|Transportation in New York City|
|Locale||New York City and the surrounding region in New York State, New Jersey, Connecticut and Pennsylvania|
|Transit type||Rapid transit, commuter rail, buses, private automobile, ferry, Taxicab, bicycle, pedestrian|
|Daily ridership||More than ten million commuters daily|
|Owner||Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, local governments, states|
|Operator(s)||Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Long Island Railroad, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, New Jersey Transit, New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, New York Waterway, New York Water Taxi. The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway Commuter rail, regional rail or suburban rail is a Passenger rail transport service between a city center and outer suburbs and Commuter towns See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of Public transport for a single passenger or small group of passengers typically for a non-shared ride The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot whether Walking or Running. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority ( MTA) is a Public benefit corporation responsible for Public transportation in the U The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through The Metropolitan Transportation Authority ( MTA) is a Public benefit corporation responsible for Public transportation in the U The Port Authority Trans-Hudson ( PATH) is a Rapid transit railroad linking Manhattan, New York with New Jersey, and providing service The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or more commonly Metro-North, is a Suburban commuter rail service The New Jersey Transit Corporation (usually shortened to New Jersey Transit, NJ Transit or NJT) is a statewide Public transportation system serving See also Taxicabs of the United States The taxicabs of New York City, with their distinctive yellow paint are a widely recognized icon of the city See also Transportation in New York City NY Waterway is a private Ferry system that provides commuter service and tourist excursions in New York Harbor See also Transportation in New York City New York Water Taxi is a Water taxi service offering commuter and sightseeing service mainly to points along the|
The transportation system of New York City is a cooperation of complex systems of infrastructure. New York City, being the largest city in the United States, has a transportation system which includes the largest subway system in the world, measured by track mileage; the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel, and an aerial tramway. The City of New York The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency The Roosevelt Island Tramway is an Aerial tramway in New York City that spans the East River and connects Roosevelt Island to Manhattan Through prolonged use, and a distinct history of events, the infrastructure now faces increasing problems in functionality, dependability, and funding.
New York City is distinguished from other cities in the United States by its significant use of public transportation. This is a list of the cities towns and villages of the United States. While nearly 90% of Americans drive to their jobs, public transit is the overwhelmingly dominant form of transportation for New Yorkers.  About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York City or its suburbs.  New York is the only city in the United States where over half of all households do not own a car (Manhattan's non-ownership is even higher - around 75%; nationally, the rate is 8%). 
New York City's high rate of transit use saved 1. 8 billion gallons of oil in 2006 and $4. 6 billion in gasoline costs. New York saves half of all the oil saved by transit nationwide. The reduction in oil consumption meant 11. 8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide pollution was kept out of the air. 
The history of New York City's transportation system began with the Dutch port of Nieuw Amsterdam. The History of the New York City Transportation System ranges from strong Dutch authority in the 17th Century, expansionism during the industrial era in the The port had maintained several roads; some were built atop former Lenape trails, others as "commuter" links to surrounding cities, and one was even paved by 1658 from orders of Petrus Stuyvesant, according to Burrow, et al. Peter Stuyvesant (originally Pieter or Petrus, Peter is never mentioned in historical records (c  The 19th Century brought changes to the format of the system's transport- a street grid by 1811 (see the Commissioners' Plan of 1811), as well as an unprecedented link between New York and Brooklyn, then separate cities, via the Brooklyn Bridge, in 1883. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was a proposal by the New York State Legislature adopted in 1811 for the orderly development and sale of the land of Manhattan between The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest Suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5989 feet (1825 m over the East River connecting the
The Second Industrial Revolution fundamentally changed the city – the port infrastructure grew at such a rapid pace after the 1825 completion of the Erie Canal that New York became the most important connection between all of Europe and the interior of the United States. The Second Industrial Revolution, typically dated between 1870 and 1914 was a second phase of the Industrial Revolution, involving several developments within the chemical The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Elevated trains and subterranean transportation ('El trains' and 'subways') were introduced between 1880 and 1904. In 1904, the first subway line became operational.  Practical private automobiles brought an additional change for the city by around 1930, notably the 1927 Holland Tunnel. The Holland Tunnel is a highway Tunnel under the Hudson River connecting the island of Manhattan in New York City with Jersey With automobiles gaining importance, the later rise of Robert Moses was essential to creating New York's modern road infrastructure. Robert Moses ( December 18 1888 – July 29 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Moses was the architect of all 416 miles of parkway, many other important roads, and seven great bridges. 
