The United Nations Security Council 'power of veto' refers to the veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, enabling them to prevent the adoption of any 'substantive' draft Council resolution, regardless of the level of international support for the draft. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The veto does not apply to procedural votes, which is significant in that the Security Council's permanent membership can vote against a 'procedural' draft resolution, without necessarily blocking its adoption by the Council.
The veto is exercised when any permanent member — the so-called 'P5' — casts a "negative" vote on a 'substantive' draft resolution. Abstention, or absence from the vote by a permanent member does not prevent a draft resolution from being adopted. Abstention is a term in Election procedure for when a participant in a vote either does not go to vote (on election day or in Parliamentary procedure, is present
The UNSC veto system was formalized at the Yalta Conference, 4-11 February 1945, and was established in order to prohibit the UN from taking any future action directly against its principal founding members; in large part a legacy of the expulsion of the Soviet Union from the League of Nations in 1939, at the outbreak of World War II. The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and Codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from 4 February The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It had already been decided at the UN's founding conference in 1944, that Britain, China, the Soviet Union, the United States and, "in due course" France, should be the permanent members of any newly formed Council. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
France had been defeated and occupied by Nazi Germany, but its role as a permanent member of the League of Nations, its status as a colonial power and the activities of the Free French forces on the allied side allowed it a place at the table with the Big Four. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres FFL) were French fighters in World War II who decided to continue fighting against Axis forces
The Soviet Union had adopted an "empty chair" policy at the Security Council from January 1950, owing to its discontent over the UN's refusal to recognize the People's Republic of China's representatives as the legitimate representatives of China, and with the hope of preventing any future decisions by the Council on substantive matters. Despite the wording of the Charter (which makes no provisions for passing resolutions with the abstention or absence of a veto-bearing member), this was treated as a non-blocking abstention. This had in fact already become Council practice by that time, the Council having already adopted numerous draft resolutions despite the lack of an affirmative vote by each of its permanent members.
Article 27 of the United Nations Charter states:
1) Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations.
2) Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members.
3) Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.
Although the 'power of veto' is not explicitly mentioned in the UN Charter, the fact that 'substantive' decisions by the UNSC require "the concurring votes of the permanent members", means that any of those permanent members can prevent the adoption, by the Council, of any draft resolutions on 'substantive' matters. For this reason, the 'power of veto' is also referred to as the principle of 'great Power unanimity'. 
The majority—more than half—of all vetos in the history of the Security Council were produced by the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Since shortly before the fall of the USSR, the United States has been the most frequent user of the veto. 
Between the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the end of 2004, vetoes were issued on 19 occasions. The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including For that period, usage breaks down as follows:
In the early days of the United Nations, the Soviet Union commissar and later minister for foreign affairs, Vyacheslav Molotov, said no so many times that he was known as "Mr. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan The United States invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, was the Invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989 Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Soviet Union took an active role in the United Nations and other major international and regional organizations Molotov redirects here For other uses see Molotov (disambiguation. Veto". In fact, the Soviet Union was responsible for nearly half of all vetoes ever cast—79 vetoes were used in the first 10 years. Molotov regularly rejected bids for new membership because of the U. S. 's refusal to admit the Soviet republics. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has used its veto power sparingly.
The U. The United States is a charter member of the United Nations and one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. S. first used the veto power in 1970, regarding a crisis in Rhodesia, and first issued a lone veto in 1972, to prevent a resolution censuring Israel. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence Since that time, it has become by far the most frequent user of the veto, mainly against resolutions criticizing Israel (see Negroponte doctrine). On July 26 2002, John Negroponte, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, stated (during a closed meeting of the UN Security This has been a constant cause of friction between the General Assembly and the Security Council, as seen with the 2003 Iraqi war which was not endorsed by the UN. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members
Between 1946 and 1971, the Chinese seat on the Security Council was the government of the Republic of China (from 1949 on Taiwan) during which its representative used the veto only once (to block the Mongolian People's Republic's application for membership in 1955 because the ROC considered Mongolia to be a part of China). China's seat in the United Nations and membership of the United Nations Security Council has been occupied by the People's Republic of China (PRC since October REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Mongolian People's Republic ( Mongolian: Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU) was a Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East This postponed the admission of Mongolia until 1960, when the Soviet Union announced that unless Mongolia was admitted, it would block the admission of all of the newly independent African states. Faced with this pressure, the ROC relented under protest.
