|Tour de France|
|Local name||Le Tour de France|
|Region||France and nearby countries|
|Date||July 7 to 29 (2007)|
|Type||Stage Race (Grand Tour)|
|General Director||Christian Prudhomme|
|Number of races||94 (2007)|
|First winner||Maurice Garin|
|Most wins||Lance Armstrong (7) 1999-2005|
|Latest winner||Alberto Contador 2007|
|Most career Yellow Jerseys||Eddy Merckx (96) (111 overall incl. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat The 2007 Tour de France, the 94th running of the race, took place from July 7 to July 29 2007 Christian Prudhomme (born November 11, 1960) is a French sports journalist and general director of the Tour de France since 2005 Maurice Garin ( March 3, 1871 - February 19, 1957) was a Road bicycle racer best known for winning the 1903 Tour de France Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson September 18 1971 is an American professional road racing cyclist for UCI ProTeam Team Astana Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Alberto Contador Velasco (born 6 December 1982 in Pinto Madrid) is a Spanish professional Road bicycle racer for UCI ProTeam Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Edouard Louis Joseph Baron Merckx ('merks (born 17 June 1945 in Meensel-Kiezegem, Vlaams Brabant, Belgium) known as Eddy Merckx, is a former Since the first Tour de France in 1903, there have been 1931 stages up to and including the 21st stage of the 2008 Tour de France. half stages)|
|Most career stage wins||Eddy Merckx (34)|
The Tour de France started in 1903 and is the world's largest cycling tournament/race. Types of racing Unassisted human racing Using only the Human body 's own Muscles Running: Cross country It is a 23-day, 21-stage bicycle road race usually run over more than 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi). Road bicycle racing is a popular Bicycle racing Sport held on roads (following the Geography of the area using Racing bicycles The The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The route traces a circuit around most areas of France, and often passes into neighbouring countries. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The race is broken into stages from one town to another, each of which is an individual race. The time taken to complete each stage is added to a cumulative total for each rider, to decide the outright winner at the end of the Tour.
Together with the Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy) and Vuelta a España (Tour of Spain), the Tour de France is one of the three major stage races and the longest of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) calendar. The Giro d'Italia ( Tour of Italy) also simply known as The Giro, is a long distance Road bicycle racing Stage race for professional The Vuelta a España ( English: Tour of Spain) is a three-week Road bicycle racing Stage race that is one of the three " Grand Tours Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI is a Cycling association that oversees competitive cycling events internationally While the other two European Grand Tours are well known in Europe, they are relatively unknown outside the continent, and even the UCI World Cycling Championship is familiar only to cycling enthusiasts. In Road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour refers to one of the three major European professional cycling stage races Tour de France The Tour de France, in contrast, has long been a household sporting name around the globe, even to those not interested in cycling.
As with most cycling races, competitors enter as part of a team. Cycling is the use of Bicycles or - less commonly - Unicycles Tricycles Quadricycles and other similar wheeled Human powered vehicles The race consists of 20 to 22 teams with nine riders each. Traditionally, entry is by invitation, invitations granted only to the best professional teams. The organizers recently have utilized UCI points (based upon team riders/results) to determine which teams would gain automatic entry into the tour and then typically reserve 2-4 slots to large teams or French continental teams not able to race in the tour based upon their individual team results. Each team, known by the name of its sponsor, wears a distinctive jersey and riders assist one another and have access to a shared team car (a mobile version of pit crews in car racing).
The 2008 Tour de France is set to begin on July 5th, running until July 27th, 2008. The 2008 Tour de France was the 95th Tour de France. The event took place from July 5 to July 27 2008
The dominant sports newspaper in France at the end of the 19th century was Le Vélo. Like other sports papers, it mixed sports reports with news and political comment. France was split socially over the guilt or innocence of a soldier, Alfred Dreyfus, who had been found guilty of selling secrets to the Germans. Alfred Dreyfus (9 October 1859 &ndash 12 July 1935 was a French artillery officer of Jewish background whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason Le Vélo stood for Dreyfus's innocence while some of its biggest advertisers, notably the owner of the Dion car works, believed him guilty. Angry scenes followed between the advertisers and the editor, Pierre Giffard, and the advertisers withdrew their support and started a rival paper.