New York City's uniquely high rate of public transit use makes it one of the most energy-efficient cities in the United States. Gasoline consumption in the city today is at the rate of the national average in the 1920s. 
The city's transportation system, and the population density it makes possible, also have other effects. Scientists at Columbia University examined data from 13,102 adults in the city's five boroughs and identified correlations between New York's built environment and public health. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. New Yorkers residing in densely populated, pedestrian-friendly areas have significantly lower body mass index (BMI) levels compared to other New Yorkers. The body mass index ( BMI) or Quetelet index, is a statistical measurement which compares a person's weight and height Three characteristics of the city environment -- living in areas with mixed residential and commercial uses, living near bus and subway stops and living in population-dense areas -- were found to be inversely associated with BMI levels. 
Of all people who commute to work in New York City, 32% use the subway, 25% drive alone, 14% take the bus, 8% travel by commuter rail, 8% walk to work, 6% carpool, 1% use a taxi, 0. See also Environmental issues in the United States Environmental issues in New York City are affected by the city's size density abundant public transportation The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is a double-decked Suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name Carpooling (also known as car-sharing, ride-sharing, lift-sharing) is the shared use of a car by the driver and one or more passengers usually 4% ride their bicycle to work, and 0. 4% travel by ferry.  54% of households in New York City do not own a car, and rely on public transportation.  While the so-called car culture dominates in most American cities, mass transit has a defining influence on New York life. Over the course of the 20th century the Automobile rapidly developed from an expensive toy for the rich into the De facto standard for passenger Transport The subway is a popular location for politicians to meet voters during elections and is also a major venue for musicians. Each week, more than 100 musicians and ensembles -- ranging in genre from classical to Cajun, bluegrass, African, South American and jazz -- give over 150 performances sanctioned by New York City Transit at 25 locations throughout the subway system. 
|Texas Transportation Institute Data||New York||Los Angeles||Chicago|
|Surveyed metro population||17. The Texas Transportation Institute (TTI in College Station Texas is the largest transportation research agency in the United States Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. 7 million||12. 5 million||9. 8 million|
|Annual congestion delay per person||23 hrs||50 hrs||37 hrs|
|Annual congestion cost per person||$383||$855||$631|
|Rush hours per day||6 hrs||8 hrs||8 hrs|
|Annual passenger miles of travel on public transit||18. 5 billion||2. 8 billion||2. 2 billion|
|Annual congestion cost saved by public transit||$4. 9 billion||$2. 2 billion||$1. 3 billion|
|Excess fuel consumed per person due to congestion||11 gal|
|Data from 2003 TTI Urban Mobility Report|
3. 7 million people were employed in New York City; Manhattan is the main employment center with 56% of all jobs.  Of those working in Manhattan, 30% commute from within Manhattan, while 17% come from Queens, 16% from Brooklyn, 8% from the Bronx, and 2. 5% from Staten Island. Another 4. 5% commute to Manhattan from Nassau County and 2% from Suffolk County on Long Island, while 4% commute from Westchester County. There is also a Town of Nassau in Rensselaer County. Nassau County is a suburban county in the New York Metropolitan Suffolk County is a county located in the US state of New York. Westchester County is a primarily Suburban county located in the U 5% commute from Bergen and Hudson counties in New Jersey.  Some commuters come from Fairfield County in Connecticut. Some New Yorkers reverse commute to the suburbs: 3% travel to Nassau County, 1. 5% to Westchester County, 0. 7% to Hudson County, 0. 6% to Bergen County, 0. 5% to Suffolk County, and smaller percentages to other places in the metropolitan area. 
By far the dominant mode of transportation in New York City is rail. Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different Only 6% of shopping trips in Manhattan's Central Business District involve the use of a car.  The city's public transportation network is the most extensive and among the oldest in North America. Responsibility for managing the various components of the system falls to several government agencies. The largest and most important is the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), a public benefit corporation in the state of New York, which runs all of the city's subways and buses and two of its three commuter rail networks. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority ( MTA) is a Public benefit corporation responsible for Public transportation in the U A public benefit corporation is a Public Corporation chartered by a State designed to perform some public service Ridership in the city increased 36% to 2. 2 billion annual riders from 1995 to 2005, far outpacing population growth.  Average weekday subway ridership was 5. 076 million in September 2006, while combined subway and bus ridership on an average weekday that month was 7. 61 million. 
