( April 7, 1782 &ndash November 25, 1841) was an English sculptor of the Georgian era John Gibson, (June 19 1790 -) was a Welsh sculptor. Life Early life He was born near Conwy, Wales, his father Edward Hodges Baily RA FRS ( March 10, 1788 - May 22, 1867) - (sometimes misspelled Bailey) was an English sculptor Frederic Leighton 1st Baron Leighton PRA ( 3 December 1830 &ndash 25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor Alfred Stevens (1828-1906 was a Belgian painter Alfred Stevens (1818-1875 was a British sculptor Sir Thomas Brock KCB RA ( March 1, 1847 - August 22, 1922) was an English sculptor. This is an article about the sculptor see also Alfred Carlton Gilbert for the inventor and toymaker Sir George James Frampton ( 18 June, 1860 - 21 May, 1928) was a notable British sculptor and leading member of the New Sculpture Arthur Eric Rowton Gill ( 22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was a British sculptor, typeface designer, A sample of some of these sculptors' work is on display in the British Galleries.
With the opening of the Dorothy and Michael Hintze sculpture galleries in 2006 it was decided to extend the chronology of the works on display up to 1950, this has involved loans by other museums, including Tate Britain, so works by Henry Moore and Jacob Epstein along with other of their contemporaries are now on view. Michael Hintze is an Australian millionaire businessman philanthropist and political patron based in the United Kingdom. Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986 was an English artist and sculptor. Sir Jacob Epstein ( 10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-born sculptor who worked chiefly in the UK where These galleries concentrate on works dated 1600 to 1950 by British sculptors, works by continental sculptors who worked in Britain, and works bought by British patrons from the continental sculptors, such as Canova's Theseus and the Minotaur. The galleries overlooking the garden are arranged by theme, tomb sculpture, portraiture, garden sculpture and mythology. Then there is a section that covers late nineteenth and early twentieth century sculpture, this includes work by Rodin and other French sculptors such as Dalou who spent several years in Britain where he taught sculpture.
Smaller scale works are displayed in the Gilbert Bayes gallery, covering medieval especially English alabaster sculpture, bronzes, wooden sculptures and has demonstrations of various techniques such as bronze casting using Lost-wax casting. Nottingham alabaster is a term used to refer to the English sculpture industry mostly of relatively small religious carvings which flourished from the fourteenth century until Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Lost-wax casting, sometimes called by the French name of cire perdue, is the process by which a bronze is cast from an artist's sculpture in industrial uses the modern process
The majority of the Medieval and Renaissance sculpture will be displayed in the new Medieval and Renaissance galleries in 2009.
One of the largest objects in the collection is the Hertogenbosch Roodloft, from Holland, dated 1610–1613 this is as much a work of architecture as sculpture, 10. ROOD jong in de SP ( Dutch for RED young in the SP) is a Dutch youth wing linked to the Socialist Party. 4 metres wide, 7. 8 metres high, the architectural framework is of various coloured marbles including columns, arches and balustrade, against which are statues and bas-reliefs and other carvings in alabaster, the work of sculptor Conrad van Norenberch. A bas-relief (baʁəljɛf in French; French for "low relief" derived from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a Sculpture
The collection of textiles consists of over 38,000 examples, mainly western European though all populated continents are represented, dating from 1st century AD to the present, this is the largest such collection in the world. Techniques represented include: weaving, printing, embroidery, lace, tapestry and carpets. Embroidery is the Art or Handicraft of decorating fabric or other Materials with designs stitched in strands of thread or Tapestry is a form of Textile art. It is woven by hand on a vertical Loom. These are classified by technique, countries of origin and date of production. The collections are well represented in these areas: early silks from the Near East, lace, European tapestries and English medieval church embroidery. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons
Both of the major English centres of tapestry weaving of the 16th & 17th centuries respectively, Sheldon & Mortlake are represented in the collection by several examples. Mortlake is a district of London, England and part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. As are examples from John Vanderbank's workshop, the leading English tapestry manufactory in the late 17th & early 18th centuries. Some of the finest tapestries are examples from the Gobelins workshop, including a set of 'Jason and the Argonauts' dating from the 1750s. The Manufacture des Gobelins is a Tapestry factory located in Paris, France, at 42 avenue des Gobelins near the Les Gobelins métro Other continental centres of tapestry weaving with work in the collection include Brussels, Tournai, Beauvais, Strasbourg & Florence. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Tournai (in Dutch Doornik, in Latin: Tornacum) is a Walloon City and municipality of Belgium Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, Préfecture (capital of the Oise département. Strasbourg (Strasbourg stʁazbuʁ Alsatian: Strossburi,; Straßburg) is the capital and principal City of the Alsace région Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany One of the highlights of the collection is the four Devonshire Hunting Tapestries, very rare 15th century tapestries, woven in the Netherlands, depicting the hunting of various animals; not just their age but their size make these unique. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The collection has numerous examples of various types of textiles designed by William Morris, including, embroidery, woven fabrics, tapestries (Including the 'The Forest' tapestry of 1887), rugs and carpets, as well as pattern books and paper designs. The art deco period is covered by rugs and fabrics designed by Marion Dorn. From the same period there is a rug designed by Serge Chermayeff. Serge Ivan Chermayeff ( October 8 1900 &ndash May 8 1996) was a Chechen born British Architect, writer and
The Theatre Museum closed on 7 January 2007. The Theatre Museum in the Covent Garden district of London, England, was the United Kingdom 's National Museum of the Performing Arts Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The collections are stored by the V&A and are available for research and exhibitions. The V&A Theatre Collection's galleries are opening in November 2007, starting with an exhibition in conjunction with the Society of British Theatre Designers.
The V&A holds some of the most impressive exhibitions on art in London, this is in part because of the large galleries devoted to temporary exhibitions. A typical year will see over a dozen different exhibitions being staged covering all areas of the collections. Some of the larger exhibitions of recent years have been:
Room 22 — Sculpture 1600–1870, Canova — Theseus and the Minotaur
Medieval and Renaissance Galleries
Room 24 — Sculpture 1600–1870