|Slogan or Nickname: "Garden State", "The Place to Be"|
|Motto(s): "Peace and Prosperity"|
Other Australian states and territories
|Governor||David de Kretser|
|Premier||John Brumby (ALP)|
|- House seats||37|
|- Senate seats||12|
|Gross State Product (2006-07)|
|- Product ($m)||$242,595 (2nd)|
|- Product per capita||$47,096 (4th)|
|Population (End of June 2007)|
|- Population||5,205,200 (2nd)|
|- Density||22. The current state flag of Victoria ( Australia) is a British Blue Ensign defaced by the state badge of Victoria in the fly. The Coat of Arms of Victoria is the official symbol of the Australian state of Victoria. The following is a list of Australian state and territory slogans. The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of 8 states and territories controlled under a federal system of government There are eight capital cities in Australia, all of which function at a sub-national level Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 The Government of Victoria, under the Constitution of Australia, ceded certain legislative and judicial powers to A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is The Governor of Victoria is the representative in the Australian state of Victoria of Australia's monarch Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia David Morritz de Kretser AC (born 27 April 1939) is an Australian medical researcher and the Governor of Victoria. See Premiers of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Premier John Mansfield Brumby (born 21 April 1953 Australian Labor Party politician is the 45th Premier of Victoria, assuming office on 30 July 2007 after the resignation The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers of the Parliament of Australia; it is the Lower house, the Upper house being the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 92/km² (2nd)|
59. 4 /sq mi
|- Total||237,629 km² (6th)|
91,749 sq mi
|- Land||227,416 km²|
87,806 sq mi
|- Water||10,213 km² (4. 3%)|
3,943 sq mi
|- Highest||Mt Bogong|
1,986 m (6,516 ft)
|- Lowest||Sea Level|
|Time zone||UTC+10 (+11 DST)|
|- ISO 3166-2||AU-VIC|
|- Floral||Common Heath|
|- Aquatic||Weedy Seadragon|
|- Bird||Helmeted Honeyeater|
|- Faunal||Leadbeater's possum|
|- Colours||Navy Blue and Silver|
Victoria is a state located in the south-eastern corner of Australia. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. Mount Bogong, located in the Alpine National Park, is the highest mountain in Victoria, Australia. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Sea level can refer to Sea level, average height of the ocean Sea Level (band, 1970s musical group The UTC+10 Time zone covers the following locations Australia (AEST&mdash Australian Eastern Standard Time) Australian Daylight saving time ( DST ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO "Common Heath" redirects here For the Geometer moth, see Ematurga atomaria. The weedy sea dragon or common sea dragon ( Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) is a marine Fish related to the Seahorse. The Yellow-tufted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops is a Passerine bird found in the south-east ranges of Australia from south-east Queensland Leadbeater's Possum ( Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) is an endangered Possum restricted to small pockets of remaining Old growth mountain ash forests In Australia state colours are frequently part of a state or territory's set of State symbols. Navy blue is a dark shade of the Color Blue. Navy blue got its name from the dark blue (contrasted with white worn by officers in the Royal Navy since Silver is the metallic shade resembling Gray, closest to that of polished Silver. The Eureka Stockade was the setting of a gold miners' Revolt in 1854 near Ballarat, Victoria, Australia against the officials supervising the Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Charles Alphonse Doudiet (1832 - June 13, 1913) was a Canadian artist and digger present at the Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, Australia The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of 8 states and territories controlled under a federal system of government For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. It is the smallest mainland state in area, but the most densely populated and urbanised. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume White settlement in Victoria began in the 1830s as a farming community. The discovery of gold in 1851 transformed it into a leading industrial and commercial centre. Victoria is the second most populous Australian state, after New South Wales, with an estimated population of 5,205,200 as of June 2007. Melbourne is Victoria's capital and largest city, with more than 70% of all Victorians living there. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3
After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, the continent was divided into an eastern half - named New South Wales, and a western half, named New Holland, but under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney. This article describes the history of the Australian state of Victoria. New Holland is a historic name for the Island Continent of Australia. The term administration, as used in the context of Government, differs according to Jurisdiction. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Victoria's first settlement was at Portland, on the west coast of what is now Victoria. The city of Portland is the oldest European settlement in what is now the state of Victoria, Australia. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 John Batman (born 21 January 1801 - 6 May 1839) was an Australian farmer and businessman who was
From settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, and this gained some administrative status prior to separation from New South Wales and declaration as the Colony of Victoria in 1851.
In 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Ballarat (formerly spelt "Ballaarat" is a city in Victoria, Australia, and one of the country's largest inland cities Bendigo is a regional city in central Victoria Australia, located in the City of Greater Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at many sites across Victoria. This triggered one of the largest gold rushes the world has ever seen. The colony grew rapidly in both population and economic power. In ten years the population of Victoria increased sevenfold from 76,000 to 540,000. All sorts of gold records were produced including the "richest shallow alluvial goldfield in the world" and the largest gold nugget. The "Welcome Stranger" was the name given to a large Gold nugget, measuring 61 cm by 31 cm discovered by John Deason and Richard Oates at Moliagul Victoria Victoria produced in the decade 1851-1860 20 million ounces of gold, one third of the world's output.
Immigrants arrived from all over the world to search for gold, especially from Ireland and China. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Many Chinese miners worked in Victoria, and their legacy is particularly strong in Bendigo and its environs. Bendigo is a regional city in central Victoria Australia, located in the City of Greater Bendigo. Although there was some racism directed at them, there was not the level of anti-Chinese violence that was seen at the Lambing Flat riots in New South Wales. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that The Lambing Flat riots or Lambing Flat massacre were a series of violent anti- Chinese demonstrations that took place in the Burrangong region in New South However, there was a riot at Buckland Valley near Bright in 1857. Bright (postcode 3741 is a small sized town located in Victoria, Australia, 319 metres above Sea level and in North Eastern Victoria at the southeastern Conditions on the gold fields were cramped and unsanitary - an outbreak of typhoid at Buckland Valley in 1854 killed over 1,000 miners. Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium
In 1854 there was an armed rebellion against the government of Victoria by miners protesting against mining taxes (the "Eureka Stockade"). The Miner's Licence was the colonial government's response to the Australian gold rushes and the need to provide infrastructure including policing The Eureka Stockade was the setting of a gold miners' Revolt in 1854 near Ballarat, Victoria, Australia against the officials supervising the This was crushed by British troops, but some of the leaders of the rebellion subsequently became members of the Victorian Parliament, and the rebellion is still sometimes regarded as a pivotal moment in the development of Australian democracy.
