In music history, the Venetian School is a term used to describe the composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610; it also describes the music they produced. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The Venetian polychoral compositions of the late 16th century were among the most famous musical events in Europe, and their influence on musical practice in other countries was enormous. This article is about the musical term See Antiphon (person the orator of ancient Greece The innovations introduced by the Venetian school, along with the contemporary development of monody and opera in Florence, together define the end of the musical Renaissance and the beginning of the musical Baroque. In Poetry, the term monody has become specialized to refer to a poem in which one person laments another's death Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 - 1600 Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750.
Several major factors came together to create the Venetian School. The first was political: after the death of Pope Leo X in 1521, and the sack of Rome in 1527, the musical establishment in Rome, long dominant in European culture, was eclipsed: many musicians either moved elsewhere or chose not to go to Rome, and Venice was one of several places having an environment conducive to creativity. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death 
Another factor, possibly the most important, was the existence of the splendid Basilica San Marco di Venezia (commonly known as St. Saint Mark's Basilica ( Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia) the Cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of Mark's), with its unique interior with opposing choir lofts. Because of the spacious architecture of this basilica, it was necessary to develop a musical style which exploited the sound-delay to advantage, rather than fought against it: thus the Venetian polychoral style was developed, the grand antiphonal style in which groups of singers and instruments played sometimes in opposition, and sometimes together, united by the sound of the organ. The Venetian polychoral style was a type of music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras which involved spatially separate Choirs singing in alternation The first composer to make this effect famous was Adrian Willaert, who became maestro di cappella of St. Adrian Willaert (c 1490 &ndash 7 December 1562 was a Flemish Composer of the Renaissance and founder of the Venetian School. Mark's in 1527, and remained in the position until his death in 1562. Gioseffo Zarlino, one of the most influential writers on music of the age, called Willaert "the new Pythagoras," and Willaert's influence was profound, not only as a composer but as a teacher, since most of the Venetians who followed studied with him. Gioseffo Zarlino ( January 31 or March 22, 1517 &ndash February 4, 1590) was an Italian music theorist and "Pythagoras of Samos" redirects here For the Samian statuary of the same name see Pythagoras (sculptor.
Yet another factor which promoted the rich period of musical creativity was printing. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press In the early 16th century Venice, prosperous and stable, had become an important center of music publishing; composers came from all parts of Europe to benefit from the new technology, which then was only a few decades old. Composers from northern Europe—especially Flanders and France—were already renowned as the most skilled composers in Europe, and many of them came to Venice. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The international flavor of musical society in the city was to linger into the 17th century.
In the 1560s, two distinct groups developed within the Venetian school: a progressive group, lead by Baldassare Donato, and a conservative group, led by Zarlino who was then maestro di cappella. Baldassare Donato (also Donati) (1525-1530 &ndash June 1603 was an Italian composer and singer of the Venetian school of the late Renaissance Friction between the two groups came to a head in 1569 with a dramatic, public fight between Donato and Zarlino during the Feast of St. Mark. Members of the conservative branch tended to follow the style of Franco-Flemish polyphony, and included Cipriano de Rore, Zarlino, and Claudio Merulo; members of the progressive group included Donato, Giovanni Croce, and later Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli. In Music, the Franco-Flemish School refers somewhat imprecisely to the style of polyphonic Vocal music composition in Europe in the 15th Cypriano de Rore or Cipriano de Rore (1515 or 1516 – between September 11 and September 20 1565 was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance, active Claudio Merulo (also spelled Merlotti Merulus also Claudio da Correggio 8 April 1533 – 4 May 1604) was an Italian Composer Giovanni Croce (also Ioanne a Cruce Clodiensis, Zuanne Chiozotto) (1557 – May 15, 1609) was an Italian composer of the late Andrea Gabrieli (1532/1533? – August 30, 1585) was an Italian Composer and Organist of the late Renaissance. Giovanni Gabrieli (c 1554/1557 &ndash August 12 1612 was an Italian Composer and organist. An additional point of contention between the two groups was whether or not Venetians — or at least Italians — should be given the top job of maestro di cappella at St. Mark's. Eventually the group favoring local talent prevailed, ending the dominance of foreign musicians in Venice; in 1603, Giovanni Croce was appointed to the job, followed by Giulio Cesare Martinengo in 1609 and Claudio Monteverdi in 1613. Giulio Cesare Martinengo (c 1564/1568 – July 10, 1613) was an Italian composer and teacher of the late Renaissance and early Baroque
The peak of development of the Venetian School was in the 1580s, when Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli composed enormous works for multiple choirs, groups of brass and string instruments, and organ. These works are the first to include dynamics, and are among the first to include specific instructions for ensemble instrumentation. In Music, dynamics normally refers to the volume of a Sound or note, but can also refer to every aspect of the execution of a given piece either stylistic In Music, the word instrumentation is used to refer to the particular combination of Musical instruments employed in a composition and to the properties Organists working at the same time included Claudio Merulo and Girolamo Diruta; they began to define an instrumental style and technique which moved to northern Europe in the succeeding generations, culminating in the works of Sweelinck, Buxtehude, and eventually J.S. Bach. Claudio Merulo (also spelled Merlotti Merulus also Claudio da Correggio 8 April 1533 – 4 May 1604) was an Italian Composer Girolamo Diruta (c 1554 &ndash after 1610 was an Italian organist music theorist and composer Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (April or May 1562 &ndash October 16 1621 was a Dutch Composer, Organist, and Pedagogue whose work straddled the Dieterich Buxtehude ( Dietrich, Diderich) (c 1637 &ndash 9 May 1707 was a German-Danish Organist, Lutenist WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
The term Venetian School is sometimes used to distinguish it from the contemporary, and usually more musically conservative, Roman School. The Roman school is the education system of the Ancient Rome. Other important centers of musical activity in Italy at the same time included Florence (the birthplace of opera), Ferrara, Naples, Padua, Mantua and Milan. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy.
Major members of the Venetian school include: