An ultimatum (Latin: the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Supply and demand is an Economic model describing effects on price and quantity in a Market. Coercion (co-er-shion is the practice of compelling a person or manipulating them to behave in an involuntary way (whether through action or inaction by use of threats An ultimatum is generally the final demand in a series of requests. As such, the time allotted is usually short, and the request is understood not to be open to further negotiation. For Wikipedia's negotiation policy see WikipediaNegotiation. For other uses see Negotiation (disambiguation.
The threat which backs up the ultimatum can vary depending on the demand in question and on the other circumstances. The following are commonly encountered:
- in diplomacy, the threat to declare war, to take other military action or to impose sanctions such as trade restrictions or embargoes. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Threat of force in Public international law is a situation between states described by British lawyer Ian Brownlie as an express or implied A declaration of war is a formal performative Speech act or signing of a document by an authorised party of a government in order to initate a state of War International sanctions are actions taken by Countries against others for political reasons either Unilaterally or Multilaterally. In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce
- in a kidnapping, the threat by the kidnappers that they will kill the hostages if their demands are not met
In everyday life, ultimatums are also sometimes made in various contexts, such as in:
- a legal proceeding (e. In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment A hostage is a person or entity which is held by a captor The original definition meant that this was handed over by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security g. the demand to strike a plea bargain or face a trial)
- a business relationship (e. A plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal or copping a plea) is an agreement in a Criminal case whereby the Prosecutor offers g. the demand to accept a certain price or to forgo the deal)
- a labor dispute (e. Price in Economics and Business is the result of an exchange and from that trade we assign a numerical Monetary value to a good, Labor unrest is a term used by Employers or those generally in the business community and sometimes in a community writ large and of law enforcement personnel to describe g. the demand to grant a hike in salaries or another improvement in the employees' conditions, or face a strike)
- a personal relationship (e. A salary is a form of periodic payment from an Employer to an Employee, which may be specified in an Employment contract. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. An interpersonal relationship is a relatively long-term association between two or more people g. the demand to desist in an extramarital affair or to face a divorce). For other uses see Love Affair or Scandal An affair may refer to a form of nonmonogamy, to Infidelity or to Adultery. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage.
Such ultimatums may or may not be legal and/or socially acceptable. Ultimatums are also a regular part of the crime of extortion. Extortion, outwresting, or exaction is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person Unlawfully obtains either money property or services © 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
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