The first foreign military action by the colony of Victoria was to send troops and a warship to New Zealand as part of the Maori Wars. The New Zealand Wars, sometimes called the Land Wars and also once called the Māori Wars, were a series of conflicts that took place in New Zealand Troops from New South Wales had previously participated in the Crimean War. The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought
In 1901 Victoria became a state in the Commonwealth of Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. As a result of the gold rush, Melbourne had by then become the financial centre of Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Between 1901 and 1927, Melbourne was the capital of Australia while Canberra was under construction. Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City. It was also the largest city in Australia at the time, and the second largest city in terms of population of the Empire (after London, England). The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Whilst Melbourne remains an important and influential financial centre, home to many national and international companies, it was slowly overtaken by Sydney in business importance around the 1970s and 1980s. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4
|Composition of the Parliament of Victoria|
|Source: Victorian Electoral Commission|
Victoria has a parliamentary form of government based on the Westminster System. Geelong Town Hall is a civic building located on Gheringhap Street in central Geelong, Victoria. The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. This article is about the current Australian political party founded after the dissolution of the original DLP In Politics, an independent is a Politician who is not Affiliated with any Political party. The Parliament of Victoria is a Bicameral, or two-house legislature The Westminster system is a democratic Parliamentary system of Government modelled after the British government (the Parliament of the United Legislative power resides in the Parliament consisting of the Governor (the representative of the Queen), the executive (the Government), and two legislative chambers. The Parliament of Victoria consists of the lower house Legislative Assembly, the upper house Legislative Council and the Queen of Australia. The Parliament of Victoria is a Bicameral, or two-house legislature The Legislative Assembly, or lower house is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Victoria in Australia The Legislative Council, or upper house is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Victoria, Australia. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy
Eighty-eight members of the Legislative Assembly are elected to four-year terms from single-member electorates. The Legislative Assembly, or lower house is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Victoria in Australia
In November 2006, the Victorian Legislative Council elections were held under a new multi-proportional representation system. The Legislative Council, or upper house is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Victoria, Australia. The State of Victoria was divided into eight electorates with each electorate represented by five representatives elected by Single Transferable Vote proportional representation. Single transferable vote (STV is a preferential Voting system designed to minimize Wasted votes and provide Proportional representation Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes The total number of upper house members was reduced from 44 to 40 and their term of office is now the same as the lower house members — four years. Elections for the Victorian Parliament are now fixed and occur in November every four years.
Prior to the 2006 Election the Legislative Council consisted of 44 members elected to eight-year terms from 22 two-member electorates.
The Premier of Victoria is the leader of the political party or coalition with the most seats in the Legislative Assembly. See Premiers of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Premier See Premiers of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Premier The Premier is the public face of government and, with Cabinet, sets the legislative and political agenda. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. Cabinet consists of representatives elected to either house of parliament. It is responsible for managing areas of government that are not exclusively the Commonwealth's, by the Australian Constitution, such as education, health and law enforcement. The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates The current premier of Victoria is Mr John Brumby.
Executive authority is vested in the Governor of Victoria who represents and is appointed by Queen Elizabeth II. The Governor of Victoria is the representative in the Australian state of Victoria of Australia's monarch Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia The Governor of Victoria is the representative in the Australian state of Victoria of Australia's monarch Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The post is usually filled by a retired prominent Victorian. The governor acts on the advice of the premier and cabinet. A premier is a title for the Head of government in some countries
Victoria has a written constitution. Enacted in 1975, but based on the 1855 colonial constitution, it establishes the parliament as the state's law-making body for matters coming under state responsibility. The Victorian Constitution can be amended by the parliament of Victoria. Under new provisions to be enacted, changes to the Victorian Constitution will be subjected to a plebiscite of votes, voting in a referendum.
The centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP), the centre-right Liberal Party of Australia and the rural-based National Party of Australia are Victoria's major political parties. Victorian politics takes place in context of bicameral parliamentary system The centre-left (or center-left) is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals political parties or organizations (such as Think The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals political parties or organizations (such as Think tanks whose views The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. Traditionally, Labor is strongest in Melbourne's inner, working class and western and northern suburbs, Morwell, Ballarat, Bendigo and Geelong. The Liberals' main support lies in Melbourne's more affluent eastern and outer suburbs, and some rural and regional centres. The Nationals are strongest in Victoria's North Western and Eastern rural regional areas. The ALP government of former Premier Steve Bracks has been in office in Victoria since 1999 and was re-elected in 2002 and on 25 November 2006. Stephen Philip Bracks (better known as Steve Bracks (born 15 October, 1954) is a former Australian politician and the 44th Premier of Victoria See Victorian legislative election, 2006, and 2006 Victorian election campaign.
Following the 2006 Victorian election, the balance of power in the Legislative Council is now held by the Australian Greens. The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. This means that by combining with the Liberal and National Party members, the Greens can defeat proposed Government legislation.
On July 27, 2007, Premier Steve Bracks announced his resignation from politics, saying that he needed to spend more time with his family. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  The deputy premier, John Thwaites, announced later that day that he too would resign. Johnstone William "John" Thwaites (born 15 October 1955) Australian politician was Deputy Premier of the state of Victoria from Former Treasurer John Brumby was elected unopposed by the Labor caucus as the new leader and became the 45th Premier of Victoria on Monday 30 July 2007. John Mansfield Brumby (born 21 April 1953 Australian Labor Party politician is the 45th Premier of Victoria, assuming office on 30 July 2007 after the resignation See Premiers of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Premier
Victorian voters elect 49 representatives to the Parliament of Australia, including 37 members of the House of Representatives and 12 members of the Senate. The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers of the Parliament of Australia; it is the Lower house, the Upper house being the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. Since 2007, the ALP has held 21 Victorian house seats, the Liberals 14 and the Nationals two. As of July 1, 2008, the Liberals will hold six senate seats, the ALP five and the Family First Party one. The Family First Party is a socially conservative minor Political party in Australia.