The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by track mileage (656 miles, or 1,056 km of mainline track), and the fourth-largest when measured by annual ridership (1. The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway 4 billion passenger trips in 2005).  It is the second-oldest subway system in the United States after the rapid transit system in Boston. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority ( MBTA) is "a body politic and corporate and a political subdivision" of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts In 2002, an average 4. 8 million passengers used the subway each weekday. During one day in September 2005, 7. 5 million daily riders set a record for ridership. Life in New York City is so dependent on the subway that the city is home to two of only three 24-hour subway systems in the world.  The city's 26 subway lines run through all boroughs except Staten Island, which is served by the Staten Island Railway. The Staten Island Railway (aka SIR and formerly known as SIRT is a Rapid transit line operating in the Borough of Staten Island, New York City
Subway riders pay with the MetroCard, which is also valid on all other rapid transit systems and buses in the city, as well as the Roosevelt Island tramway. MetroCard redirects here For other cards see MetroCard (disambiguation See also Transportation in New York City The MetroCard The MetroCard has completely replaced tokens, which were used in the past, to pay fares. Fares are loaded electronically on the card.
The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) is a subway system that links Manhattan, in New York State, to Jersey City, Hoboken, Harrison, and Newark, in New Jersey. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson ( PATH) is a Rapid transit railroad linking Manhattan, New York with New Jersey, and providing service New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The primary transit link between Manhattan and New Jersey, PATH carries 240,000 passengers each weekday on four lines. 
While some PATH stations are adjacent to subway stations in New York City and Newark as well as Hudson-Bergen Light Rail stations in New Jersey, there are no free transfers. The Hudson–Bergen Light Rail (HBLR is a Light rail system in the United States, owned by New Jersey Transit and operated by the 21st Century Rail Corporation The PATH system spans 13. 8 miles (22. 2 km) of route mileage, not including track overlap.  Like the New York City Subway, PATH operates 24 hours a day. Opened in 1908 as the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad, a privately owned corporation, PATH since 1962 has been operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through
Kennedy and Newark airports are served by intermodal rail systems. AirTrain JFK is an 81- Mile (13- km) People mover system in New York City that connects John F AirTrain Newark is a 19-mile (3km Monorail system connecting Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR to the Newark Liberty International Airport train John F Kennedy International Airport is an International airport located in Queens County on Long Island in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 Newark Liberty International Airport, first named Newark Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international Airport within the AirTrain JFK is an 8. AirTrain JFK is an 81- Mile (13- km) People mover system in New York City that connects John F 1 mile (13 km) rapid transit system that connects Kennedy to New York's subway and commuter rail network in Queens. It also provides free transit between airport terminals. For trips beyond the airport the train costs $5. Roughly 4 million people rode the AirTrain to and from Kennedy in 2006, an increase of about 15% over 2005.  AirTrain Newark is a 1. AirTrain Newark is a 19-mile (3km Monorail system connecting Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR to the Newark Liberty International Airport train 9 mile (3 km) monorail system connecting Newark's three terminals to commuter and intercity trains running on the Northeast Corridor rail line.
New York City's commuter rail system is the most extensive in the United States, with about 250 stations and 20 rail lines serving more than 150 million commuters annually in the tri-state region. The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or more commonly Metro-North, is a Suburban commuter rail service The New Jersey Transit Corporation (usually shortened to New Jersey Transit, NJ Transit or NJT) is a statewide Public transportation system serving The Tri-State Region is commonly used in the area surrounding New York City to unambiguously refer to the greater metropolitan area.  Commuter rail service from the suburbs is operated by two agencies. The MTA operates the Long Island Rail Road on Long Island and the Metro-North Railroad in the Hudson Valley and Connecticut. The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or more commonly Metro-North, is a Suburban commuter rail service New Jersey Transit operates the rail network on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River. The New Jersey Transit Corporation (usually shortened to New Jersey Transit, NJ Transit or NJT) is a statewide Public transportation system serving These rail systems converge at the two busiest train stations in the United States, Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, both in Manhattan. |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as “Penn Station”) is the major intercity rail station and a major Commuter rail hub in New York City "Grand Central Station" redirects here For other uses see Grand Central.