After the Republic of China's expulsion from the United Nations in 1971, the first veto cast by the present occupant, the People's Republic of China, was issued in 25 August 1972 over Bangladesh's admission to the United Nations. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Events 1248 - The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III the Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially As of 2004, the People's Republic of China has used its veto four times.
France uses its veto power sparingly. It used it in 1976 on the question of the Comoros independence, when the island of Mayotte was kept in French territory due to the vote of the local population. The Comoros (ˈkɒməroʊz; جزر القمر Juzur al-Qumur) officially the Union of the Comoros (Union des Comores الإتّحاد القمريّ The threat of a French veto of resolution on the Iraq war caused friction between France and the United States. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a resolution by the UN Security Council, passed unanimously on November 8, 2002 The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia
The United Kingdom used its Security Council veto power, along with France, to veto a draft resolution aimed at resolving the Suez Canal crisis in 1956. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh They eventually withdrew after the U. S. instigated an 'emergency special session' of the General Assembly, under the terms of the "Uniting for Peace" resolution, which led to the establishment of the United Nations Emergency Force I (UNEF I), by the adoption of Assembly resolution 1001. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA resolution 377 A, the "Uniting for Peace" resolution, states that in cases where the United Nations Security The first United Nations Emergency Force ( UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution The UK also used the veto unilaterally seven times because of Rhodesia. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Various discussions have taken place in recent years over the suitability of the Security Council veto power in today’s world. Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals including procedural reforms such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members Key arguments include that the five permanent members no longer represent the most stable and responsible member states in the United Nations, and that their veto power slows down and even prevents important decisions being made on matters of international peace and security. Due to the global changes that have taken place politically and economically since the formation of the UN in 1945, widespread debate has been apparent over whether the five permanent members of the UN Security Council remain the best member states to hold veto power. While the permanent members are still typically regarded as great powers, there is debate over their suitability to retain exclusive veto power. A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale 
A second argument against retaining the UNSC veto power is that it is detrimental to balanced political decisions, as any draft text needs to be approved of by each permanent member before any draft resolution can possibly be adopted. Indeed, several proposed draft resolutions are never formally presented to the Council for a vote owing to the knowledge that a permanent member would vote against their adoption (the so-called 'pocket veto'). Debate also exists over the potential use of the veto power to provide 'diplomatic cover' to a permanent member's allies. The United States of America has used its veto power more than any other permanent member since 1972; particularly on draft resolutions condemning the actions or policies of the State of Israel.
Advocates of the veto power believe that it is just as necessary in the current geo-political landscape, and that without the veto power, the Security Council would be open to making "majority rules" decisions on matters that have implications at a global level — decisions that may well go directly against the interests of a permanent member.
Discussions on improving the UN's effectiveness and responsiveness to international security threats often include reform of the UNSC veto. Proposals include: limiting the use of the veto to vital national security issues; requiring agreement from multiple states before exercising the veto; and abolishing the veto entirely. However, any reform of the veto will be very difficult. Articles 108 and 109 of the United Nations Charter grant the P5 veto over any amendments to the Charter, requiring them to approve of any modifications to the UNSC veto power that they themselves hold. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations.
Nonetheless, it has been argued that the current UNSC 'power of veto' is, fundamentally, irrelevant.  With the Assembly's adoption of the 'Uniting for Peace' resolution on 3 November 1950, it was made clear by the UN Member states that, according to the UN Charter, the P5 cannot prevent the UN General Assembly from taking any and all action necessary to restore international peace and security, in cases where the UNSC has failed to exercise its 'primary responsibility' for maintaining peace. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA resolution 377 A, the "Uniting for Peace" resolution, states that in cases where the United Nations Security Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Such an interpretation sees the UNGA as being awarded 'final responsibility' — rather than 'secondary responsibility' — for matters of international peace and security, by the UN Charter. Although not couched in the same language, various high-level reports make explicit reference to the 'Uniting for Peace' resolution as providing the necessary mechanism for the UNGA to overrule any vetoes in the UNSC; thus rendering them little more than delays in UN action.