Fossil range: Late Cretaceous
Triceratops (pronounced /traɪˈsɛrətɒps/) is an extinct genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur that lived during the late Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, around 68 to 65 million years ago (mya) in what is now North America. In Scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different Scientific names used for a single Taxon. Claorhynchus (meaning "broken Beak " as it is based on broken bones from the snout region is a dubious Genus of Ornithischian Edward Drinker Cope (July 28 1840&ndashApril 12 1897 was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell Ceratopsidae (sometimes spelled Ceratopidae) is a speciose group of Marginocephalian Dinosaurs including Triceratops and Styracosaurus The Maastrichtian is the last stage of the Cretaceous period, and therefore of the Mesozoic era. The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of In Astronomy, Geology, and Paleontology, mya or " mya " is an abbreviation for "million years ago". It was one of the last dinosaur genera to appear before the great Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. The Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred approximately ( Ma) was a large-scale mass extinction of animal and plant species in a geologically  Bearing a large bony frill and three horns on its large four-legged body, and conjuring similarities with the modern rhinoceros, Triceratops is one of the most recognizable of all dinosaurs. Neck frill is the popular term for the relatively extense margin seen on the back of the heads of Reptiles with either a bony support such as those present on A horn is a pointed projection of the Skin on the head of various Mammals consisting of a covering of horn ( Keratin and other Proteins Rhinoceros (raɪˈnɒsərəs often colloquially abbreviated rhino, is a name used to group five extant species of Odd-toed ungulates in the family The name Triceratops, which literally means "three-horned face", is derived from the Greek tri/τρι- meaning "three", ceras/κέρας meaning "horn", and -ops/ωψ meaning "face". The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c  Though it shared the landscape with and was preyed upon by the fearsome Tyrannosaurus, it is unclear whether the two battled the way they are commonly depicted in movies, children's dinosaur books and many cartoons. Tyrannosaurus ( or, meaning 'tyrant lizard' is a Genus of Theropod Dinosaur.
Although no complete skeleton has been found, Triceratops is well-known from numerous partial specimens collected since the introduction of the genus in 1887. The function of their frills and three distinctive facial horns has long inspired debate. Although traditionally viewed as defensive weapons against predators, the latest theories claim that it is more probable that these features were used in courtship and dominance displays, much like the antlers and horns of modern reindeer, mountain goats, or rhinoceros beetles. In Biology, mating is the pairing of opposite- Sex or hermaphroditic Organisms for copulation and in Social animals also to raise their Antlers are the usually large and complex horn -like appendages of most Deer species mostly worn by males only for some species such as Caribou by both The Mountain Goat ( Oreamnos americanus) also known as the Rocky Mountain Goat, is a large-hoofed mammal found only in North America. ---- The rhinoceros beetles or rhino beetle are a subfamily ( Dynastinae) of Beetles in the family of Scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae 
Triceratops is the best-known of the ceratopsids, though the genus's exact placement within the group has been a point of contention amongst paleontologists. Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. Two species, T. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. horridus and T. prorsus, are considered valid, although many other species have been named.
Individual Triceratops are estimated to have reached about 7. 9 to 9. 0 m (26. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International 0–29. 5 ft) in length, 2. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit 9 to 3. 0 m (9. 5–9. 8 ft) in height, and 6. 1–12. 0 tonnes (13,000-26,000 lb) in weight. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass In the Physical sciences weight is a Measurement of the gravitational Force acting on an object  The most distinctive feature is their large skull, among the largest of all land animals. It could grow to be over 2 m (7 ft) in length, and could reach almost a third of the length of the entire animal.  It bore a single horn on the snout, above the nostrils, and a pair of horns approximately 1 m (3 ft) long, with one above each eye. To the rear of the skull was a relatively short, bony frill. Most other frilled dinosaurs had large fenestrae in their frills, while the frills of Triceratops were noticeably solid.