Victoria is incorporated into 79 municipalities for the purposes of local government, including 39 shires, 32 cities, seven rural cities and one borough. There are 79 Local Government Areas in the Australian state of Victoria. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. Shire and city councils are responsible for functions delegated by the Victorian parliament, such as city planning, road infrastructure and waste management. Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and government grants.
|Source: Victorian Parliamentary Library, Department of Victorian Communities, Australian Electoral Commission|
estimates for Victoria
|Source: Dept of Sustainability|
The 2006 Australian census reported that Victoria had 4,932,422 people resident at the time of the census usually called Victoria 'Home', an increase of 6. 2% on the 1996 figure. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates that by June 2007 the state's population reached 5,205,200 and may well reach 7. The Australian Bureau of Statistics ( ABS) is Australia 's national statistical agency. 2 million by 2050. Victoria's founding Anglo-Celtic population has been supplemented by successive waves of migrants from southern and eastern Europe, Southeast Asia and, most recently, the Horn of Africa and Middle East. Anglo-Celtic is a macro-cultural term used to collectively describe the cultures native to the British Isles / Anglo-Celtic Isles and the significant Diasporas Immigration to Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 50000 years ago when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Victoria's population is aging in proportion with the average of the remainder of the Australian population. The government predicts that nearly a quarter of Victorians will be aged over 60 by 2021. The 2006 census reveals that Australian average age has crept upward from 35 to 37 since 2001 which reflects the population growth peak of 1969-72. Population growth is the change in Population over time and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population using "per unit time" for
More than 70% of Victorians live in Melbourne, located in the state's south. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 The greater Melbourne metropolitan area is home to an estimated 3. 64 million people. Leading urban centres include Geelong , Ballarat, Bendigo, Shepparton, Mildura, Warrnambool and the Latrobe Valley. MCite/Citephp.--> Geelong (dʒəˈlɔŋ is the second largest city in the state Ballarat (formerly spelt "Ballaarat" is a city in Victoria, Australia, and one of the country's largest inland cities Bendigo is a regional city in central Victoria Australia, located in the City of Greater Bendigo. Shepparton is the fifth largest city in Victoria, Australia. The population of the municipality of City of Greater Shepparton in 2005 was Mildura is a regional city in northwestern Victoria, Australia, part of the Rural City of Mildura. Warrnambool is a regional city with a population of 30392 people on the south-western coast of Victoria, Australia, located in the municipality City of Warrnambool The Latrobe Valley is nestled between the Strzelecki Ranges and the Great Dividing Range in Victoria, Australia. Victoria is Australia's most urbanised state, with nearly 90% of residents living in cities and towns. Since 1871, more than half of all Victorians have lived in urban areas. Today, just over 12% of Victorians live in rural areas. The drift of people into Melbourne continues despite government efforts to encourage Victorians to settle in regional areas.
About 72% of Victorians are Australian-born. This figure falls to around 66% in Melbourne, but rises to higher than 95% in some rural areas in the north-west of the state. Around two-thirds of Victorians claim Australian, English or Irish ancestry. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Less than 1% of Victorians identify themselves as Aboriginal. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. The largest groups of people born outside Australia came from the United Kingdom, Italy, Vietnam, Greece and New Zealand. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English Italian Australians are one of the largest Ethnic groups in Australia. A Vietnamese Australian is an Australian either born in Vietnam or is an Australian descendant of the former Greeks are the seventh-largest ethnic group in Australia, after those declaring their ancestry simply as "Australian" New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island
About 60. 5 percent of Victorians describe themselves as Christian. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Roman Catholics form the single largest religious group in the state with 27. 5 percent of Victorian population, followed by Anglicans and members of the Uniting Church. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs The Uniting Church in Australia ( UCA) was formed on June 22 1977 when many congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, Catholics and Protestants (including Anglicans) in Victoria each form around 30% of the population. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Buddhism, the state's largest non-Christian religion, is also the fastest growing with 132,634. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Victoria is also home of 109,370 Muslims and 41,105 Jews. Islam is the fourth largest religious grouping in Australia after Christianity, ' No Religion ' and Buddhism. The history of the Jews in Australia began with the transportation of a number of Jewish Convicts aboard the First Fleet in 1788 when Around 20% of Victorians claim no religion. 
Victoria's state school system dates back to 1872, when the then colonial government legislated to make schooling both free and compulsory. The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and The state's public secondary school system began in 1910. Before then, only private secondary schooling was available. Today, a Victorian school education consists of seven years of primary schooling, including one preparatory year, and six years of secondary schooling. The final years of secondary school are optional for children aged over 15 (16 as of 2007). Victorian children generally begin school at age five. On completing secondary school, students earn the Victorian Certificate of Education. Students who successfully complete their secondary education also receive a tertiary entrance ranking, or ENTER score, to determine university admittance.
Victorian schools are either publicly or privately funded. Public schools, also known as state or government schools, are funded and run directly by the Victoria Department of Education . The Government of Victoria, under the Constitution of Australia, ceded certain legislative and judicial powers to Students do not pay tuition fees, but some extra costs are levied. Private fee-paying schools include parish schools run by the Roman Catholic Church and elite independent schools similar to English public schools. The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and Independent schools are usually affiliated with Protestant churches. An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local Government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges gifts and Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Victoria also has several private Jewish and Islamic primary and secondary schools. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Private schools also receive some public funding. All schools must comply with government-set curriculum standards.
As of August 2005, Victoria had 1,613 public schools, 484 Catholic schools and 208 independent schools. Just under 537,000 students were enrolled in public schools, and 289,000 in private schools. Nearly two-thirds of private students attend Catholic schools. More than 455,000 students were enrolled in primary schools and more than 371,000 in secondary schools. Retention rates for the final two years of secondary school were 77% for public school students and 90% for private school students. Victoria has about 60,200 full-time teachers.
