"TER" redirects here. For the Australian tertiary entrance score, see Tertiary Entrance Rank
. The Tertiary Entrance Rank (TER is a tertiary entrance score used in several Australian states as a tool for selection to universities in Australia
A Bombardier AGC
train belonging to TER, in Hazebrouck
station. SNCF ( Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company is a French public enterprise The TGV ( t rain à g rande v itesse, French for "high-speed train" is France 's High-speed rail service Route The line crosses six départements, from north to south Seine-et-Marne Yonne Côte-d'Or The LGV Atlantique is a high-speed Railway line running from Paris ( Gare Montparnasse) to Western France. Route The line crosses four départements from north to south Ain Rhône Isère The LGV Nord is a French 333 km-long High speed rail line that connects Paris to the Belgian border and the Channel Tunnel via Lille Route The LGV Méditerranée begins at Saint-Marcel-lès-Valence, as the extension of the LGV Rhône-Alpes. The LGV Est européenne (sometimes referred to as LGV Est) is an extension to the French high-speed TGV network connecting Paris and Strasbourg TER Alsace is the Regional rail network serving the région of Alsace, eastern France. TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais the Regional rail network serving Nord-Pas-de-Calais région France. TER Haute Normandie is the Regional rail network serving Haute-Normandie, France. TER Picardie is the Regional rail network serving Picardie région France. TER Champagne Ardenne is the Regional rail network serving Champagne-Ardenne région France. TER Lorraine is the Regional rail network serving Lorraine region France. TER Basse Normandie is the Regional rail network serving Basse-Normandie, France. TER Bretagne is the Regional rail network serving Bretagne, France. TER Centre is the Regional rail network serving Centre région of France. TER Bourgogne is the Regional rail network serving Bourgogne région France. TER Franche Comté is the Regional rail network serving the Franche Comté région France. TER Pays de la Loire is the Regional rail network serving Pays de la Loire, France. TER Poitou-Charentes the Regional rail network serving the Poitou-Charentes région France. TER Limousin is the Regional rail network serving Limousin région France. TER Auvergne is the Regional rail network serving Auvergne région France. TER Rhône Alpes is the Regional rail network serving Rhône-Alpes région TER Aquitaine is the Regional rail network serving the Aquitaine région, France. TER Midi Pyrénées the Regional rail network serving Midi-Pyrénées région France. TER Languedoc-Roussillon is the Regional rail network serving Languedoc-Roussillon région in France. TER Centre is the Regional rail network serving Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur région France. History In 1877 it was decided to build a Metre gauge railway in Corsica despite the very difficult terrain it would have to cross The Transilien is the brand name for railway services of the SNCF -owned railway network operating within Paris' Île-de-France région. Réseau Paris Est is a set of rail lines originating from Gare de l'Est station in central Paris. Réseau Nord is the set of railway lines originating from Gare du Nord in central Paris Réseau Saint-Lazare is the network of railway lines originating from Saint Lazare Station in Paris. Réseau Montparnasse is the set of lines originating from Gare Montparnasse, Paris. Réseau Gare de Lyon is the network of railway lines originating from Gare de Lyon station in central Paris. The RER ( R éseau E xpress R égional, ɛʀøɛʀ "Regional Express Network" is a Rapid transit system in France serving The RER A is one of the five lines in the RER Rapid transit system serving Paris, France The RER D is one of the five lines in the RER Rapid transit system serving Paris, France The RER B is one of the five lines in the RER Rapid transit system serving Paris, France The RER E is one of the five lines in the RER Rapid transit system serving Paris, France The RER C is one of the five lines in the RER Rapid transit system serving Paris, France Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Bombardier group The Autorail à Grande Capacité (literally high-capacity Railcar) is a category of Multiple-unit Trains built by the Canadian train manufacturer Hazebrouck is a commune of the Nord département, in northern France.
TER is an acronym for Transport Express Régional, the brand name used by France’s national railway company, SNCF, to denote medium-distance passenger rail services within an administrative region of France. Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. SNCF ( Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company is a French public enterprise France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica,
SNCF established the TER system in 1984 to provide a framework for the management of regional passenger services. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) Since the end of the 1990s, it has been closely coordinated with the regional councils, who sign an agreement with SNCF on the designated routes, the number of connections, the fares and the service levels. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999
TER services are heavily subsidised by French taxpayers. On average, 72% of the cost is borne by the State and the regional councils, with the travellers paying only about 28% of the cost. This cost tends to increase over time because the regional councils have steadily expanded the number of services.