Triceratops species possessed a sturdy build, with strong limbs and short five-hoofed hands and four-hoofed feet.  Although certainly quadrupedal, the posture of these dinosaurs has long been the subject of some debate. Quadrupedalism (from Latin meaning "four legs" is a form of land animal locomotion using four legs. Originally, it was believed that the front legs of the animal had to be sprawling at angles from the thorax, in order to better bear the weight of the head. A sprawl is a Martial arts and especially Wrestling term for a defensive technique that is done in response to certain takedown attempts typically The thorax is a division of an Animal 's body that lies between the head and the Abdomen.  This stance can be seen in paintings by Charles Knight and Rudolph Zallinger. Charles Robert Knight ( October 21, 1874 in Brooklyn – April 15, 1953 in Manhattan) was an American Rudolph Franz Zallinger (born November 12, 1919 - August 1, 1995) was an American-based artist notable for his mural The Age of Reptiles However, ichnological evidence in the form of trackways from horned dinosaurs, and recent reconstructions of skeletons (both physical and digital) seem to show that Triceratops maintained an upright stance during normal locomotion, with the elbows slightly bowed out, in an intermediate state between fully upright and fully sprawling (as in the modern rhinoceros). Ichnology is the branch of Biology that deals with traces of organismal behavior A fossil trackway is a type of Fossil impression a Trackway made by a once living organism usually by its feet  This conclusion does not preclude a sprawling gait for confrontations or feeding.
Triceratops is the best known genus of the Ceratopsidae, a family of large North American horned dinosaurs. Ceratopsidae (sometimes spelled Ceratopidae) is a speciose group of Marginocephalian Dinosaurs including Triceratops and Styracosaurus Ceratopsia or Ceratopia (ˌsɛrəˈtɒpsiə/ /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊpiə Greek: "horned faces" is a group of herbivorous, beaked Dinosaurs The exact location of Triceratops among the ceratopsians has been debated over the years. Confusion stemmed mainly from the combination of short, solid frills (similar to that of Centrosaurinae), and the long brow horns (more akin to Ceratopsinae, also known as Chasmosaurinae). The Centrosaurinae is a subfamily of Ceratopsid Dinosaurs named by paleontologist Lawrence Lambe, in 1915 with Centrosaurus as Ceratopsidae (sometimes spelled Ceratopidae) is a speciose group of Marginocephalian Dinosaurs including Triceratops and Styracosaurus In the first overview of horned dinosaurs, R. S. Lull hypothesized two lineages, one of Monoclonius and Centrosaurus leading to Triceratops, the other with Ceratops and Torosaurus, making Triceratops a centrosaurine as the group is understood today. Richard Swann Lull (November 6 1867 - 1957 was an American Paleontologist from the early 20th century active at Yale University, who is largely remembered Monoclonius (meaning "single stem" referring to the teeth which have a single root Cope 1876 was a Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Centrosaurus (ˌsɛtroʊˈsɔrəs SEN-tro-SAW-rus, meaning "pointed lizard" (from Greek kentron/κεντρον = "point or Ceratops (meaning "horn face" was a Ceratopsian Dinosaur which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Torosaurus (meaning "perforated lizard" was a Genus of ceratopsid Dinosaur.  Later revisions supported this view, formally describing the first, short-frilled group as Centrosaurinae (including Triceratops), and the second, long-frilled group as Chasmosaurinae. 