Victoria has nine universities. This is a list of universities and other Higher education institutions in Australia. The first to offer degrees, the University of Melbourne, enrolled its first student in 1855. The University of Melbourne is a Public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. The largest, Monash University, has an enrolment of nearly 56,000 students - more than any other Australian university. Monash University is a Public university based in Melbourne, Australia. Both the University of Melbourne and Monash University are purportedly ranked highly among the world's best universities requiring a fairly high entry score, passing of mature age entrance exams or direct payment for student admission into their courses. The number of students enrolled in Victorian universities was 241,755 at 2004, an increase of 2% on the previous year. International students made up 30% of enrolments and account for the highest percentage of pre-paid university tuition fees. The largest number of enrolments were recorded in the fields of business, administration and economics, with nearly a third of all students, followed by arts, humanities, and social science, with 20% of enrolments. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to In Business, administration consists of the performance or management of business operations and thus the making or implementing of major decisions Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies
Victoria also has 19 government run TAFE institutes. Technical and Further Education or TAFE (pronounced) institutions provide a wide range of predominantly vocational tertiary education courses in Australia The first tertiary institution in the state was the Melbourne Mechanics Institute (established in 1839), which is now the Melbourne Athenaum. The Athenaeum or Melbourne Athenaeum is one of the oldest public institutions in Victoria, Australia, founded in 1839 The oldest institution still offering courses is Swinburne University of Technology, whose oldest antecedent was founded in 1854. Swinburne University of Technology is a university with a number of campuses based in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia.
More than 1,000 adult education organisations are registered to provide recognised TAFE programs. In 2004, there were about 480,700 students enrolled in vocational education programs in the state. Vocational education or Vocational Education and Training (VET also called Career and Technical Education (CTE prepares learners for jobs that are based
|Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Department of Education and Training (Victoria), Department of Education, Science and Training (Commonwealth), National Centre for Vocational Education Research|
The State Library of Victoria is the State's research and reference library. The State Library of Victoria is the central Library of the state of Victoria, Australia, located in Melbourne. It is responsible for collecting and preserving Victoria's documentary heritage and making it available through a range of services and programs. Material in the collection includes books, newspapers, magazines, journals, manuscripts, maps, pictures, objects, sound and video recordings and databases. Many local government councils maintain local libraries, some with more than one branch in their areas.
|Victorian production and|
workers by economic activities
|30. 5%||319,109||15. 3%|
and personal services
|16. 6%||562,783||27. 4%|
|Manufacturing||15. 4%||318,218||15. 3%|
|12. 1%||423,328||20. 3%|
|10. 6%||133,752||6. 4%|
|Construction||6. 2%||136,454||6. 6%|
|Agriculture||3. 3%||72,639||3. 5%|
|Mining||1. 3%||4,472||0. 2%|
|Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Figures are for 2004-2005|
The Victorian economy is the second largest in Australia, accounting for a quarter of the nation's gross domestic product. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The total gross state product at current prices for Victoria was at just over A$222 billion, with a GSP per capita of A$44,443. Gross state product (or gross regional product) is a measurement of the economic output of a state or Province. The economy grew by 3. 4% in 2004, less than the Australian average of 5. 2%. Finance, insurance and property services form Victoria's largest income producing sector, while the community, social and personal services sector is the state's biggest employer. The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions notably in the USA, United Kingdom Despite the shift towards service industries, the troubled manufacturing sector remains Victoria's single largest employer and income producer. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale
Victoria experienced an economic slump from 1989 to 1992 during the term of John Cain's government. John Cain (born 26 April 1931) Australian Labor Party politician was the 41st Premier of Victoria, holding office from 1982 This was largely attributable to lagging property markets, reduced protection of manufacturing sectors as well as a financial crash involving industry giants such as the Pyramid Building Society and the collapse of The State Bank of Victoria, in particular its merchant banking arm Tricontinental. The Pyramid Building Society, the Geelong Building Society and the Countrywide Building Society together made up the Farrow Group of Building The State Bank of Victoria was a Bank that existed from 1842 until 1991 when it was taken over by the Commonwealth Bank. The result was a loss of employment and a drain of population to New South Wales and Queensland. Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent
In the mid to late 1990s, the Victorian state government of Premier Jeff Kennett (LIB) sought to reverse this trend with massive cuts to state expenditure, shrinking of the state public sector and the aggressive development of new public works, mainly centred around the state capital of Melbourne. See Premiers of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Premier Jeffrey Gibb Kennett AC (born 2 March 1948 Australian politician was the Premier of Victoria from 1992 to 1999 The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. These included the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre (nicknamed "Jeff's Shed"), Crown Casino, capital works such as the CityLink tollway, the sale of state assets (including the State Electricity Commission and some state schools), the pruning of state services and a public relations campaign promoting Melbourne's merits, aimed at Melbourne residents and visitors alike. The Melbourne Museum is located in the Carlton Gardens in Melbourne, Australia. Federation Square (also colloquially known as Fed Square) is a cultural precinct in the city of Melbourne, Australia. The Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre is the name for two buildings on opposite sides of the Yarra River in Southbank, a suburb of the Melbourne Crown Casino and Entertainment Complex is a Casino and entertainment precinct on the south bank of the Yarra River, in Melbourne, Australia Monash Freeway|Tullamarine Freeway|West Gate Freeway CityLink is a system of tolled urban Freeways in Melbourne, Victoria, The State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV or SEC was a monopoly electricity generation transmission and supply utility located in Victoria, Australia
Under the government of former Premier Steve Bracks (ALP), there was less emphasis on capital works and more on expansion of public services. Stephen Philip Bracks (better known as Steve Bracks (born 15 October, 1954) is a former Australian politician and the 44th Premier of Victoria Population drain has eased, and now outstrips the national trend.
