A tughra (طغراء; Tuğra) is a calligraphic seal or signature of an Ottoman sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 A seal can mean a wax seal bearing an impressed figure or an embossed figure in paper with the purpose of authenticating a document but the term can also mean any device for A signature (from Latin signare, " Sign " is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized depiction of someone's name nickname or even a simple The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish It was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign.
The tughra was designed at the beginning of the sultan's reign and drawn by the court calligrapher or nişancı on written documents. Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 The first tughra belonged to Orhan I (1284-1359), the second ruler of the Ottoman Empire and it evolved until it reached the classical form in the tughra of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1494-1596). Orhan I ( Ottoman: اورخان غازی Turkish: Orhan Gazi or Orhan Bey) (1284&ndash1359 was the second Bey, or chief of the The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Suleiman I (سليمان Sulaymān, Süleyman almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) ( 6 November 1494 5/ 6 September 1566
Tughras served a purpose similar to the cartouche in ancient Egypt or the Royal Cypher of British monarchs. In Egyptian hieroglyphs a cartouche is an oblong enclosure with a horizontal line at one end indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name coming into use during A Royal Cypher, or Royal and Imperial Cypher is the sovereign 's Monogram or the initials of their name and title usually surmounted by a crown Every Ottoman sultan had his own individual tughra.
The tughra has a characteristic form, two loops on the left side, three vertical lines in the middle, stacked writing on the bottom and two extensions to the right. Each of these elements have a specific meaning and together they make up the form that is easily recognizable as a tughra.
The name of the sultan is written out in the bottom section, called a sere. Depending on the period, this name can be as simple as Orhan, son of Osman in the first tughra in 1326. Orhan I ( Ottoman: اورخان غازی Turkish: Orhan Gazi or Orhan Bey) (1284&ndash1359 was the second Bey, or chief of the Osman I (1258 Sogut, Anatolia, Turkey &ndash1326 Sogut) Ottoman: عثمان بن أرطغرل Turkish: Osman In later periods honorifics and prayers are also added to the name of the tughra holder and his father.
The loops to the left of the tughra are called beyze, from Arabic meaning egg. Some interpretations of tughra design claim that the beyzes are supposed to symbolize the two seas the sultans held sway over: the outer larger loop signifying the Mediterranean and the inner, smaller loop signifying the Black Sea.
The vertical lines on the top of the tughra are called tug, or flagstaff. The three tugs signify independence. The S-shaped lines crossing the tugs are called zülfe and they, together with the tops of the tugs that also look to the right signify that the winds blow from the east to the west, the traditional movement of the Ottomans.
The lines to the right of the tughra are called hancere and signify a sword, symbol of power and might.
The first Tughra - Tughra of Orhan I (1326)
Tughra of Süleyman the Magnificent (1520)
Tughra of Selim III (1789)
Tughra of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II (1808)
Tughra of Abdulhamid II (1876)
Tughra on the Gate of Felicity at Topkapi Palace
Although the tughra is largely identified with the Ottoman Sultans, they have also sometimes been used in other Turkic states, such as the Khanate of Kazan. Orhan I ( Ottoman: اورخان غازی Turkish: Orhan Gazi or Orhan Bey) (1284&ndash1359 was the second Bey, or chief of the Suleiman I (سليمان Sulaymān, Süleyman almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) ( 6 November 1494 5/ 6 September 1566 Selim III ( Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) ( December 24, 1761 &ndash July 28/29 Mahmud II ( Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثاني Mahmud-ı sānī) ( July 20, 1785 July 1, 1839 Abdülhamid II His Imperial Majesty Sultan of the Ottoman Empire ( Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî, İkinci Abdülhamit Mehmed V ( Turkish: Mehmed V Reşad or Reşat Mehmet) ( November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 35th Ottoman The Ottoman War Medal (Harp Madalyası better known as the Gallipoli Star, or the Iron Crescent (from German Eiserner Halbmond, in allusion The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in Ottoman: طوبكابي بالاذيis a palace in Istanbul, Turkey, which was the official and This article describes 23 gates of Belgrade. Roman gates Remains of Southeastern gate of the Singidunum 's Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. The Kazan Khanate (Казан ханлыгы|Qazan xanlığı|قازان خانليغى Russian: Казанское ханство tr: Kazanskoe khanstvo Later, tughras were used among the Tatars of Imperial Russia. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
There are modern artists of calligraphy that use the characteristic tughra form today. Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 Examples are the tughras of Russian president Vladimir Putin and Akihito, the Emperor of Japan. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, USSR; now Saint Petersburg, Russia was the second President of Russia is the current of Japan, and the 125th Emperor according to Japan's traditional order of succession. The of Japan is the country's Monarch. He is the head of the Japanese Imperial Family.
Tughra of Emperor Akihito (Modern)