In 1949, C. M. Sternberg was the first to question this and favoured instead that Triceratops was more closely related to Arrhinoceratops and Chasmosaurus based on skull and horn features, making Triceratops a ceratopsine (chasmosaurine of his usage) genus. Charles Mortram Sternberg ( 1885 &ndash 1981) was an American-Canadian Fossil collector and paleontologist, son of Charles Hazelius Sternberg Arrhinoceratops (meaning "no nose-horn face" derived from the Ancient Greek "a-/α-" "no" rhino-/ρινο- "nose" Chasmosaurus (ˌkæzməˈsɔrəs KAZ-mo-sawr-us is a Genus of ceratopsid Dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period  However, he was largely ignored with John Ostrom, and later David Norman, both placing Triceratops within Centrosaurinae. John H Ostrom ( February 18, 1928 &ndash July 16, 2005) was an American Paleontologist who revolutionized modern 
Subsequent discoveries and analyses upheld Sternberg's view on the position of Triceratops, with Lehman defining both subfamilies in 1990 and diagnosing Triceratops as ceratopsine (chasmosaurine of his usage) on the basis of several morphological features. In fact, it fits well into the ceratopsine subfamily, apart from its one feature of a shortened frill.  Further research by Peter Dodson, including a 1990 cladistic analysis and a 1993 study using RFTRA (resistant-fit theta-rho analysis), a morphometric technique which systematically measures similarities in skull shape, reinforces Triceratops' placement in the ceratopsine subfamily. Peter Dodson is an American paleontologist who has published many papers and written and collaborated on books about Dinosaurs Dodson described Avaceratops Cladistics is the hierarchical classification of Species based on evolutionary ancestry Morphometrics is a field concerned with studying variation and change in the form (size and shape of organisms Commonly the measurements taken are of little significance in terms of
In phylogenetic taxonomy, the genus has been used as a reference point in the definition of Dinosauria; Dinosaurs have been designated as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Triceratops and Neornithes (i. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. e. modern birds). Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs.  Furthermore, the bird-hipped dinosaurs, Ornithischia, have been designated as all dinosaurs with a more recent common ancestor to Triceratops than modern birds. Ornithischia (ɔrnɪˈθɪskiə) or Predentata is an extinct order of beaked herbivorous Dinosaurs The name ornithischia 
For many years the origins of Triceratops have been largely obscure. In 1922, the newly discovered Protoceratops was seen as its ancestor by Henry Fairfield Osborn, but many decades passed before additional findings came to light. Protoceratops (meaning 'First Horned Face' derived from Greek proto-/πρωτο- 'first' cerat-/κερατ- 'horn' Henry Fairfield Osborn ( August 8, 1857 – November 6, 1935) was an American Geologist, Paleontologist, and However, recent years have been fruitful for the discovery of several dinosaurs related to ancestors of Triceratops. Zuniceratops, the earliest known ceratopsian with brow horns, was described in the late 1990s, and Yinlong, the first known Jurassic ceratopsian, in 2005. Zuniceratops (' Zuni -horned face' was a Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the mid Turonian of the Late Cretaceous Period Yinlong (meaning "hidden dragon" is a Genus of basal Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Period The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Ma (million years ago to  Ma that is from the end of the Triassic to the beginning
These new finds have been vital in illustrating the origins of horned dinosaurs in general, suggesting an Asian origin in the Jurassic, and the appearance of truly horned ceratopsians by the beginning of the late Cretaceous in North America.  As Triceratops is increasingly shown to be a member of the long-frilled Ceratopsinae subfamily, a likely ancestor may have resembled Chasmosaurus, which thrived some 5 million years earlier. Chasmosaurus (ˌkæzməˈsɔrəs KAZ-mo-sawr-us is a Genus of ceratopsid Dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period
The first named specimen now attributed to Triceratops is a pair of brow horns attached to a skull roof, found near Denver, Colorado in the spring of 1887. The City and County of Denver (pronounced /ˈdɛnvɚ/ is the Capital and the most populous city of Colorado, in the United States  This specimen was sent to Othniel Charles Marsh, who believed that the formation from which it came dated from the Pliocene, and that the bones belonged to a particularly large and unusual bison, which he named Bison alticornis. Othniel Charles Marsh ( October 29, 1831 &ndash March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent Paleontologists of the 19th century who The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts is the period in the Geologic timescale that extends This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation.  He realized that there were horned dinosaurs by the next year, which saw his publication of the genus Ceratops from fragmentary remains, but he still believed B. Ceratops (meaning "horn face" was a Ceratopsian Dinosaur which lived during the Late Cretaceous. alticornis to be a Pliocene mammal. