|Tsengel Tuvan child and grandmother|
over 220,000 ?
|Regions with significant populations|
|Russia 200,000; Mongolia 20,000; China 2,400|
|Russian, Tuvan, Mongolian|
|Predominantly Shamanism with Tibetan Buddhism ("Lamaism"). Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Tuvan (Tuvan Тыва дыл Tyva dyl) also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. The Mongolian language (mn [[ImageMonggol kelesvg 17px]] Mongɣol kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл Mongol khel) is the best-known member of Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including Minority Russian Orthodox. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Tofalar, Soyots, several other Turkic and Mongolian peoples|
Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. Tofalars (Тофалары тофа (tofa in Russian; formerly known as карагасы or karagas are a Turkic -speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast According to the 2002 Census, there were 2769 Soyots in Russia. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family Tuvan (Tuvan Тыва дыл Tyva dyl) also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family Tyva Republic (Респу́блика Тыва́ Respublika Tyva, rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva Тыва Республика Tyva Respublika) or Tuva Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending They are historically known as Uriankhai, from the Mongolian designation. There isn't a clear ethnic delineation for the application of the name "Uriankhai". The Mongolian language (mn [[ImageMonggol kelesvg 17px]] Mongɣol kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл Mongol khel) is the best-known member of 
Tuvans have historically been cattle-breeding nomads, tending to their herds of goats, sheep, camels, reindeer, cattle and yaks for the past thousands of years. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that They have traditionally lived in yurts covered by felt or chums covered with birch bark or hide that they relocate seasonally as they move to newer pastures. A yurt is a portable Felt -covered wood lattice -framed dwelling structure used by Nomads in the Steppes of Central Asia. A tipi' (also teepee, tepee) is a conical Tent originally made of animal skins or birch bark and popularized by the Native Americans
The Xiongnu ruled over the area of Tuva prior to 200 AD. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes At this time a people known to the Chinese as Dingling inhabited the region. The Dingling (丁零 or Gaoche (高車 Chile (敕勒, Tiele (鐵勒 were an ancient Siberian people The Chinese recorded the existence of a tribe of Dingling origin named Dubo in the eastern Sayans. This name is recognized as being associated with the Tuvan people and is the earliest written record of them. The Xianbei defeated the Xiongnu and they in turn were defeated by the Rouran. The Xianbei ( were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. Rouran ( Wade-Giles: Jou-jan) Ruanruan/Ruru ( also known as Tan Tan ( was the name of a confederation of Nomadic tribes on From around the end of the 6th century, the Göktürks held dominion over Tuva up until the 8th century when the Uyghurs took over. Göktürks ( Turkish: Gök Türkler) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia.
Tuvans were subjects of the Uyghur Khanate during the 8th and 9th centuries. The Uyghur The Uyghurs established several fortifications within Tuva as a means of subduing the population. There are plans being discussed to restore the remains of one of these fortresses, Por-Bazhyn in lake Tere-Khol in the southeast of the country.  The memory of Uyghur occupation could still be seen up until the end of the 19th century due to the application of the name Ondar Uyghur for the Ondar Tuvans living near the Khemchik river in the southwest.  Uyghur dominance was broken by the Kyrgyz in 840 AD, who came from the upper reaches of the Yenisei. The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. The Yeniseian Kyrgyz then established a small khanate that lasted until the coming of the Mongols in the 13th century.