Intercity train service from New York City is provided by Amtrak. The Northeast Corridor ( NEC) is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 54 trains run each day on the busiest route, New York to Philadelphia. For trips of less than 500 miles to other Northeastern cities Amtrak is often cheaper and faster than air travel. Amtrak accounts for 47% of all non-automobile intercity trips between New York and Washington, D. C. and about 14% of all intercity trips (including those by automobile) between those cities.  Amtrak's high-speed Acela trains run from New York to Boston and Washington, D. Acela Express (often called simply Acela) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed Tilting train service operating between C. using tilting technology and fast electric locomotives. New York City's Penn Station is the busiest Amtrak station in the United States by annual boardings. In 2004 it saw 4. 4 million passenger boardings, more than double the next busiest station, Union Station in Washington, D. Union Station is the grand ceremonial Train station designed to be the entrance to Washington D C. 
Major destinations with frequent service include Albany, Baltimore, Boston, New Haven, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C., as well as the Canadian cities Toronto and Montreal. Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec There are also trains to Upstate New York, New England and destinations in the South and Midwest. Upstate New York is the region of New York State north of the core of the New York metropolitan area. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the
New York City's bus network is extensive, with approximately 5,800 buses carrying about 2. New York City Transit buses, operating under the MTA New York City Bus brand is a service of MTA Regional Bus Operations that operates in all five boroughs employing MTA Bus Company is a service of MTA Regional Bus Operations used on routes previously controlled by the New York City Department of Transportation See also Transportation in New York City New York City, United States has an extensive system of Bus routes with local service as well 01 million passengers every day on more than 200 local routes and 30 express routes.  Buses owned by MTA account for 80% of the city's surface mass transit.  New York City has the largest clean air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet in the United States. 
Buses are labeled with a number and a prefix identifying the primary borough (B for Brooklyn, Bx for the Bronx, M for Manhattan, Q for Queens, and S for Staten Island). Express buses use the letter "x" rather than a borough label.
The Port Authority Bus Terminal, near Times Square, is the busiest bus station in the United States and the main gateway for interstate buses into New York City. The Port Authority Bus Terminal is the main gateway for interstate buses into Manhattan in New York City. Times Square is a major intersection in Manhattan, New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West The terminal serves both commuter routes, mainly operated by New Jersey Transit, and national routes operated by companies such as Greyhound and Peter Pan. Greyhound Lines is an intercity Common carrier of passengers by Bus serving over 3700 destinations in the United States. Peter Pan Bus Lines is a long-distance Bus carrier that operates in the northeastern states of the United States.  Two discount services, Boltbus and Megabus announced discount intercity coach services to begin in late March 2008. Megabus can refer to Megabus (United Kingdom - a low-cost bus service in Great Britain owned by Stagecoach Group and organized as an intercity bus network
Intercity bus operators use the following stations:
The busiest ferry in the United States is the Staten Island Ferry, which annually carries over 19 million passengers on the 5. The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger Ferry service operated by the New York City Department of Transportation that runs between Manhattan and Staten 2 mile (8. 4 km) run between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan. Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the Service is provided 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and takes approximately 25 minutes each way. Each day approximately five boats transport almost 65,000 passengers during 104 boat trips. Over 33,000 trips are made annually.  The Ferry has remained free of charge since 1997. The charge for vehicles is $3, however, vehicles have not been allowed on the Ferry since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Bicycles are allowed on the lower level for free, as well. The ferry ride is a favorite of tourists as it provides excellent views of the Lower Manhattan skyline and the Statue of Liberty. Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde commonly known as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté was presented
Major privately run ferry companies include NY Waterway, which operates several routes from New Jersey across the Hudson River to Manhattan; SeaStreak, which provides service from Monmouth County, New Jersey to Manhattan; and New York Water Taxi, which runs lines connecting Brooklyn and Queens to Manhattan. See also Transportation in New York City NY Waterway is a private Ferry system that provides commuter service and tourist excursions in New York Harbor SeaStreak is a private firm that provides commuter Ferry service and special event and sightseeing excursions in New York Harbor. Monmouth County is a County located in the US state of New Jersey, within the New York metropolitan area. See also Transportation in New York City New York Water Taxi is a Water taxi service offering commuter and sightseeing service mainly to points along the
Around 48% of New Yorkers own cars, yet fewer than 30% use them to commute to work, most finding public transportation cheaper and more convenient for that purpose, due in large part to traffic congestion which also slows buses. New York Congestion pricing was a proposed Traffic congestion fee for vehicles traveling into or within the Manhattan central business district of To ease traffic, the Mayor, Michael Bloomberg, in 2007 proposed congestion pricing for motor vehicles entering Manhattan's business district from 6:00 a. Congestion pricing or congestion charges is a system of surcharging users of a Transport network in periods of peak Demand to reduce Traffic congestion A motor Vehicle is a Machine which incorporates a motor (sometimes known as an Engine) and which is used for Transportation m. to 6:00 p. m. However, this proposal was defeated when Sheldon Silver Speaker of the New York State Assembly announced that the bill would not come up for a vote in his chamber. Sheldon Silver (born February 13, 1944) is a lawyer a Politician and a member of the Democratic Party, currently serving as Speaker The New York State Assembly is the Lower house of the New York Legislature, the state legislature of the U
Traffic on highways at the edge of the area would not be charged.  Transit buses, emergency vehicles, taxis and for-hire vehicles, and vehicles with handicapped license plates, would also not be charged the fee. See also Taxicab A vehicle for hire is a Vehicle providing Shared transportation which transports one or more passengers between locations Vehicles would be charged only once per day. 