During 2003-04, the gross value of Victorian agricultural production increased by 17% to $8. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture 7 billion. This represented 24% of national agricultural production total gross value. As of 2004, an estimated 32,463 farms occupied around 136,000 square kilometres (52,500 sq mi) of Victorian land. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. This comprises more than 60% of the state's total land surface. Victorian farms range from small horticultural outfits to large-scale livestock and grain productions. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food A quarter of farmland is used to grow consumable crops.
More than 26,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi) of Victorian farmland is sown for grain, mostly in the state's west. More than 50% of this area is sown for wheat, 33% for barley and 7% for oats. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Oats redirects here It may mean either the common cereal oat discussed here or any cultivated or wild species of the Genus Avena. A further 6,000 square kilometres (2,300nbsp;sq mi) is sown for hay. In 2003-04, Victorian farmers produced more than 3 million tonnes of wheat and 2 million tonnes of barley. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. The state also grows about half of Australia's tobacco. Victorian farms produce nearly 90% of Australian pears and third of apples. A pear is a pomaceous Fruit produced by a tree of Genus Pyrus. The apple is the pomaceous Fruit of the apple tree Species Malus domestica in the Rose family Rosaceae. It is also a leader in stone fruit production. In Botany, a drupe is a Fruit in which an outer fleshy part ( Exocarp, or skin and Mesocarp, or flesh surrounds a shell (the pit The main vegetable crops include asparagus, broccoli, carrots, potatoes and tomatoes. Asparagus officinalis is a flowering plant species in the genus Asparagus from which the Vegetable known as asparagus is obtained Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae The carrot ( Daucus carota subsp sativus, Etymology: Middle French carotte, from Late Latin carōta, from Greek karōton The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family Last year, 121,200 tonnes of pears and 270,000 tonnes of tomatoes were produced.
More than 14 million sheep and 5 million lambs graze over 10% of Victorian farms, mostly in the state's north and west. In 2004, nearly 10 million lambs and sheep were slaughtered for local consumption and export. Victoria also exports live sheep to the Middle East for meat and to the rest of the world for breeding. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. More than 108,000 tonnes of wool clip was also produced - one-fifth of the Australian total. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species
Victoria is the centre of dairy farming in Australia. Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an Animal husbandry enterprise for long-term production of Milk, which may be either processed on-site or It is home to 60% of Australia's 3 million dairy cattle and produces nearly two-thirds of the nation's milk, almost 6. Dairy Cattle, generally of the species Bos taurus, are Domesticated Animals bred to produce large quantities of Milk Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. 4 million litres. The state also has 2. 4 million beef cattle, with more than 2. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family 2 million cattle and calves slaughtered each year. In 2003-04, Victorian commercial fishing crews and aquaculture industry produced 11,634 tonnes of seafood valued at nearly $A109 million. Commercial fishing, also known as industrial fishing, is the activity of capturing Fish and other Seafood for commercial Profit, mostly Aquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including Molluscs Crustaceans and aquatic plants Blacklipped abalone is the mainstay of the catch, bringing in $A46 million, followed by southern rock lobster worth $A13. Abalone (from Spanish Abulón) are medium-sized to very large edible sea Snails marine Gastropod Mollusks in the This article is about the animal For the B-52's song see Rock Lobster. 7 million. Most abalone and rock lobster is exported to Asia.
Machinery and equipment manufacturing is the state's most valuable activity, followed by food and beverage manufacturing and petroleum, coal and chemical manufacturing. More than 15 out of every 100 Victorian workers are employed in manufacturing industries. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale Victoria has 318,000 manufacturing workers. The state is marginally behind New South Wales in the value of manufacturing output.
Major industrial plants belong to the car manufacturers Ford, Toyota and Holden; Alcoa's Portland and Point Henry aluminium smelters; oil refineries at Geelong and Altona; and a major petrochemical facility at Laverton. Ford Australia is the Australian subsidiary of Ford Motor Company and was founded in Geelong, Victoria in 1925 as an outpost of Ford Motor Company of Toyota Motor Corporation Australia, or Toyota Australia, is a division of Toyota Motor Corporation, which is based in Japan. GM Holden Ltd is an Australian automaker based in Port Melbourne Victoria. Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals is a joint venture between Alumina Limited (40% share and Alcoa (60% share and is abbreviated to AWAC The Portland aluminium smelter is located at Portland Victoria, Australia. The Point Henry aluminium smelter is located near Geelong Victoria in the suburb of Moolap. MCite/Citephp.--> Geelong (dʒəˈlɔŋ is the second largest city in the state Altona is a south-western Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Laverton is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is shared by the Local Government Areas of City of Hobsons Bay and
Victoria also plays an important role in providing goods for the defence industry. This article provides information on the industrial sector in Victoria (Australia that supplies goods and services to defence and military customers (national governments and associated Melbourne is the centre of manufacturing in Victoria, followed by Geelong. Energy production has aided industrial growth in the Latrobe Valley. The Latrobe Valley is nestled between the Strzelecki Ranges and the Great Dividing Range in Victoria, Australia.
Mining in Victoria contributes around A$3 billion to the gross state product, but employs less than 1% of workers. Yallourn Power Station was a complex of six Brown coal fuelled power stations built progressively from the 1920s to the 1960s The State of Victoria, Australia uses many forms of Energy for domestic commercial and industrial uses Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body The Victorian mining industry is concentrated on energy producing minerals, with brown coal, petroleum and gas account for nearly 90% of local production. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, The oil and gas industries are centred off the coast of Gippsland in the state's east, while brown coal mining and power generation is based in the Latrobe Valley. Gippsland is a large rural region in Victoria, Australia. It begins immediately east of the suburbs of Melbourne and stretches to the New South Wales border The Latrobe Valley is nestled between the Strzelecki Ranges and the Great Dividing Range in Victoria, Australia.
In the 2005/2006 fiscal year, the average gas production was over 700 million cubic feet (20,000,000 m³) per day (M cuft/d) and represented 18% of the total national gas sales, with demand growing at 2% a year. 