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands It took a third and much more complete skull to change his mind. The specimen, collected in 1888 by John Bell Hatcher from the Lance Formation of Wyoming, was initially described as another species of Ceratops. John Bell Hatcher ( October 11, 1861 &ndash July 3, 1904) was an American Paleontologist and fossil hunter best known The Lance (Creek Formation is a division of Late Cretaceous rocks in the western United States The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States.  After reflection, however, Marsh changed his mind and gave it the generic name Triceratops, accepting his Bison alticornis as another species of Ceratops (it would later be added to Triceratops). The sturdy nature of the animal's skull has ensured that many examples have been preserved as fossils, allowing variations between species and individuals to be studied. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Triceratops remains have subsequently been found in the American states of Montana and South Dakota (in addition to Colorado and Wyoming), and in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern South Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905
Within the first decades after Triceratops was described, various skulls were collected, which varied to a lesser or greater degree from the original Triceratops, named T. horridus by Marsh (from the Latin horridus; "rough, rugose", suggesting the roughened texture of those bones belonging to the type specimen, later identified as an aged individual). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. This variation is unsurprising, given that Triceratops skulls are large three-dimensional objects, coming from individuals of different ages and both sexes, and which were subjected to different amounts and directions of pressure during fossilization.  Discoverers would name these as separate species (listed below), and came up with several phylogenetic schemes for how they were related to each other.
In the first attempt to understand the many species, Lull found two groups, although he did not say how he distinguished them: one composed of T. horridus, T. prorsus, and T. brevicornus; the other of T. elatus and T. calicornis. Two species (T. serratus and T. flabellatus) stood apart from these groups.  By 1933, and his revision of the landmark 1907 Hatcher-Marsh-Lull monograph of all known ceratopsians, he retained his two groups and two unaffiliated species, with a third lineage of T. A monograph ( Classical Greek, "One Writer" or "Single Writing") is a work of writing upon a single subject usually also by a single obtusus and T. hatcheri that was characterized by a very small nasal horn.  T. horridus-T. prorsus-T. brevicornus was now thought to be the most conservative lineage, with an increase in skull size and a decrease in nasal horn size, and T. -elatus-T. calicornis was defined by large brow horns and small nasal horn.  C. M. Sternberg made one modification, adding T. eurycephalus and suggesting that it linked the second and third lineages closer together than they were to the T. horridus lineage.  This pattern was followed until the major studies of the 1980s and 1990s.
With time, however, the idea that the differing skulls might be representative of individual variation within one (or two) species gained popularity. In 1986, Ostrom and Wellnhofer published a paper in which they proposed that there was only one species, Triceratops horridus.  Part of their rationale was that generally there are only one or two species of any large animal in a region (modern examples being the elephant and the giraffe in modern Africa). African elephants are the species of Elephants in the Genus Loxodonta, one of the two existing genera in Elephantidae. The giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African Even-toed ungulate Mammal, the tallest of all land-living Animal Species To their findings, Lehman added the old Lull-Sternberg lineages combined with maturity and sexual dimorphism, suggesting that the T. Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different Sex in the same Species. horridus-T. prorsus-T. brevicornus lineage was composed of females, the T. calicornis-T. elatus lineage was made up of males, and the T. obtusus-T. hatcheri lineage was of pathologic old males. Pathology (from Greek grc πάθος pathos, "fate harm" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study and  His reasoning was that males had taller, more erect horns and larger skulls, and females had smaller skulls with shorter, forward-facing horns.
These findings, however, were contested a few years later by Catherine Forster, who reanalysed Triceratops material more comprehensively and concluded that the remains fell into two species, T. horridus and T. prorsus, although the distinctive skull of T. (now tentatively Diceratus) hatcheri differed enough to warrant a separate genus. Diceratus (meaning "two-horned" is a ceratopsid herbivorous Dinosaur genus from the Late Cretaceous  She found that T. horridus and several other species belonged together, and T. prorsus and T. brevicornus stood alone, and since there were many more specimens in the first group, she suggested that this meant the two groups were two species. It is still possible to interpret this reasoning as describing a single species with sexual dimorphism. 
