Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the environment for residents. Most countries post signage known as traffic signs or road signs, at the side of Roads to On divided roads including Expressways Motorways or Autobahns the central reservation (British English, median (North American For the Tasmanian island see Refuge Island (Tasmania A refuge island, also known as a pedestrian refuge or pedestrian island Crosswalk button neJPG|right|thumb|The button one pushes to activate the crosswalk signal A curb extension (or also kerb extension, bulb-out, kerb build-out, nib, elephant ear, curb bulge and blister Crosswalk button neJPG|right|thumb|The button one pushes to activate the crosswalk signal A chicane is a sequence of tight serpentine curves (usually an S-shape curve or a bus stop in a roadway used in Motor racing and The turning radius or turning circle of a Vehicle is the Radius of the smallest circular turn (ie Speed cushions are Traffic calming devices designed as several small Speed humps installed across the width of the road with spaces between them A curb extension (or also kerb extension, bulb-out, kerb build-out, nib, elephant ear, curb bulge and blister An urban planner is a professional who works in the field of Urban planning for the purpose of maximizing the effectiveness of a community's land use and infrastructure Traffic engineering is a branch of Civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot whether Walking or Running. " Bicycle-friendly " describes policies and practices which may help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by Bicycle with other traffic Calming measures are common in Europe, especially Northern Europe; less so in North America.
Traffic calming was traditionally justified on the grounds of pedestrian safety and reduction of noise and local air pollution which are side effects of the traffic. Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human- or machine-created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort However, streets have many social and recreational functions which are severely impaired by car traffic. The Livable Streets study by Donald Appleyard (circa 1977) found that residents of streets with light traffic had, on average, three more friends and twice as many acquaintances as the people on streets with heavy traffic which were otherwise similar in dimensions, income, etc. Livable Streets is a book by Donald Appleyard in which he showed that Streets have many social and recreational functions which are severely impaired by Donald Appleyard (1928&ndash1982 was a Professor of Urban Design at the University of California Berkeley. For much of the twentieth century, streets were designed by engineers who were charged only with ensuring traffic flow and not with fostering the other functions of streets. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The basis for traffic calming is broadening traffic engineering to include designing for these functions.
There are 3 "E"'s that traffic engineers refer to when discussing traffic calming: engineering, (community) education, and (police) enforcement. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Coming into force (also called enforcement or enactment) is a term that refers to the process by which Legislation, or part of legislation and Because neighborhood traffic management studies have shown that often it is the residents themselves who are contributing to the perceived speeding problem within the neighborhood, it is stressed that the most effective traffic calming plans will entail all three components, and that engineering measures alone will not produce satisfactory results.
A number of visual changes to roads are being made to many streets to bring about more attentive driving, reduced speeds, reduced crashes, and greater tendency to yield to pedestrians. Visual traffic calming includes lane narrowings (9-10'), road diets (reduction in lanes), use of trees next to streets, on-street parking, and buildings placed in urban fashion close to streets.
Some additional traffic calming techniques that are often used are speed humps, speed cushions, and speed tables. These devices vary in size based on the desired speed. Humps, cushions and tables slow cars to between 10 and 25 miles per hour. Most devices are made of asphalt or concrete but rubber traffic calming products are emerging as an effective alternative with several advantages.
Traffic calming can include the following engineering measures:
Traffic calming has been successfully used for decades in cities across Europe. See also Traffic enforcement camera The Watchman Casualty Reduction Scheme is a traffic calming measure used in the United Kingdom. More recently, in response to growing numbers of traffic accidents and speeding problems, cities across North America have begun creating traffic calming programs to improve safety and liveability on residential streets. Many municipalities create asphalt or concrete measures, although preformed rubber products that are easier to install and consistently meet standardized requirements are becoming increasingly popular.
A living street (sometimes known as Home zones or by the Dutch word woonerf, as the concept originated in the Netherlands) is a street in which the needs of car drivers are secondary to the needs of users of the street as a whole; traffic calming principles are integrated into their design. Living Streets is the name of a UK campaign group formerly the Pedestrians' Association A living street is a Street in which Home Zone is a term used in the United Kingdom for a residential Street or group of streets that are designed using principles similar to those of Living streets Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
The hierarchy of roads categorizes Roads according to their functions and capacities The New Mobility Agenda is an international institution which while virtual and an open collaborative was originally set up by an international working group meeting at the Abbey de A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot whether Walking or Running. For the road traffic science see various articles under Road traffic management. Shared space, sometimes called shared surfaces, is a traffic engineering policy to remove the traditional separation between motor vehicles and pedestrians and other The street hierarchy is an Urban design technique for separating automobile through-traffic from developed areas Sustainable transport is a concept developed in reaction to things that have gone visibly wrong with transportation policy practice and performance through much the world over the last