Despite New York's reliance on public transit, roads are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street and Madison Avenue are also used as shorthand in the American vernacular for national industries located there; those being the theater, finance, and advertising organizations, respectively. Broadway, as the name implies is a wide avenue in New York City. Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
There are twelve avenues that run parallel to the Hudson River, and 220 numbered streets that run perpendicular to the river. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami
With its Gothic-revival double-arched stone towers and diagonal suspension wires, the Brooklyn Bridge is one of the city's most recognized architectural structures, depicted by artists such as Hart Crane and Georgia O'Keefe. See also Transportation in New York City New York's harbor and multiple waterways are what once made it the center of trade but today they make it a city of bridges and The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest Suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5989 feet (1825 m over the East River connecting the Harold Hart Crane ( July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American Poet. Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15 1887—March 6 1986 was an American Artist She is associated with the American Southwest where she found artistic inspiration The Brooklyn Bridge's main span is 1,596 feet and 6 inches, and was the longest in the world when it was completed. The Williamsburg Bridge and Manhattan Bridge are the two others in the trio of architecturally-notable East River crossings. The Williamsburg Bridge is a Suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan The Manhattan Bridge is a Suspension bridge that crosses the East River in New York City, connecting Lower Manhattan (at Canal Street with The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end The Queensboro Bridge, which links Manhattan and Queens, is an important piece of cantilever bridge design. The Queensboro Bridge, also known as the 59th Street Bridge, is a Cantilever bridge over the East River in New York City that was completed in The borough of Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn through the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is a double-decked Suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New The towers of the Verrazano, which rise 650 feet above the water, are 4,260 feet apart; these towers are so far away from each other, due to the length of the main span, that there is a 13⁄8 inches (34 mm) displacement between the theoretical position of the side at the top of the tower, and the actual position, due to the Earth's curvature.
New York has historically been a pioneer in tunnel construction. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles per day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Manhattan, is the world's busiest vehicular tunnel. The Lincoln Tunnel is a 15 mile (24 km long Tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey and the borough The Holland Tunnel, also under the Hudson River, was the first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel in the world and is considered a National Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Holland Tunnel is a highway Tunnel under the Hudson River connecting the island of Manhattan in New York City with Jersey Two other notable tunnels connect Manhattan to other places; one is the Queens Midtown Tunnel, and the other the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel (sometimes simply Midtown Tunnel) is a Toll road in New York City. The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel is a Toll road in New York City which crosses under the East River at its mouth connecting the Boroughs of At 9,117 feet (2,779 m), the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel is the longest underwater tunnel in North America.