In 1207, Turkic Oirat prince Kuduka-Beki led Mongol detachments under Jochi to a tributary of the Kaa-Khem river. This article deals with the Oirat ethnic group For the obsolete term for the Turkic Altays see Altay people. Jochi (Зүчи Züchi; also spelled Jöchi and Juchi) (c 1180 &ndash 1227 was the eldest of the Mongol chieftain Genghis Khan They encountered the Tuvan Keshdims, Baits, and Teleks. This was the beginning of Mongol suzerainty over the Tuvans. One of Genghis Khan's greatest generals, Subutai, is said to have been an Uriankhai. Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Subutai ( Subetei, Subetai, Сүбээдэй Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian Sübügätäi or Sübü'ätäi; 1176–1248 was the primary
Tuvans came to be ruled for most of the 17th century by Khalka Mongol leader Sholoi Ubashi's Altyn-Khan Khanate. The House of Altan Khan (lit Golden Khan belonged to the Right Wing of the Khalkha Mongols. It was at this time in 1615 that the first Russians, V. Tyumenets and I. Petrov, visited Tuva as emissaries to the Altyn-Khan.  Russian documents from this time record information about different tribal groups that contributed to the composition of modern Tuvans. Tyumenets and Petrov describe the Maads, who became Russian subjects in 1609, living in the Bii-Khem basin, a 14 day's ride from Tomsk. The Maads travelled to the area of the Khemchik and Ulug-Khem next to the lands of the Altyn-Khan near the lake Uvs Nuur. Uvs Nuur or Lake Uvs (Увс Нуур Uvs Nuur; Успа-Холь Uspa-Khol; Убсу-Нур Ubsu-Nur The ambassadors also described the Sayan raising reindeer with the Tochi (Todzhi) from the Sayan to the Altai mountain ranges. The Sayan Mountains (Саяны Sayany; Kokmen Mountains during the period of the Göktürks) are a Mountain range in southern The Altai Mountains (Алтай Altay; Алтай 阿尔泰山脉 are a Mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, The descendants of the Ak-Sayan and Kara-Sayan live mostly around Tere-Khol rayon.
The state of the Altyn-Khan disappeared due to constant warring between the Oirats and the Khalka of Jasaghtu Khan Aimak. The Tuvans became part of the Dzungarian state ruled by the Oirats. Dzungar (also Jungar or Zungar; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) is the collective identity of several Oirat tribes that The Dzungars ruled over all of the Sayano-Altay Plateau until 1755. It was during this time of Dzungarian rule that many tribes and clans broke up, moved around, and intermingled. Groups of Altayan Telengits settled in western Tuva on the Khemchik and Barlyk rivers and in the region of Bai-Taiga. Some Todzhans, Sayans, and Mingats ended up in the Altay. Kalmyk redirects here for the breed of cattle see Kalmyk (cattle. Other Tuvans migrated north across the Sayan range and became known as Beltirs (Dag-Kakpyn, Sug-Kakpyn, Ak-Chystar, Kara-Chystar). The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. The languages of the Beltirs and Tuvans still contain common words not found in the language of the other Khakas (Kachins or Sagays).  Other Russian documents mention Yeniseian Kyrgyz (Saryglar and Kyrgyz), Orchaks (Oorzhaks) and Kuchugets (Kuzhugets) moving into Tuva from the north.
Besides the Turkic tribes mentioned above, there is indication that modern Tuvans are descended also from Mongolic, Samoyedic, and Kettic groups of peoples. The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. The Yeniseian Language family (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak; occasionally spelt with - ss - is spoken in central Siberia Of the extinct Southern Samoyed groups, Mator, Koibal, Kamas, and Karagas were assimilated mostly into the eastern Tuvans such as the Todzhins, Tofalars, Soyots, and Dukha. The term Samoyedic peoples is used to describe peoples speaking a Samoyedic language. Mator or Motor is a Uralic language belonging to the southern group of the Samoyedic languages. Kamasins ( Камасинцы (also Камашинцы in Russian; self designation калмажи, or kalmazhi were a Tribe of the Sayan Tofalars (Тофалары тофа (tofa in Russian; formerly known as карагасы or karagas are a Turkic -speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast According to the 2002 Census, there were 2769 Soyots in Russia. The Dukha (Цаатан Tsaatan) are a Turkish people of reindeer herders living in northern Khövsgöl Aimag of Mongolia. The Irgit tribe is also suggested as being from Samoyedic ancestors.  The Tuvan name for the Yenisei river may stem from an ancient Samoyedic name.  Tribes such as Tumat, Mingat, Mongush, and Salchak are recognized as having a Mongolic origin. 
According to Ilya Zakharov of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, genetic evidence suggests that the modern Tuvan people are the closest genetic relatives to the native peoples of North and South America. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. 