The low profitability of the TER system is primarily due to the way that the services are used by the travelling public, with commuter traffic in the morning and evening but significant under-utilisation during the rest of the day. In addition, passenger numbers are not particularly high; the trains have an average ridership of only about 66 travellers per train.
TER trains consist of single or multiple-unit diesel, electric or dual-mode rail cars, as well as some Corail carriages previously used on intercity routes. Corail is the name given to a class of passenger rail cars of the SNCF that first entered commercial service in 1975
Transfer of administration
Seven regions have been experimenting with the transfer of administration of the regional rail network since 1997: Alsace, the Center, Nord-Pas-de-Calais (the North), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Rhône-Alpes and the Pays-de-la-Loire (Loire Valley), and, since January 1999, Limousin. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Alsace (Alsace alzas Alsatian and Elsass pre-1996 German: Elsaß; Alsatia is one of the 26 Regions of France, located on the eastern Centre is one of the 26 regions of France, located towards the northwest of the actual centre of the country Nord-Pas de Calais (French Nord-Pas de Calais; Dutch Noord-Nauw van Kales) is one of the 26 regions of France. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA ( Provençal Occitan: Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur in classical norm or Prouvènço-Aup-Costo d'Azur in Mistralian Rhône-Alpes ( Franco-Provençal: Rôno-Arpes; Occitan: Ròse Aups) is one of the 26 regions of France, located on the Pays de la Loire is one of the 26 Regions of France. It is one of the regions created in the late 20th century to serve as a zone of influence for its capital Nantes Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Limousin ( Occitan: Lemosin) is one of the 26 regions of France.
In 1998, the traffic increased to an average of 4. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) 9% in these seven regions compared with 3. 2% in other regions.
A few other regions are in turn signing on conventions intermédiaires in order to prepare for the increasing decentralisation of the network: in particular, Haute-Normandie in September 1997, Midi-Pyrénées and Burgundy November 1997, Picardy in January 1998, and Lorraine in February 1998. Haute-Normandie ( Upper Normandy) is one of the 26 regions of France. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Midi-Pyrénées ( Occitan: Miègjorn-Pirenèus or Mieidia-Pirenèus) is the largest region of Metropolitan France by area larger Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) Picardy (Picardie is an historical Province of France, in the north of France. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Lorraine (Lothringen is one of the 26 régions of France. It is the only administrative region with two cities of equal importance Metz and Nancy
History of the regionalisation of passenger trains
- 31 March 1994: The publication of the report ‘Régions, SNCF: vers un renouveau du service public’, by the Haenel commission. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar)
- 4 February 1995: The law of management and development of territory organised the transfer of responsibility of collective transportation in the interest of administrative regions. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995
- 19 December 1996: Signing of the first convention with the region of Rhône-Alpes. Events 324 - Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Rhône-Alpes ( Franco-Provençal: Rôno-Arpes; Occitan: Ròse Aups) is one of the 26 regions of France, located on the
Budgets affecting the public rail network
Several figures released by the regions:
|Region||TER Budget||Portion of the|
yearly regional budget
|Alsace||€220 M||39 %||(2004)||experimental regionalisation since 1997|
|Bretagne||€100 M||14 %||(2005)|
|Bourgogne||€100 M||25 %||(2005)|
|Champagne Ardennes||€55 M||12. 5 %||(2004)|
|Franche Comté||€70 M||20 %||(2005)|
|Lorraine||€250 M||45 %||(2005)|
|Picardie||€130 M||20 %||(2002)||intermediate agreement since January 1998|
|Nord-Pas-de-Calais||€260 M||21 %||(2003)||experimental regionalisation since 1997|
|Rhone-Alpes||€500 M||30 %||(2005)||experimental regionalisation since 1997|
These figures do not take into account infrastructure expenses.
TER and tourism
The SNCF have designated nine TER services as trains touristiques (tourist trains). They are:
- The Chemins de fer de Corse (Corsican trains)
- The train des merveilles (Train of Wonders)
- The train des gorges de l'Allier (Allier Gorges train)
- The Ligne Saint-Gervais-Vallorcine (Mont-Blanc Express)
- The Ligne de Cerdagne/train jaune (Yellow Train)
- The autorail Espérance (Hope rail car)
- The Chemin de fer du Blanc-Argent
- The train des Alpes (Alps train)
- The ligne des hirondelles (Swallows line)
External links History In 1877 it was decided to build a Metre gauge railway in Corsica despite the very difficult terrain it would have to cross Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily SNCF ( Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company is a French public enterprise
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