Universi Dominici Gregis is an Apostolic Constitution of the Roman Catholic Church issued by Pope John Paul II on February 22, 1996. Pope Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) It superseded Pope Paul VI's 1975 Apostolic Constitution, Romano Pontifici Eligendo. Pope Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Romano Pontifici Eligendo was the Apostolic Constitution governing the election of popes that was promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1975
Universi Dominici Gregis ('the Lord's whole flock', from the opening statement 'The Shepherd of the Lord's whole flock is the Bishop of the Church of Rome, . . . '), subtitled On the Vacancy of the Apostolic See and the Election of the Roman Pontiff, deals with the vacancy of the Chair of St Peter and Bishop of Rome namely the Pope. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Catholic tradition as the Pope. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
The constitution modified or in some cases confirmed the rules for the conclave such that the rules today are as follows:
Strict secrecy is to be ensured throughout the process. Anyone violating the security of the Vatican, introducing recording equipment, or communicating with a cardinal elector in any way, risks excommunication. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Other penalties are at the discretion of the incoming Pope. Various oaths are also required to be taken by the participants, to ensure that they will act properly.
Previously, in addition to secret ballot two other methods were allowed for the conduct of the election. A committee of nine to fifteen unanimously chosen cardinals might have been delegated, to make the choice for all (election by compromise, per compromissum). In Arguments compromise is a concept of finding Agreement through Communication, through a mutual Acceptance of terms—often involving variations Alternatively, formal ballots could be discarded: in election by acclamation (per acclamationem seu inspirationem) the electors simultaneously shouted out the name of their preferred candidate. A ballot is a device (originally a small ball—see blackball) used to record choices made by Voters Each voter uses one ballot and ballots are not Acclamation was formerly one of the methods of Papal election. Both of these methods have now been abolished: the rationale given was that either compromise or acclamation would not require each cardinal to express his preference. Also, these two methods tended to produce controversy, and in any case neither had been used for quite some time - the last compromise election was of Pope John XXII in 1316, and the last affirmation (acclamation) election was of Pope Gregory XV in 1621. A controversy or dispute is a commencement of a conflict between statements of accepted fact and a new or unaccepted proposal that disagrees with argues against Pope John (numbering Pope John XXII (1249 &ndash December 4, 1334) born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse) was Pope from 1316 to 1334 Pope Gregory XV ( January 9 or January 15, 1554 – July 8, 1623) born Alessandro Ludovisi, was pope from 1621 succeeding As a result, election by secret ballot is now the only valid method of electing a Pope.
Also Universi Dominici Gregis provided that Cardinals would be housed in Domus Sanctae Marthae, a building with dormitory type accommodations built within the Vatican City. The Domus Sanctæ Marthæ ( Latin for Saint Martha's House) is a building adjacent to Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City built during Dormitory typically refers in the United States to residence halls which are sleeping quarters or entire buildings primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for Previously Cardinals were housed in improvised accommodations which were often noted for not being particularly comfortable.
Three major changes occurred in the new Apostolic Constitution.
The Papal election of 2005 was the first papal election to be held under this system. Papal election process for 2005 See also Papal election Presiding over the conclave was the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor
On June 11, 2007 Pope Benedict XVI issued a Motu Proprio beginning with the words Constitutione Apostolica, subtitled De aliquibus mutationibus in normis de electione romani pontificis which reinstates the traditional norms for the majority required to elect the Pope. Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger A motu proprio ( Latin "on his own impulse" is a document issued by the Pope on his own initiative and personally signed by him Unless changed by a future Pope, a two third majority will be required to elect a new Pope regardless of the number of ballots it takes to elect a new Pope.