In 1985, oil production from the offshore Gippsland Basin peaked to an annual average of 450,000 barrels per day. Barrel per day (abbreviated BPD, bbl/d, bpd, bd or b/d) is a measurement used to describe the amount of Crude oil (measured In 2005-2006, the average daily oil production declined to 83,000 bbls/d, but despite the decline Victoria still produces almost 19. 5% of crude oil in Australia. 
Brown coal is Victoria's leading mineral, with 66 million tonnes mined each year for electricity generation in the Latrobe Valley, Gippsland. The Latrobe Valley is nestled between the Strzelecki Ranges and the Great Dividing Range in Victoria, Australia.  The region is home to the world's largest known reserves of brown coal.
Despite being the historic centre of Australia's gold rush, Victoria today contributes a mere 1% of national gold production. The Victorian Gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia approximately between 1851 and the late 1860s Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Victoria also produces limited amounts of gypsum and kaolin. Gypsum is a very soft Mineral composed of Calcium sulfate dihydrate with the Chemical formula Ca[[sulfur S]] O 4·2 Kaolinite is a Clay mineral with the chemical composition Al 2 Si 2 O 5( OH)4
The service industries sector is the fastest growing component of the Victorian economy. It includes the wide range of activities generally classified as community, social and personal services; finances, insurance and property services, government services, transportation and communication, and wholesale and retail trade. Most service industries are located in Melbourne and the state's larger regional centres. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 As of 2004-05, service industries employed nearly three-quarters of Victorian workers and generated three-quarters of the state's GSP. Finance, insurance and property services, as a group, provide a larger share of GSP than any other economic activity in Victoria. More than a quarter of Victorian workers are employed by the community, social and personal services sector. 
Victoria's northern border is the southern bank of the Murray River. Victoria is an Australian state resting at the southern end of the Great Dividing Range, which stretches along the east coast and terminates near Ballarat The Murray River, or River Murray and sometimes informally referred to as the "Mighty Murray" is Australia 's largest River. It also rests at the southern end of the Great Dividing Range, which stretches along the east coast and terminates west of Ballarat. The Great Dividing Range, also known as the Eastern Highlands, is Australia 's most substantial Mountain range. Ballarat (formerly spelt "Ballaarat" is a city in Victoria, Australia, and one of the country's largest inland cities It is bordered by South Australia to the west, and shares Australian's shortest land border with Tasmania. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Tasmania is an Australian island and state of the same name It is located south of the eastern side of the Continent, being separated from it by Bass The official border between Victoria and Tasmania is at 39°12' S, which passes through Boundary Islet in the Bass Strait for 85 metres. Boundary Islet is an islet about 60000 square metres in size in the Hogan Group of islands and islets at latitude 39°12' S south of the Wilson's Promontory, the southernmost Bass Strait (bæs is a sea Strait separating Tasmania from the south of the Australian mainland ( Victoria in particular  Victoria contains many topographically, geologically and climatically diverse areas, ranging from the wet, temperate climate of Gippsland in the southeast to the snow-covered Victorian alpine areas which rise to almost 2,000 metres (6,500 ft), with Mount Bogong the highest peak at 1,986 m; (6,516 ft). Gippsland is a large rural region in Victoria, Australia. It begins immediately east of the suburbs of Melbourne and stretches to the New South Wales border The Australian Alps are the highest Mountain ranges of mainland Australia. Mount Bogong, located in the Alpine National Park, is the highest mountain in Victoria, Australia. There are extensive semi-arid plains to the west and north-west.
There is an extensive series of river systems in Victoria owing to its relatively high (relative to the rest of Australia) rainfall. Most notable is the Murray River system. The Murray River, or River Murray and sometimes informally referred to as the "Mighty Murray" is Australia 's largest River. Other rivers include: Ovens River, Goulburn River, King River, Campaspe River, Loddon River, Wimmera River, Elgin River, Barwon River, Thomson River, Snowy River, Latrobe River, Yarra River, Maribyrnong River, Mitta River, Hopkins River, Merri River and Kiewa River. The Ovens River is a river in the Australian state of Victoria. The Goulburn River is a major inland river in Victoria, Australia. King River is a river in Victoria, a state of Australia. It is a tributary of the Ovens River and ultimately the Murray River on the western The Campaspe River is a River in Victoria, Australia, and was named by Major Mitchell for Campaspe, a mistress of Alexander The Loddon River is a 392-km long tributary of the Murray River that flows through central and northern Victoria. The Wimmera River is a river in Western Victoria, Australia. It begins in the Pyrenees, and flows into Lake Hindmarsh and Lake Albacutya The Barwon River rises in the Otway Ranges of Victoria, Australia, runs through Winchelsea and the city of Geelong, where it is joined Thomson River is a river in Victoria, Australia. It feeds from Baw Baw National Park and is dammed not far below its source by the Thomson River The Snowy River is also the name of a river in the South Island of New Zealand. The Latrobe River is a river in Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. The Yarra River is a River in southern Victoria, Australia. The lower stretches of the river is where the city of Melbourne was established The Maribyrnong River rises about 50 km north of Melbourne Victoria (Australia, near Mount Macedon. The Mitta Mitta River is a major Tributary of the Murray River in Australia and the source of approximately 40% of the Murray's flow The Kiewa River is a major Tributary of the Murray River in Australia.
The state symbols include the Pink Heath (state flower), Leadbeater's Possum (state animal) and the Helmeted Honeyeater (state bird). "Common Heath" redirects here For the Geometer moth, see Ematurga atomaria. Leadbeater's Possum ( Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) is an endangered Possum restricted to small pockets of remaining Old growth mountain ash forests The Yellow-tufted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops is a Passerine bird found in the south-east ranges of Australia from south-east Queensland
The state's capital, Melbourne, contains approximately 70% of the state's population and dominates its economy, media, and culture. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 For other cities and towns, see List of localities (Victoria) and Local Government Areas of Victoria. This is a list of places in the State of Victoria, Australia. There are 79 Local Government Areas in the Australian state of Victoria.
Victoria has the highest population density in any state in Australia, with population centres spread out over most of the state, with only the far north-west and the Victorian Alps lacking permanent settlement. The Australian Alps are the highest Mountain ranges of mainland Australia.