There doesn't seem to exist a clear ethnic delineation for the application of the name Uriankhai. There isn't a clear ethnic delineation for the application of the name "Uriankhai". Mongols applied this name to all tribes of Forest People. This name has historically been applied to Tuvans. In Mongolia there are peoples also known by this name. A variation of the name, Uraŋxai, was an old name for the Sakha. Yakuts, self-designation Sakha, are a Turkic -speaking people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia Republic.  Russian Pavel Nebol'sin documented the Urankhu clan of Volga Kalmyks in the 1850s.  Another variant of the name, Orangkae (오랑캐), was traditionally used by the Koreans to refer indiscriminately to "barbarians" that inhabited the lands to their north. The Korean people are an East Asian Ethnic group. Most Koreans speak the Korean language. "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived
There are two major groups of Tuvans in Tuva: Western Tuvans and Tuvans-Todzhins (Тувинцы-тоджинцы). The latter ones live in Todzhinsky District, Tuva Republic and constitute about 5% of all Tuvans. Tyva Republic (Респу́блика Тыва́ Respublika Tyva, rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva Тыва Республика Tyva Respublika) or Tuva
A people similar by language to Tuvans live in Oka District of Buryatia (self-naming: Soyots (сойоты), sometimes referred to as Oka Tuvans). Buryat Republic (Респу́блика Буря́тия Буряад Республика is a federal subject of Russia (a Republic) According to the 2002 Census, there were 2769 Soyots in Russia.
A noticeable proportion of Tuvans lives in Mongolia. Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East The Dukha live in Khövsgöl Aimag. The Dukha (Цаатан Tsaatan) are a Turkish people of reindeer herders living in northern Khövsgöl Aimag of Mongolia. Khövsgöl (Хөвсгөл is the northernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. The largest population of Tuvans in Mongolia are the Tsengel Tuvans.  Around 1,500 live in Tsengel Sum of Bayan-Ölgii Aimag. Tsengel (Цэнгэл is a sum (district of Bayan-Ölgii Province in western Mongolia. Bayan-Ölgii (Баян-Өлгий Баян Өлгей (Alternately spelled Olgiy Ulgii etc Other Tuvans live in Khovd Aimag and in Ubsunur Hollow. Khovd (Ховд is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia, located in the west of the country Ubsunur Hollow (also spelled Ubsu-Nur) is a fragile mountain basin or depression located on the territorial border of Mongolia and the Republic of Tuva
Tuvans in China, who live mostly in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, are included under the Mongol nationality. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Xinjiang ( Uyghur: شىنجاڭ Shinjang;; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang; Turkish: Sincan, Sincan Uygur Özerk Ethnic Mongols in China ( Chinese: 蒙古族 Ménggǔzú) are citizens of the People's Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols. 
The Tuvan language belongs to the Northern or Siberian branch of the Turkic language family. Tuvan (Tuvan Тыва дыл Tyva dyl) also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. The Turkic languages constitute a Language family of some thirty languages spoken by Turkic peoples across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Four dialects are recognized: Central, Western, Southeastern and Northeastern (Todzhinian). The written language is based on the Cyrillic alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet (səˈrɪlɪk also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters is actually a family of Alphabets, subsets of which are used by
The traditional religion of Tuvans is a type of Tengriism, or Turkic animistic shamanism. Tengriism ( Tengerism, Tengrianism, Tengrianizm, Tengricilik) was the major belief of the Mongols and Turkic peoples before Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals The religion is still widely practiced alongside Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including
A unique form of music exists in Tuva commonly known as throat singing. Tuva is a part of Russia, inhabited by a Turkic people related to the nearby Mongolians Tuvans are known abroad for ''khoomei'' (''xöömej'' A throat-singer produces multiple tones (a base tone and its overtones). A documentary called Genghis Blues was made in 1999 about an American blues musician, Paul Pena, who taught himself overtone singing and traveled to Tuva to compete in a throat-singing competition. Genghis Blues (1999 is a Documentary film directed by Roko Belic. Paul Pena ( January 26, 1950 – October 1, 2005) was an American singer songwriter and guitarist of Cape Verdean descent