It was to promote sales of the rival L'Auto, ancestor to the present l'Équipe, that the Tour de France began. L'Équipe ( French for "the team" is a French nationwide daily Newspaper devoted to Sports The paper is noted for coverage It was a publicity measure to outdo the Paris-Brest et retour race organised by Giffard. Paris-Brest-Paris (PBP was originally a 1200km Bicycle racing from Paris to Brest and back to Paris. The idea for a round-France stage race came from L'Auto's chief cycling journalist, 26-year-old Géo Lefèvre. Géo Lefèvre (died 1961 was a French sports journalist and the originator of the idea for the Tour de France. He and the editor, Henri Desgrange then discussed it after lunch at what is now the TGI Friday bar in Montmartre in Paris on November 20, 1902. Henri Desgrange (b Paris, January 31, 1865 &ndash d 16 August 1940 Beauvallon was a French Bicycle racer L'Auto announced the race on January 19, 1903. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting The plan was for a five-week tour from May 31 to July 5; however, this proved too daunting, with only 15 entrants, so Desgrange cut the length to 19 days, changed the date to run from July 1 to 19, and offered a daily allowance which attracted 60 entrants, including amateur characters, some unemployed, some simply adventurous. It was these characters that helped catch the public imagination.
The demanding nature of the race (with the average length of the six stages being 400km the riders were sometimes expected to ride into the night), caught public imagination. The race was such a success for the newspaper that the circulation, which was 25,000 before the 1903 Tour, increased to 65,000 after it; by 1908 the race boosted circulation past a quarter of a million, and during the 1923 Tour it was selling 500,000 copies a day. The record circulation claimed by Desgrange was 854,000, achieved during the 1933 Tour. 
Today, the Tour is organised by the Société du Tour de France, a subsidiary of Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), which is part of the media group that owns L'Équipe. The Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO is part of the French media group EPA ( Éditions Philippe Amaury) and is well-known as the organiser of various major sporting
The Tour is a stage race, each stage being one race per day. A stage in Road bicycle racing is a part of a multi-day event such as the Tour de France or the Giro d'Italia. The time each rider takes to complete each stage is accumulated. Riders are often awarded time bonuses as well as their prize for finishing. Riders who finish in the same group are awarded the same time. Two riders are said to have finished in the same group if there is less than the length of a bike between them. A rider who crashes in the last three kilometres is given the time of the group in which he would have finished. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand
The ranking of riders by accumulated time is known as the General Classification. The general classification (or the GC) in Bicycle racing is the category that tracks overall times for bicycle riders in multi- stage bicycle races The winner is the rider with the least accumulated time after the final day.
It is possible to win overall without winning a stage, which Greg LeMond did in 1990. Gregory James "Greg" LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood California) is a former professional Road bicycle racer from the Winning a stage is considered more prestigious than winning most single-day races. Although the number of stages has varied, the modern Tour has about 20 and a total length of 3,000 to 4,000 kilometres (1,800 to 2,500 mi). The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The shortest Tour was in 1904 at 2,420km, the longest in 1926 at 5,745km.  The 2007 Tour was 3,569. 9 km long.  There are subsidiary competitions within the race (see below), some with distinctive jerseys for the best rider.
Today, the Tour is contested by teams backed by commercial sponsors and employing complicated tactics, but Desgrange originally insisted his competitors ride as individuals, even if they had sponsorship. He penalised slipstreaming and other tactics and accepted their inevitability only from the 1920s. A slipstream is a region of reduced Pressure produced behind an object as it moves through a fluid medium (usually air or as that medium moves around an object Even when commercial teams had become commonplace in other events, the Tour was contested by national teams from 1930 to 1961 and again in 1967 and 1968, in both cases because the organisers felt sponsors were detracting from sporting purity.
Most stages take place in France though it is common to have stages in nearby countries, such as Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, and Great Britain (visited in 1974 and 1994 and start of the 2007 tour). Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The three weeks usually include two rest days, sometimes used to transport riders long distances between stages.
In recent years, the Tour has sometimes been preceded by a short individual time trial (1 to 15km) called the prologue. An individual time trial (ITT is a road bicycle race in which cyclists race alone against the clock (in French contre la montre - literally "against Since 1975, the finish of the Tour has been on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, the only time the avenue is closed other than for the processions of Bastille Day and for the Paris Marathon. The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (ʃɑ̃zeliˈze) is the most prestigious avenue in Paris. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Bastille Day is the French national holiday, celebrated on 14 July each year. The Paris Marathon is an annual marathon which takes place from the Champs-Élysées heading towards the Place de la Concorde and continuing Before 1975, the race finished at the Parc des Princes stadium in western Paris and at the Piste Municipale. The Parc des Princes, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France was originally a Velodrome, the finish of the Tour de France from
Stages of the Tour can be flat, undulating or mountainous. They are normally contested by all the riders starting together with the first over the line winning, but they can also be run against the clock for individuals or teams. The time-trials often have a significant effect because they separate riders by substantial margins, whereas in some conventional stages participants finish together or in large groups. The overall winner is almost always a master of the mountains and time trials rather than of the more straightforward flat stages.
