|University of Tartu|
Latin: Universitas Tartuensis
|Students:||ca. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The date of establishment or date of founding of an Institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point The word rector ("ruler" from the Latin regere and Rector meaning "Teacher" In Latin has a number of different meanings but all of them indicate an academic The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation Verb "studēre" 19,000|
The University of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu Ülikool; Russian: Тартуский университет; German: Universität Dorpat) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia. Tartu is the second largest City of Estonia. In contrast to Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn, Tartu is often considered the intellectual Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region See also EURODOC ESIB ENQA EAIE Mission The Coimbra Group is.an association of long-established European multidisciplinary universities of high international standard committed to creating special academic A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages Estonian (; ˈeːsti ˈkeːl is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1 Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Tartu is the second largest City of Estonia. In contrast to Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn, Tartu is often considered the intellectual Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Regarded by many Estonians as the country's "national university", it is a member of the Coimbra Group and was established by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1632. Mission The Coimbra Group is.an association of long-established European multidisciplinary universities of high international standard committed to creating special academic For the other Swedish kings known as Gustavus Adolphus see Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden or Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden
At different times during its history the University of Tartu was known as Academia Gustaviana, University of Dorpat, Universität (zu) Dorpat, University of Yuryev, and Tartu State University (Tartu Riiklik Ülikool).
The Academia Gustaviana in the then Swedish province of Livonia was the second university founded in the Swedish Empire, following Uppsala University (in Uppsala, Sweden proper) and preceding the Academy of Åbo (in Turku, Finland). Livonia (Līvõmō Latvian and Livonija Estonian: Liivimaa; Finnish: Liivinmaa; German and Swedish: Livland Sweden was between 1611 and 1718 one of the Great powers of Europe Uppsala University ( Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a world-class research University in Uppsala, Sweden. Uppsala ˈɵpˌsɑːla (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County ( Uppsala län) and the fourth largest city of The Royal Academy of Turku/Åbo (Regia Academia Aboensis Turun akatemia Åbo Kungliga Akademi was the name of the University of Helsinki until 1809 when it was Turku, in Swedish Åbo ( pronounced,) is a city and the original capital of Finland on the southwest coast of Finland at the Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. A precursor to the academy had been a Jesuit grammar school Gymnasium Dorpatense, founded by Polish. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland King Stefan Batory in 1583 existing to 1601, when Tartu (Dorpat) was under Polish rule. This article is about the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The first students immatriculated between 20-21 April 1632. The opening ceremony of Academia Dorpatensis (Academia Gustaviana) took place on 15 October in the same year. The academy in Tartu functioned with Philosophy, Law, Theology and Medical Faculties enjoying the privileges of the University of Uppsala. On account of the Russian-Swedish war the University of Tartu moved to Tallinn in 1656 and in 1665 it closed down. Tallinn (historically known by the German, Swedish and Danish name Reval or the Polish name Rewal, among other names In the 17th century the future outstanding Swedish scientists Urban Hiärne, Olof Verelius, Arvid Moller and others studied at the university. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Among the academic staff were Friedrich Menius, the professor of history (the history of Livonia, the first scientific approach to Estonian folklore); Sven Dimberg, the professor of mathematics (the first in the world to deliver lectures based on Newton’s theory); Olaus Hermelin, the professor of rhetoric and poetry; Lars Micrander, the professor of medicine (the founder of balneology, the discoverer of natural mineral water springs). Livonia (Līvõmō Latvian and Livonija Estonian: Liivimaa; Finnish: Liivinmaa; German and Swedish: Livland In 1690 Tartu became a university town again. Academia Gustavo-Carolina shortly after that moved from Tartu to Pärnu as a result of the coalition against Sweden and the Great Famine of 1695-1697. Academia Gustavo-Carolina which had opened in Pärnu on 28 August 1699 was closed because of the surrender to the Russian forces on 12 August 1710 during the Northern War. According to the terms of the capitulation act the Russians agreed to maintain the university in Pärnu.  University was reopened only in 1802 by the Baltic German Ritterschaften under the reform-minded Emperor Alexander I of Russia, to which Livonia then belonged. Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the The Baltic Germans (Deutschbalten or Baltendeutsche) were mostly ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today Alexander I of Russia ( Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich (23 December 1777 – November 19 1825 served as Emperor of The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
The language of instruction at Dorpat was German from 1802 to 1893. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. During that time, Dorpat had a dual nature in that it belonged both to the set of German(-language) and Russian universities. Financially and administratively, the latter was more important; intellectually and regarding the professoriate, the former was more important (over half the professors came from Germany, at least another third were Baltic Germans). The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to serve as the successor to The Baltic Germans (Deutschbalten or Baltendeutsche) were mostly ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today Among the 30 German-language universities, of which 23 were inside the German Empire, Dorpat was the 11th in size. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification In teaching, the university educated the local Baltic German leadership and professional classes as well as staff especially for the administration and health system of the entire Russian Empire. In scholarship, it was an international university; the time between 1860 and 1880 was its "golden age".