The following species are considered nomina dubia ("dubious names"), and are based on remains that are too poor or incomplete to be distinguished from pre-existing Triceratops species. In zoological nomenclature, a nomen dubium ( Latin for "doubtful name" plural nomina dubia) is a scientific name that is
Although Triceratops are commonly portrayed as herding animals, there is currently no solid evidence that they lived in herds. A herd is a large group of animals The term is usually applied to mammals particularly Ungulates. Unlike other horned dinosaurs, some of which are known from sites preserving dozens or hundreds of individuals, all Triceratops finds known at present preserve only solitary individuals.  However, these remains are very common; for example, Bruce Erickson, a paleontologist of the Science Museum of Minnesota, has reported having seen 200 specimens of T. Bruce R Erickson is an American paleontologist and Chair of Paleontology at the Science Museum of Minnesota. The Science Museum of Minnesota is an American institution focused on topics in Technology, Natural history, Physical science and Mathematics prorsus in the Hell Creek Formation of Montana. The Hell Creek Formation is an intensely-studied division of Upper Cretaceous to lower Paleocene rocks in North America named for exposures studied along Hell Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern  Similarly, Barnum Brown claimed to have seen over 500 skulls in the field. Barnum Brown ( February 12, 1873 - 1963) born February 12 1873 in Carbondale Kansas.  Because Triceratops teeth, horn fragments, frill fragments, and other skull fragments are such abundant fossils in the Lancian faunal stage of the late Maastrichtian (late Cretaceous, 68 to 65 mya) Period of western North America, it is regarded as among the dominant herbivores of the time, if not the most dominant herbivore. The Lance (Creek Formation is a division of Late Cretaceous rocks in the western United States The Maastrichtian is the last stage of the Cretaceous period, and therefore of the Mesozoic era. Late Cretaceous (100mya - 65mya refers to the second half of the Cretaceous Period, named after the famous white Chalk cliffs of southern England In 1986, Robert Bakker estimated it as making up 5/6ths of the large dinosaur fauna at the end of the Cretaceous. Robert T Bakker (born March 24, 1945, in Bergen County New Jersey) is an American Paleontologist who helped reshape modern theories about  Unlike most animals, skull fossils are far more common than postcranial bones for Triceratops, suggesting that the skull had an unusually high preservation potential. Postcrania in Zoology and Vertebrate paleontology refers to all or part of the Skeleton apart from the Skull. 
Triceratops was one of the last ceratopsian genera to appear before the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. The Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred approximately ( Ma) was a large-scale mass extinction of animal and plant species in a geologically The related Diceratus and Torosaurus, and the more distantly related diminutive Leptoceratops, were also present, though their remains have been rarely encountered. Diceratus (meaning "two-horned" is a ceratopsid herbivorous Dinosaur genus from the Late Cretaceous Torosaurus (meaning "perforated lizard" was a Genus of ceratopsid Dinosaur. Leptoceratops (meaning 'lean-horned face' and derived from Greek lepto-/λεπτο- meaning 'small' 'insignificant' 'slender' 'meagre' or 'lean' cerat-/κερατ- 
Triceratops were herbivorous, and because of their low head, their primary food was probably low growth, although they may have been able to knock down taller plants with their horns, beak, and bulk. Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Anatomy Stegosaurus --> Beaks can vary significantly in size and shape from species to species  The jaws were tipped with a deep, narrow beak, believed to have been better at grasping and plucking than biting. The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming or near the entrance to the Mouth. 
Triceratops teeth were arranged in groups called batteries, of 36 to 40 tooth columns, in each side of each jaw with 3 to 5 stacked teeth per column, depending on the size of the animal.  This gives a range of 432 to 800 teeth, of which only a fraction were in use at any given time (tooth replacement was continuous and occurred throughout the life of the animal).  They functioned by shearing in a vertical to near-vertical orientation.  The great size and numerous teeth of Triceratops suggests that they ate large volumes of fibrous plant material, with some suggesting palms and cycads, and others suggesting ferns, which then grew in prairies. Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid or commonly palm tree) the palm family is a family of Flowering Cycads are a group of Seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta 
There has been much speculation over the functions of Triceratops' head adornments. The two main theories have revolved around use in combat, or display in courtship, with the latter thought now to be the most likely primary function. 