The race alternates between clockwise and counter-clockwise circuits of France. 2005 was clockwise — visiting the Alps first and then the Pyrenees — while 2006 went in the opposite direction. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés For the first half of its history, the Tour was a near-continuous loop, often close to France's borders. Rules to restrict drug-taking have, since the 1960s, limited the overall distance, the daily distance and the number of days raced consecutively, and the modern Tour skips between one city or one region and another.
A feature almost from the start has been the mountains. The roads are now good but at first they were tracks of hard-packed earth on which riders frequently had to push their bicycles. Even into the 1950s and 1960s, the road at the summit could be potholed and strewn with small rocks, and falls and serious injuries were common.
Mountain passes such as the Tourmalet in the Pyrenees have been made famous by the Tour de France and attract large numbers of amateur cyclists every day in summer, to test their speed and fitness on roads used by the champions. The physical difficulty of a climb is established by its steepness, length and its position on the course. The easiest are graded 4, most of the hardest as 1 and the exceptional (such as the Tourmalet) as unclassified, or "hors-catégorie".
Some recur almost annually. The most famous hors-catégorie peaks include the Col du Tourmalet, Mont Ventoux, Col du Galibier, the climb to the ski resort of Hautacam, and Alpe d'Huez. Col du Tourmalet (el 2115 m/6939 ft is the highest road Mountain pass in the central Pyrenees in the department of Hautes-Pyrénées in Mont Ventoux (Ventor in classical norm or oc ''Ventour'' in Mistralian norm is a Mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km Col du Galibier (el 2645 m is a Mountain pass in the southern region of the French Dauphiné Alps near Grenoble. Hautacam is a Ski resort in the Pyrenees. It is situated in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in the Midi-Pyrénées region Alpe d'Huez is a famous Ski resort 1860 metres / 3330 metres (6102 ft / 10924 ft high
The combination of endurance and strength needed to complete the Tour led the New York Times to say in 2006 that the "Tour de France is arguably the most physiologically demanding of athletic events. " The effort was compared to "running a marathon several days a week for nearly three weeks", while the total elevation of the climbs was compared to "climbing three Everests. The marathon is a long-distance foot race with an official distance of 42 Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in "
Since 1975, the final stage finishes on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, which is cobbled, making it difficult to cycle, though not as hard as the Paris-Roubaix. Henri Desgrange (b Paris, January 31, 1865 &ndash d 16 August 1940 Beauvallon was a French Bicycle racer Jacques Goddet ( Paris, 21 June 1905 &ndash 15 December 2000) was a French sports Journalist and director of Jacques Goddet ( Paris, 21 June 1905 &ndash 15 December 2000) was a French sports Journalist and director of Félix Lévitan (b Paris 12 October 1911 &ndash d Cannes 18 February 2007) was the third organiser of the Tour de France, a role Jean-Marie Leblanc (born July 27, 1944 in Nueil-sur-Argent, adjoining Nueil-les-Aubiers, a commune in the Deux-Sèvres Christian Prudhomme (born November 11, 1960) is a French sports journalist and general director of the Tour de France since 2005 The Tour de France has finished on the Champs-Élysées every year since 1975 Cobblestones are stones that were frequently used in the pavement of early Streets "Cobblestone" is derived from the very old English word "cob" Paris-Roubaix is a single-day professional bicycle road race held in northern France starting in Compiègne and finishing in Roubaix, near the The race takes multiple turns over the avenue, which is lined with enormous crowds. This stage is not usually competitive in terms of the overall lead since it is flat and the leader is likely to have a sufficient margin to be unchallengeable. There have been exceptions, however. In 1987, with the Irish rider Stephen Roche leading the Spaniard Pedro Delgado by only 40 seconds, Delgado broke away from the peloton on the Champs-Élysées, threatening to snatch victory at the last minute. The 1987 Tour de France was the 74th Tour de France, taking place from July 1 to July 26 1987 Stephen Roche (born 28 November 1959 in Dundrum near Dublin Ireland) is a retired professional Road racing cyclist. Pedro Delgado Robledo (born April 15, 1960 in Segovia) also known as Perico, is a Spanish former professional Road bicycle racer For the supercomputing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory see Peloton (super computer, and for the military unit see Peloton (military. In the end he was caught. He and Roche both finished in the peloton, and Roche thereby won the Tour.
In 1989 the organizers returned to holding a time trial as the final stage. In it, Greg LeMond of the United States overtook the Frenchman Laurent Fignon, who held a 50-second lead, to win by eight seconds, the closest margin in the Tour's history. Gregory James "Greg" LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood California) is a former professional Road bicycle racer from the Laurent Fignon (born August 12, 1960 in Tournan-en-Brie France) is a French former professional Road bicycle racer, who won the
The particularly tough climb of Alpe d'Huez is a favourite, providing a stage finish in most Tours. Alpe d'Huez is a famous Ski resort 1860 metres / 3330 metres (6102 ft / 10924 ft high In 2004, in another experiment, the mountain time trial ended at Alpe d'Huez. This seems less likely to be repeated, following complaints from the riders of abusive spectator behavior.  Another famous mountain stage is the climb of Mont Ventoux, often claimed to be the hardest in the Tour due to the harsh conditions. Mont Ventoux (Ventor in classical norm or oc ''Ventour'' in Mistralian norm is a Mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km The Tour usually features only one of these two climbs in a year.