The freedom to be a half-German university ceased with the rise of nationalist tendencies in Russia, which held homogenization more important than retaining a bi-lingual university. Between 1882 and 1898, Russification in language, appointments, etc. Russification (in Russian: русификация rusifikátsiya)is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily , was imposed, with some exceptions (such as the Divinity School, which the state feared would be used by the Orthodox clergy to teach dangerous Protestant views and was thus was allowed to continue in German until 1916). See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. By 1898, when both the town and the university were renamed Yuryev, virtually all distinguished scholars from Germany had left. The University of Yuryev existed until 1918, when during part of the fall term, it was reopened, under German occupation, as Dorpat. The United Baltic Duchy (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste Ühendatud Balti Hertsogiriik was a proposal to unite the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia Russian academic staff and students took refuge in Voronezh in Russia, giving rise to the foundation of Voronezh State University, which traces its own history back to the foundation of the University of Tartu and still holds several physical properties of the latter. Voronezh (Воро́неж) is a large city in southwestern Russia not far from Ukraine. Voronezh State University is one of the main universities in Central Russia.
In 1919, the University of Tartu was established as an Estonian institution. It became Soviet in 1940 after the Soviet Union has enacted its part of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, but was occupied by Germany from 1941–1944 and again called Dorpat. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Since 1944, it has been the University of Tartu (1940–1941 and 1944–1989 "Tartu State University"). During the period of Soviet rule (1944–1991), Estonian was the principal language of instruction, although some courses were taught in Russian, and there were several Russian curricula. To a lesser degree, this is still true today after the regaining of Estonian national independence. The full recovery of academic autonomy of the University can be dated to 1992.
The last decade has been marked by organizational and structural changes, as well as adaptations to various university models (American, Scandinavian, German) against the background of the Soviet and Baltic German past. Most recently, the university has been and is still being marked by the peculiar adaptation of the Bologna declaration in Estonia generally and Tartu specifically, leading to major changes in curricula and studies, as well as by strong organizational centralization attempts. The Bologna declaration is the main guiding document of the Bologna process. Recent plans also include the abolition of the Chair system (an Americanization) and of the Faculties, which is supposed to lead to four large divisions (Humanities, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, and Medicine) under briefly serving deans and rector-appointed financial administrators.
The university’s four museums, its Botanical Gardens, and sports facilities are, by and large, open to the general public. The University possesses some 150 buildings, 30 of which are outside of Tartu. 31 of its buildings decorate the city as architectural monuments. However, the current reforms include attempts to sell, or have the state co-sponsor, several of these buildings and monuments, as well as sports facilities, as they are not seen as part of the university's mission proper.
At the same time, there are numerous recently constructed/renovated university buildings and student dormitories, such as the Technology Institute and the Biomedical Center.
At the University of Tartu, currently more than 3,300 scientific publications are produced every year. About half of all publications by Estonian scientists in journals (those covered by citation indexes like "SCI Expanded", "SSCI" or "A&HCI") are written by Tartu authors.
According to the university administration, the most remarkable recent research achievements have been in the fields of molecular and cell biology, gene technology, immunology, pharmacology, laser medicine, materials science, laser spectroscopy, biochemistry, environmental technology, computational linguistics, psychology, and semiotics. Molecular biology is the study of Biology at a molecular level See also List of basic cell biology topics. Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is Biotechnology is Technology based on Biology, especially when used in Agriculture, Food science, and Medicine. Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical Science that covers the study of all aspects of the Immune system in all Organisms It deals with Pharmacology (from Greek grc φάρμακον pharmakon, "drug" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of how Drugs A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Materials Science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of Science and Spectroscopy was originally the study of the interaction between Radiation and Matter as a function of Wavelength (λ Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as Environmental technology (abbreviated as EnviroTech) or green technology (abbreviated as GreenTech) or clean technology (abbreviated as Computational linguistics is an Interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and/or rule-based modeling of Natural language from a computational Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis or signification and communication signs and Symbols both
The university cooperates with private enterprises, and acts itself as a nucleus for the development of spin-off firms (examples from recent past include Asper Biotech and others). A spin-off (or spinoff) is a new Organization or Entity formed by a split from a larger one such as a Television series based on a pre-existing
The University has signed cooperation agreements with 30 universities and research institutions abroad, and 140 contracts for international student and teacher exchange projects within the framework of the European Union's "Erasmus programme" and Utrecht Network. This is a list of people associated with the University of Tartu at Tartu, Estonia. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The ERASMUS programme, also known as European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students, was established in 1987 and forms a major part of the The Utrecht Network is a network of European universities. The network promotes the internationalisation of Tertiary education through Summer schools
At present, nearly 400 foreign exchange students from 27 countries study at the University. The vast majority comes from Finland, Sweden, Latvia, Russia, the United States of America, and Germany.
The University of Tartu has co-operation agreements with the following universities at the time of writing. These cooperation agreements can include student exchange programmes.