Early on, Lull postulated that the frills may have served as anchor points for the jaw muscles to aid chewing by allowing increased size and thus power for the muscles.  This has been put forward by other authors over the years, but later studies do not find evidence of large muscle attachments on the frill bones. 
Triceratops were long thought to have possibly used their horns and frills in combat with predators such as Tyrannosaurus, the idea being discussed first by C. H. Sternberg in 1917 and 70 years later by Robert Bakker. Tyrannosaurus ( or, meaning 'tyrant lizard' is a Genus of Theropod Dinosaur. Charles Hazelius Sternberg ( June 15 1850 &ndash July 20 1943) was an American Fossil collector and amateur paleontologist  There is evidence that Tyrannosaurus did prey upon them, as a Triceratops pelvis has been found with tyrannosaur toothmarks and subsequent healing, indicating the wound was made while the animal was alive. The pelvis (pl pelvises or pelves) or pelvic girdle is the irregular bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known 
In 2005, a BBC documentary, The Truth About Killer Dinosaurs, tested how Triceratops might have defended themselves against large predators like Tyrannosaurus. The Truth About Killer Dinosaurs is a two-part BBC documentary presented by Bill Oddie, in which a group of scientists test out the strength of Dinosaur To see if Triceratops could have charged other dinosaurs, as would a modern-day rhinoceros, an artificial Triceratops skull was made and propelled into simulated Tyrannosaurus skin at 24 km/h (15 mph). (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. The brow horns penetrated the skin, but the blunt nose horn and the beak could not, and the front of the skull broke. The conclusion drawn was that it would have been impossible for Triceratops to have defended themselves in this way—instead they probably stood their ground when attacked by large predators, using their horns for goring if the predator came close enough.
In addition to combat with predators using horns, Triceratops are classically shown engaging each other in combat with horns locked. While studies show that such activity would be feasible, if unlike that of present-day horned animals, there is no evidence that they actually did so. Additionally, although pitting, holes, lesions, and other damage on Triceratops skulls (and the skulls of other ceratopsids) are often attributed to horn damage in combat, a recent study finds no evidence for horn thrust injuries causing these forms of damage (for example, there is no evidence of infection or healing). Instead, non-pathological bone resorption, or unknown bone diseases, are suggested as causes. Bone resorption is the process by which Osteoclasts break down Bone and release the Minerals resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood 
The large frill also may have helped to increase body area to regulate body temperature. Thermoregulation is the ability of an Organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries even when temperature surrounding is very different  A similar theory has been proposed regarding the plates of Stegosaurus, although this use alone would not account for the bizarre and extravagant variation seen in different members of the Ceratopsidae. Stegosaurus (ˌstɛgəˈsɔrəs is a Genus of stegosaurid armoured Dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period ( Ceratopsidae (sometimes spelled Ceratopidae) is a speciose group of Marginocephalian Dinosaurs including Triceratops and Styracosaurus  This observation is highly suggestive of what is now believed to be the primary function, display.
The theory of their use in sexual display was first proposed by Davitashvili in 1961 and has gained increasing acceptance since.  Evidence that visual display was important, either in courtship or in other social behaviour, can be seen in the fact that horned dinosaurs differ markedly in their adornments, making each species highly distinctive. Also, modern living creatures with such displays of horns and adornments use them in similar behaviour.  A recent study of the smallest Triceratops skull, ascertained to be a juvenile, shows the frill and horns developed at a very early age, predating sexual development and thus probably important for visual communication and species recognition in general.  The large eyes and shortened features, a hallmark of "cute" baby mammals, also suggest that the parent Triceratops may have cared for its young.