A less favored alternative to commuting by rail and boat is the New York region's outdated and congested expressway network, designed by Robert Moses. Robert Moses ( December 18 1888 – July 29 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long The city's extensive network of expressways includes four primary Interstate Highways: I-78, I-80, I-87 and I-95. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) Route description Pennsylvania See also Interstate 78 in Pennsylvania I-78 begins at a directional-T interchange with Interstate Interstate 80 (I-80 is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States (after I-90) Interstate 87 (abbreviated I-87) is a 33349 mile (53670 km intrastate Interstate highway located entirely within the state of New York Interstate 95, the major Interstate Highway along the East Coast of the United States, runs 23 I-278 serves as a partial beltway around the city. Interstate 278 (abbreviated I-278) is an Interstate Highway in the U The Long Island Expressway begins at the Queens Midtown Tunnel and runs through the heart of Queens east into the Long Island suburbs. Interstate 495 (abbreviated I-495, better known as the Long Island Expressway or L
Also designed by Moses are a series of limited-access parkways, which are frequently congested with traffic as well, despite the fact that they were designed from the outset to only carry cars, as opposed to commercial trucks or buses. In the United States, Parkways are defined as follows A type of road A broad landscaped thoroughfare especially: one from which trucks and The FDR Drive and Harlem River Drive are two such routes through Manhattan. The Franklin D Roosevelt East River Drive (commonly referred to as the FDR Drive) is a Freeway -standard Parkway on the east side of the New York The Harlem River Drive is a major Freeway -standard Parkway on the east side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The Henry Hudson Parkway, the Bronx River Parkway and the Hutchinson River Parkway link the Bronx to nearby Westchester County and its parkways, and the Grand Central Parkway and Belt Parkway provide similar functions for Long Island's parkway system. The Henry Hudson Parkway is an long Parkway in New York City. The Bronx River Parkway is a long Parkway in Downstate New York. The Hutchinson River Parkway (also known as The Hutch) is an long Parkway in Downstate New York. The Grand Central Parkway is a Parkway that stretches from the Triborough Bridge in New York City to Nassau County on Long Island. The Belt Parkway, also known as the Belt System or Circumferential Parkway, is a series of Limited-access highways that form a complete circle around the
There are 13,087 taxis operating in New York City, not including over 40,000 other for-hire vehicles. See also Taxicabs of the United States The taxicabs of New York City, with their distinctive yellow paint are a widely recognized icon of the city  Their distinctive yellow paint has made them New York icons.
Taxicabs are operated by private companies and licensed by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission. "Medallion taxis", the familiar yellow cabs, are the only vehicles in the city permitted to pick up passengers in response to a street hail. A cab’s availability is indicated by the lights on the top of the car. When just the center light showing the medallion number is lit, the cab is empty and available. When no lights are lit, the cab is occupied by passengers.
Fares begin at US$2. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 50 (US$3. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 00 after 8:00pm, and US$3. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 50 during the peak weekday hours of 4:00pm to 8:00pm) and increase based on the distance traveled and time spent in slow traffic. The passenger also must pay the fare whenever a cab is driven through a toll. The average cab fare in 2000 was US$6. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 00; over US$1 billion in fares were paid that year in total. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 
241 million passengers rode in New York taxis in 1999. According to the 2000 U. S. Census, of the 42,000 cabbies in New York, 82% are foreign born: 23% from the Caribbean (the Dominican Republic and Haiti), and 20% from South Asia (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh). The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially
In 2005, New York introduced incentives to replace its current yellow cabs with electric hybrid vehicles  then in May 2007, New York City Mayor, Michael Bloomberg, proposed a five-year plan to switch New York City's taxicabs to more fuel-efficient hybrid vehicles as part of an agenda for New York City to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. May 2007 is the fifth month of that year It began on a Tuesday and 31 days later ended on a Thursday. Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is an American businessman and the Mayor of New York City. A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared 
Cycling in New York City is a growing mode of transport. The densely packed New York City has had a love-hate relationship with bicycles since they were first invented An estimated 120,000 city residents bicycle on a typical day, and make 400,000 trips each day, equivalent to the number of the ten most popular bus routes in the city.  The City Department of Transportation estimates there are an additional two in-line skaters for every cyclist in New York. The city has 420 miles of bike lanes (as of 2005) including the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway and has in recent years expanded protected bike lanes on major thoroughfares and on bridges across the East River. The Manhattan Waterfront Greenway is a walking and Cycle path, long around the island of Manhattan. As part of PlaNYC 2030, bike lanes will be added at a rate of about 100 miles per year until 2010, and 1,800 miles should be completed by 2030. PlaNYC is a design for the Sustainability of New York City, Mayor Michael Bloomberg ’s outline for his vision for the city over the next twenty-five years More than 500 people annually work as bicycle rickshaw drivers, who in 2005 handled one million passengers.  However, the City Council recently voted to curtail and license pedicab drivers, and will only allow 325 pedicab licenses. The city also annually presents the largest recreational cycling event in the United States, the Five Boro Bike Tour, in which 30,000 cyclists ride 42 miles (65 km) through the city's boroughs. The Five Boro Bike Tour is the largest recreational cycling event in the United States.
Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%.  In 2000 New York had the largest number of walking commuters among large American cities in both total number and as a proportion of all commuters: 517,290, or 5. 6%.  By way of comparison, the next city with the largest proportion of walking commuters, Boston, had 119,294 commuter pedestrians, amounting to 4. 1% of that city's commuters. 