The Victorian road network services the population centres, with highways generally radiate from Melbourne and other major cities and rural centres with secondary roads interconnecting the highways to each other. See also Road transport in Australia The roads of Victoria are the highest density in any state in Australia Many of the highways are built to freeway standard ("M" freeways), while most are generally sealed and of reasonable quality.
Rail transport in Victoria is provided by a number of private and public railway operators who operate over government-owned lines. See also Rail transport in Australia Rail transport in Victoria, Australia is provided by a number of railway operators who operate over the government "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Major operators include: Connex Melbourne which runs an extensive, electrified, passenger system throughout Melbourne and suburbs; V/Line which is now owned by the Victorian Government, operates a concentrated service to major regional centres, as well as long distance services on other lines; Pacific National which operates most freight services; Great Southern Railway who operate The Overland Melbourne-Adelaide; and CountryLink who operate XPTs Melbourne-Sydney. Connex Melbourne is a wholly owned subsidiary of French company Veolia Environnement. V/Line is a not for profit regional passenger train and coach service in Victoria, Australia. Pacific National is one of Australia 's largest private rail freight businesses Early history The Overland originated as the Intercolonial Express when the Victorian Railways Western Line was extended to the South Australian CountryLink is the operator of passenger rail services in country New South Wales, Australia and from New South Wales into Queensland and Victoria The XPT, (short for "eXpress Passenger Train" is the main passenger train used in regional New South Wales, Australia. There also are a number of smaller freight operators and numerous tourist railways operating over lines which were once parts of a state-owned system. Victorian lines mainly use the 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) broad gauge. However, the interstate trunk routes, as well as a number of branch lines in the west of the State have been converted to 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm) standard gauge. The standard gauge (also named the Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, or Normal gauge) is a widely-used Rail gauge. Two tourist railways operate over 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow gauge lines, which are the remnants of five formerly government-owned lines which were built in mountainous areas. The former Victorian Railways, the state railway authority in Victoria, Australia built a number of experimental Narrow gauge railway lines around
Melbourne has one of the world's largest electrified tramway systems, currently operated by Yarra Trams. List of Melbourne tram routes The city of Melbourne, the second-largest city in Australia first had trams introduced in 1885 and is now home to the largest Tram Yarra Trams is a Tram operating company in Melbourne, Australia. As well as being a most popular form of public transport, over the last few decades trams have become one of Melbourne's major tourist attractions. There are also tourist trams operating over portions of the former Ballarat and Bendigo systems. Ballarat (formerly spelt "Ballaarat" is a city in Victoria, Australia, and one of the country's largest inland cities Bendigo is a regional city in central Victoria Australia, located in the City of Greater Bendigo. There are also tramway museums at Bylands and Haddon. The Tramway Museum Society of Victoria was founded in 1962 in Victoria, Australia.
Melbourne Airport is the major domestic and international airport for the state, with Avalon Airport seeing use by domestic Jetstar flights. Melbourne Airport, also known as Tullamarine Airport, is the busiest of the four airports in Melbourne, and the second busiest in Australia Avalon Airport is an Airport located in Avalon, Victoria, Australia. Jetstar Airways is a low-cost airline based in Melbourne, Australia. A number of smaller airports are also scattered throughout the state served by smaller airlines.
The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia, and is located in Melbourne on the mouth of the Yarra River, which is at the head of Port Phillip Bay. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's busiest port for containerised and general cargo Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 The Yarra River is a River in southern Victoria, Australia. The lower stretches of the river is where the city of Melbourne was established "Port Phillip" may also refer to a Local Government Area called the City of Port Phillip. Additional seaports are at Westernport Bay, Geelong, and Portland. Western Port, sometimes referred to as Western Port Bay, is an inlet on the southern coast of Australia from Bass Strait and the Pacific Ocean The Port of Geelong is located on the shores of Corio Bay in Geelong, Victoria, Australia. The city of Portland is the oldest European settlement in what is now the state of Victoria, Australia.
|Average monthly maximum|
temperature in Victoria
|January||25. 8 °C||32. 8 °C|
|February||25. 8 °C||32. 7 °C|
|March||23. 8 °C||29. 3 °C|
|April||20. 2 °C||24. 1 °C|
|May||16. 6 °C||19. 6 °C|
|June||14. 0 °C||16. 0 °C|
|July||13. 4 °C||15. 4 °C|
|August||14. 9 °C||17. 7 °C|
|September||17. 2 °C||21. 1 °C|
|October||19. 6 °C||25. 0 °C|
|November||21. 8 °C||29. 0 °C|
|December||24. 1 °C||31. 7 °C|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of It ranges from semi-arid and hot in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual Rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in Victoria's main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state. The Great Dividing Range, also known as the Eastern Highlands, is Australia 's most substantial Mountain range.
Victoria's southernmost position on the Australian mainland means it is cooler and wetter than other mainland states and territories. The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria's mildest climate. A coastal plain is an area of flat low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features Air from the Southern Ocean helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region. The Mallee and upper Wimmera are Victoria's warmest regions due to hot winds blowing from nearby deserts. The Wimmera is a region in the west of the Australian state of Victoria. Average temperatures top 30 °C (86°F) during summer and 15 °C (59°F) in winter. Victoria's highest maximum temperature of 47. 2°C (117°F) was recorded in Mildura on 10 January 1939. Mildura is a regional city in northwestern Victoria, Australia, part of the Rural City of Mildura. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Victorian Alps in the north-east are the coldest part of Victoria. The Australian Alps are the highest Mountain ranges of mainland Australia. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east-west through the centre of Victoria. Average temperatures are less than 9°C (48°F) in winter and below 0°C (32°F) in the highest parts of the ranges. The state's lowest minimum temperature of -12. 8°C (9. 0°F) was recorded at Mount Hotham on 13 August 1947. Mount Hotham is a mountain in Victoria, Australia. It is home to Mount Hotham Village and Mount Hotham Ski Resort Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Victoria is the wettest Australian state after Tasmania. Tasmania is an Australian island and state of the same name It is located south of the eastern side of the Continent, being separated from it by Bass Rainfall in Victoria increases from north to south, with bigger falls in areas of high altitude. Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to Median annual rainfall exceeds 1,800 millimetres (71 inches) in some parts of the north-east but is less than 250 millimetres (10 inches) in the Mallee. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous north-east. Great Otway National Park is a national park in Victoria ( Australia) 162 km southwest of Melbourne. Gippsland is a large rural region in Victoria, Australia. It begins immediately east of the suburbs of Melbourne and stretches to the New South Wales border Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District, making them both leading farming areas. The Western District is a region of Australia located in the south-west corner of the state of Victoria (Australia, extending to Victoria's highest recorded daily rainfall was 375 millimetres (14. 7 in) at Tanybryn in the Otway Ranges on 22 March 1983. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar)
Average January temperatures:
Average July temperatures:
Average yearly precipitation:
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology, Department of Primary Industries, Australian Natural Resources Atlas|
The climate of Victoria's capital Melbourne, which is located on Victoria's central south coast, as measured and recorded at the Regional Office (altitude 31. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 2m).