The distinctive appearance of Triceratops has led to them being frequently depicted in films, computer games and documentaries. They appear in the film Jurassic Park, where one is portrayed as sick and is being treated by humans. Jurassic Park is a 1993 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on the novel of the same name by Michael They have also been featured in three major dinosaur documentaries: Walking with Dinosaurs, The Truth About Killer Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Park. Walking with Dinosaurs was a six-part Television series produced by the BBC, narrated by Kenneth Branagh, and first aired in the UK The Truth About Killer Dinosaurs is a two-part BBC documentary presented by Bill Oddie, in which a group of scientists test out the strength of Dinosaur Prehistoric Park is a 6-episode Mini-series in documentary style from Impossible Pictures Limited, (the creators They are famously known as "three-horns" (and are so named in The Land Before Time animated film and its numerous sequels) due to the three prominent horns on their head and nose, which have become almost synonymous with the dinosaurs. The Land Before Time is an Animated film, produced by Steven Spielberg 's Amblin Entertainment and directed by Don Bluth. The bouncing ball animation (below consists of these 6 frames The shorthand "Trike" is another common informal name, and is also the name of the Triceratops character in the children's book series and television cartoon series Harry and His Bucket Full of Dinosaurs. Children's literature is an age category of literature written for published for or marketed to Children roughly through age 12 An animated cartoon is a short hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn Film for the cinema, Television or computer Harry and His Bucket Full of Dinosaurs is a series of Children's books written and drawn by Ian Whybrow and Adrian Reynolds. Other TV series include Slag of Transformers fame, Dinosaucers, Dino-Riders and Dinozaurs. Slag is the name of a Fictional character in Transformers toy line. Slag is the name of a Fictional character in Transformers toy line. Dinosaucers was an Animated television series created by DIC Entertainment in association with Ellipse Programmé that originally aired Dino-Riders is a cartoon television series that aired in the late 1980s primarily as a promotion to launch a new Tyco toy line DinoZaurs The Series, also known as Prehistoric Warriors and in Japan, is the name of a show which is a combination of Japanese In the first series of Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers, the blue ranger's robot, called a "zord", took the shape of a triceratops, and the ranger's helmet was fashioned after the animal. Mighty Morphin Power Rangers (often abbreviated by fans as MMPR) is an American Live-action Television series, created
A recurring theme, especially in children's dinosaur books, is a climactic showdown or battle between Triceratops and T. rex.  As such these two dinosaurs are often depicted and thought of as natural enemies. A memorable but anachronistic battle with Ceratosaurus substituting for T. Ceratosaurus (ˌsɛrətəˈsɔrəs meaning 'horned lizard' in reference to the horn on its nose ( Greek κερας/κερατος keras/keratos meaning rex is featured in the 1966 movie One Million Years B.C.
Triceratops appears in video games either derived directly from the Jurassic Park series or similarly themed, namely the 1997 PC games Jurassic Park: Chaos Island and Turok: Dinosaur Hunter, and the 2000 PC and Playstation game Dino Crisis 2. One Million Years BC is a 1966 (released in the United States in 1967 Adventure film / Fantasy film starring Raquel Welch For the other games based on The Lost World Jurassic Park see The Lost World Jurassic Park (video game. Turok Dinosaur Hunter is a First-person shooter Video game released for the Nintendo 64 game console and later for Microsoft Windows Dino Crisis 2 is a third-person shooter Action game for the Sony Playstation and Sequel to Dino Crisis. Triceratops also features in the Zoo Tycoon franchise. The Zoo Tycoon series is a popular Video game series that began in 2001. As well, it is a popular creature used in games designed by Nintendo, including Diddy Kong Racing and Starfox Adventures. is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Kyoto Japan founded on Diddy Kong Racing is a 1997 Racing game for the Nintendo 64 developed by Rareware. Star Fox Adventures is an Action-adventure game developed by Rare and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo GameCube and part of Triceratops (the species are not identified) is also the official state fossil of South Dakota, and the official state dinosaur of Wyoming. Most American states have made a state fossil designation in many cases during the 1980s. South Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States.