New York has many forms of semi-formal public transportation, including "dollar vans" and "Chinese vans. A dollar van (also known as commuter van or jitney) is a privately owned transportation vehicle used to carry passengers " Dollar vans serve major corridors in Brooklyn, Queens and the Bronx that lack adequate subway service. In 2006, the New York City Council began debate on greater industry regulation, including requiring all dollar vans to be painted in a specific color to make them easier to recognize, similar to the public light buses in Hong Kong. The New York City Council is the lawmaking body of the City of New York. A Public light bus is a common public Mode of transport in Hong Kong.  The vans pick up and drop off anywhere along a route, and payment is made at the end of a trip.
Similar to dollar vans, Chinese vans serve predominantly Chinese and other East Asian communities in Brooklyn's Chinatown, Manhattan's Chinatown, Elmhurst and Flushing. ||-||-||-||}The Chinatown neighborhood of Manhattan &mdash (紐約華埠 a borough of New York City &mdash is an Ethnic enclave with a large Elmhurst is a Neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens. Flushing, founded in 1645 is a neighborhood in the north central part of the City of New York borough of Queens, ten miles (16 km east of Manhattan
There are also highly competitive Chinatown bus lines operating routes from New York City's Chinatowns to other Chinatowns in the Northeast, with frequent service to major cities like Boston and Philadelphia. This article refers to intercity bus travel For Chinese-owned public transit within a single city see Dollar Van. These bus companies use full-size coaches and offer fares much lower than traditional carriers like Greyhound. However, traditional carriers Greyhound and Coach USA have gone after these carriers by offering online fares as low as $1 on BoltBus, NeOn, and Megabus services. Greyhound Lines is an intercity Common carrier of passengers by Bus serving over 3700 destinations in the United States. Coach USA LLC is a holding company for various American transportation service providers providing scheduled intercity bus service local and commuter bus transit city sightseeing BoltBus is a bus line operating in the Northeastern United States. Megabus can refer to Megabus (United Kingdom - a low-cost bus service in Great Britain owned by Stagecoach Group and organized as an intercity bus network
There are numerous other transportation services in the city, including RightRides.org, a free car service operated by a grassroots nonprofit that shuttles women and transgender individuals home on Saturday nights from midnight to 3 a. m. in Manhattan, Queens, the Bronx and Brooklyn. RightRides is made possible by volunteer teams driving vehicles donated by Zipcar, a membership-based carsharing company providing hourly or daily car rentals in New York City to its members, who often do not own cars. Zipcar is a for-profit membership-based Carsharing company providing Automobile rental to its members billable by the hour or day
Built in 1976 to shuttle island residents to Midtown, the Roosevelt Island Tramway was originally intended to be a temporary commuter link for use until a subway station was established for the island. The Roosevelt Island Tramway is an Aerial tramway in New York City that spans the East River and connects Roosevelt Island to Manhattan The Roosevelt Island Tramway is an Aerial tramway in New York City that spans the East River and connects Roosevelt Island to Manhattan However, when the subway finally connected to Roosevelt Island in 1989, the tram was too popular to discontinue use.
The Tramway is operated by the Roosevelt Island Operating Corp (RIOC). Each cable car has a capacity of 125 passengers. Travel time from Roosevelt Island to Manhattan is just under five minutes and the fare is the same as a subway ride.
In 2006, service was suspended on the tramway for six months after a service malfunction that required all passengers to be evacuated.
The city is served by three major airports: John F. Kennedy International (also known as JFK), Newark Liberty International, and LaGuardia. John F Kennedy International Airport is an International airport located in Queens County on Long Island in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 Newark Liberty International Airport, first named Newark Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international Airport within the LaGuardia Airport (ləˈɡwɑɹdiə is an airport located in Queens County on Long Island in the The City of New York. Teterboro serves as a primary general aviation airport. Teterboro Airport is a General aviation "reliever" Airport located in the Boroughs of Teterboro, Moonachie, and Hasbrouck JFK and Newark both connect to regional rail systems by a light rail service. 
JFK and Newark serve long-haul domestic and international flights. The two airports' outbound international travel accounted for about a quarter of all U. S. travelers who went overseas in 2004.  LaGuardia caters to short-haul and domestic destinations.
JFK is the major entry point for international arrivals in the United States and is the largest international air freight gateway in the nation by value of shipments.  About 100 airlines from more than 50 countries operate direct flights to JFK. The JFK-London Heathrow route is the leading U. S. international airport pair.  The airport is located along Jamaica Bay near Howard Beach, Queens, about 12 miles east of downtown Manhattan. Howard Beach is a middle class neighborhood in the southwestern portion of the borough of Queens in New York City.