The climate of Mildura on the Murray River on the north-western border of Victoria as measured and recorded at the Airport (altitude 50m). Mildura is a regional city in northwestern Victoria, Australia, part of the Rural City of Mildura.
The climate of Wilsons Promontory which constitutes the southernmost tip of Victoria and the Australian mainland as measured and recorded at the Lighthouse (altitude 88. Wilsons Promontory is a Peninsula that forms the southernmost part of the Australian mainland and is located at. 7 m/291 ft).
Some major tourist destinations in Victoria are:
Other popular tourism activities are gliding, hang-gliding, hot air ballooning and scuba diving. The Australian Alps are the highest Mountain ranges of mainland Australia. Skiing in Victoria, Australia. The major Ski resorts in Victoria are Falls Creek Mount Hotham Gliding is a Recreational activity and competitive Sport in which pilots fly un-powered aircraft known as Gliders or sailplanes History See also History of hang gliding Summary: Hang gliding existed in China perhaps by the 4th century AD according to the writing of the The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying Flight technology Scuba diving is swimming underwater, or taking part in another activity while using a Scuba set.
Major events also play a big part in tourism in Victoria, particularly cultural tourism and sports tourism. Most of these events are centred around Melbourne, but others occur in regional cities, such as the V8 Supercars and Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix at Phillip Island, the Grand Annual Steeplechase at Warrnambool and the Australian International Airshow at Geelong and numerous local festivals such as the popular Port Fairy Folk Festival, Queenscliff Music Festival, Bells Beach SurfClassic and the Bright Autumn Festival. The Australian International Airshow is a large Airshow held every two years at Avalon Airport, between Melbourne and Geelong, Victoria Port Fairy is a coastal town in western Victoria, Australia. It is located on the Princes Highway in the Shire of Moyne west of Warrnambool Queenscliff Music Festival is a live music festival held in the town of Queenscliff located on the Bellarine Peninsula Victoria, Australia. Bright (postcode 3741 is a small sized town located in Victoria, Australia, 319 metres above Sea level and in North Eastern Victoria at the southeastern
Victoria is the home of Australian rules football, with ten of the sixteen clubs of the Australian Football League based in Victoria, and the traditional Grand Final held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground usually on the last Saturday in September. Australian (rules football, or simply known as football, footy or Aussie rules, is a Team sport played between two teams of 18 players The Australian Football League (AFL is both the professional Australian national competition in the Sport of Australian Rules Football and its highest The AFL Grand Final is an annual Australian rules football match traditionally held on the final Saturday in September at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in
Victoria's cricket team, the Victorian Bushrangers play in the national Pura Cup cricket competition, and is represented in Football by Melbourne Victory in the A-League. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries The Victorian Bushrangers is an Australian cricket team based in Melbourne, that represents the state of Victoria. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Melbourne Victory Football Club is a football (soccer team in the Australian A-League based in Melbourne, Victoria. The A-League is the premier Australasian domestic Association football competition Victoria also has one team each represented in the National Rugby League and the Australian Rugby Championship, the Melbourne Storm and Melbourne Rebels respectively. The Australian Rugby Championship or ARC (also known as the Mazda Australian Rugby Championship or the Mazda Championship for sponsorship The Melbourne Storm is a professional Rugby league football club based in the city of Melbourne, Australia The Melbourne Rebels were an Australian Rugby union football club that played in the now defunct Australian Rugby Championship.
Victoria has held the 1956 Summer Olympics, 2006 Commonwealth Games, FINA World Swimming Championship, and is home to the annual Australian Open tennis tournament, and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event which was held in Melbourne The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 15 March and 26 March 2006 The Australian Open is one of the four Grand Slam Tennis Tournaments held each year The Australian Grand Prix is a Formula One race that is part of the annual Formula One championship season
Victoria is also home to Bells Beach, which is the home of the world's longest-running surfing competition, the Bells Beach SurfClassic, which is part of The ASP World Tour. Bells Beach ( is an internationally famous Surf beach in Victoria, Australia, located 100 km south-west of Melbourne, on the Great The World Surfing Champion is a title awarded annually to the best competition surfer for the year today based on points earned for placings at events on the Association of Surfing
Possibly Victoria's most famous island, Phillip Island, is home of the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit which regularly holds V8 Supercars events and Moto GP (the world's premier motorcycling class). Phillip Island is located about 140km away from Melbourne Named after Governor Arthur Phillip, Phillip Island in Victoria Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit is a racing circuit in Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia History Old Track The first V8 Supercars is a Touring car racing category operated under the regulations of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA Overview A Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM in 1949
Australia's most prestigious footrace, the Stawell Gift, is an annual event. The Stawell Gift is Australia's oldest and richest short distance running race
The Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival is not only one of the biggest horse racing events in the world, it is one of the world's largest sporting events with the main race the $6million Melbourne Cup; with total crowds for the carnival in excess of 700,000. The Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival is the name of a Melbourne, Australia Thoroughbred Horse racing series held annually during October and The Melbourne Cup is Australia 's major annual Thoroughbred horse race.