Newark was the first major airport serving New York City and is the fifth busiest international air gateway to the United States.  Amelia Earhart dedicated the Newark Airport Administration Building in 1935, which was North America's first commercial airline terminal. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout In 2003, Newark became the terminus of the world's longest non-stop scheduled airline route, Continental's service to Hong Kong. In 2004, Singapore Airlines broke Continental's record by starting direct 18-hour flights to Singapore. The airport is located in Newark, New Jersey, about 12 miles west of downtown Manhattan. Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, United States and the County seat of Essex County.
LaGuardia, the smallest of New York's primary airports, handles domestic flights. It is named for Fiorello H. LaGuardia, the city's great Depression-era mayor known as a reformist and strong supporter of the New Deal. LaGuardia redirects here For the airport see LaGuardia Airport. The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D A perimeter rule prohibits incoming and outgoing flights that exceed 1,500 miles (2,400 km) except on Saturdays, when the ban is lifted, and to Denver, which has a grandfathered exemption. As a result, most transcontinental and international flights use JFK and Newark.  The airport is located in northern Queens about 6 miles from downtown Manhattan.
Manhattan has three public heliports, used mostly by business travelers. A regularly-scheduled helicopter service operates flights to JFK Airport from the Downtown Manhattan Heliport, located at the eastern end of Wall Street. The Downtown Manhattan Heliport, also known as the Downtown Manhattan/Wall St
The New York Harbor, with its natural advantages of deep water channels and protection from the Atlantic Ocean, has historically been one of the most important ports in the United States, and is now the third busiest in the United States, if New Jersey is included, behind Los Angeles and Long Beach, California in the amount of volume. New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City Each year, more than 25 million tons of oceanborne general cargo moves through New York, including 4. 5 million TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent units) of containerized cargo. In 2005 more than 5,300 ships delivered goods to the port that went to 35% of the U. S. population.  The port is experiencing rapid growth. Shipments increased nearly 12% in 2005. There are three cargo terminals and a passenger terminal on the New York City side of the harbor, including the Howland Hook Marine Terminal, Red Hook Container Terminal, Brooklyn Marine Terminal, and New York Cruise Terminal; three additional cargo terminals are on the New Jersey side.
The Port of New York is also a major hub for passenger ships. More than half a million people depart annually from Manhattan's cruise ship terminal on the Hudson River, accounting for five percent of the worldwide cruise industry and employing 21,000 residents in the city. The Queen Mary 2, the world's second largest passenger ship and one of the few traditional ocean liners still in service, was designed specifically to fit under the Verrazano Bridge, itself the longest suspension bridge in the United States. Characteristics The Queen Mary 2 is the current Cunard Flagship and makes regular Transatlantic crossings The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is a double-decked Suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New The Queen Mary 2 makes regular ports of call on her transatlantic runs from Southampton, England. Southampton ( IPA /ˌsaʊθˈhæmptən/ is the largest city in the county of Hampshire, on the south coast of England The city is building a new cruise ship terminal in Red Hook, Brooklyn. Red Hook is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, USA.
Originally focused on Brooklyn's waterfront, especially at the Brooklyn Army Terminal in Sunset Park, most container ship cargo operations have shifted to the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal on the other side of the bay. The Brooklyn Army Terminal is large complex of Piers docks, Warehouses cranes, Rail sidings and Cargo loading equipment Sunset Park is a Neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, USA Container ships are Cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers in a technique called Containerization. Not to be confused with Port Elizabeth New Jersey Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal is the name for the port facility in The terminal, operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, is the largest port complex on the East Coast. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through $114. 54 billion of cargo passed through the Port of New York and New Jersey in 2004. The top five trading partners at the port are China, Italy, Germany, Brazil and India.
Water quality in the New York Harbor has improved dramatically since passage of the Clean Water Act and extensive harbor cleanup projects. The Clean Water Act is the primary Federal law in the United States governing Water pollution. A common misconception is that the Upper Bay is devoid of marine life. It actually supports a diverse population of marine species, including striped bass. New Yorkers regularly kayak and sail in the harbor, which has become a major recreational site for the city. Water quality problems persist in Long Island Sound, however. Long Island Sound is an Estuary of the Atlantic Ocean and various Rivers in the United States that lies between the coast of Connecticut
Several proposals for expanding the New York City transit system are in various stages of discussion, planning, or initial funding. Some of them would compete with others for available funding.