To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town. The prologue and first stage are particularly prestigious. Usually one town will host the prologue (which is too short to go between towns) and also the start of stage 1. In some years, like 2005, there is no prologue. In 2007 the Tour director Christian Prudhomme stated that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside of France 3 times and within France 2 times. Christian Prudhomme (born November 11, 1960) is a French sports journalist and general director of the Tour de France since 2005 "  In addition, the first few stages often go into a neighbouring country.
Prize money has always been awarded, starting with the first Tour in 1903. From 20,000 francs the first year, the total prize money has increased each year. The franc (represented by the franc sign ₣ or more commonly just F) is a former Currency of France. Prizes and bonuses are awarded according to the classification in each stage and the overall classifications at the end of the race. A smaller amount is paid to teams as a participation expense or a presence bonus. In 2006, a total of over €3,000,000 ($4,800,000) was awarded, the winner of the individual general classification receiving €450,000 ($720,000). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  Not withstanding these increasing amounts, the importance of the prize money has decreased through the years, as riders are well paid by their employers - the cycling teams - by contract.
Apart from winning the Tour, each race has three further classifications: the points, the mountains and the best young rider. The leaders of the four competitions wear a distinctive jersey next day. Jerseys are awarded in a ceremony after each stage, sometimes before trailing riders have finished. When a single rider is entitled to more than one jersey, he wears the most prestigious and the second-placed rider in the other classification wears the jersey. For example, in the first week it is common for the overall classification (yellow jersey) and points (sprint) competition (green jersey) to be led by the same rider. In this case the leading rider will wear the yellow jersey and the rider placed second in the points competition will wear the green jersey.
The Tour's jersey colours have been adopted by other cycling stage races, and have thus come to have meaning within cycling generally, rather than solely in the Tour. For example, the Tour of Britain has yellow, green, and polka-dot jerseys with the same meaning as in the Tour de France. History Origins The Tour of Britain known for many years as the Milk Race has its origins in a dispute between cyclists during the Second world war. The Giro d’Italia differs in awarding the overall leader a pink jersey, having been organized and sponsored by La Gazzetta dello Sport, an Italian sports daily newspaper with pink pages. La Gazzetta dello Sport is an Italian Newspaper dedicated to coverage of various Sports It was first published on 3 April 1896
The maillot jaune (yellow jersey), which is worn by the general classification (or overall time) leader, is the most prized. The general classification (or the GC) in Bicycle racing is the category that tracks overall times for bicycle riders in multi- stage bicycle races It is awarded by calculating the total combined race time up to that point for each rider. The rider with the lowest total time is the leader, and at the end of the event is declared the overall winner of the Tour.
The winner of the first Tour de France wore not a yellow jersey but a green armband.  There is doubt over when the yellow jersey began. The Belgian rider Philippe Thys, who won the Tour in 1913, 1914 and 1920, recalled in the Belgian magazine Champions et Vedettes when he was 67 that he was awarded a yellow jersey in 1913 when the organiser, Henri Desgrange, asked him to wear a coloured jersey. Philippe Thys ( October 8, 1890 - January 16, 1971) was a Belgian Cyclist and a three-time champion of the Tour de Henri Desgrange (b Paris, January 31, 1865 &ndash d 16 August 1940 Beauvallon was a French Bicycle racer Thys declined, saying making himself more visible in yellow would encourage other riders to ride against him. 
He spoke of the next year's race, when "I won the first stage and was beaten by a tyre by Bossus in the second. On the following stage, the maillot jaune passed to Georget after a crash. "
The Tour historian Jacques Augendre called Thys "a valorous rider. . . well-known for his intelligence" and said his claim "seems free from all suspicion". But: "No newspaper mentions a yellow jersey before the war. Being at a loss for witnesses, we can't solve this enigma. "
Desgrange added the yellow jersey in 1919 because he wanted the race leader to wear something distinctive and because the pages of his newspaper, L'Auto, were yellow.  Additional time bonuses, in the form of a number of seconds to be deducted from the rider's overall time, are available to the first 3 riders to finish the stage or cross an intermediate sprint (see below). As of 2005, the first 3 places to finish are awarded bonuses of 20, 12, and 8 seconds respectively, while the first 3 places at intermediate sprints are awarded 6, 4, and 2 seconds. However, these bonuses are rarely significant enough to cause major upset in the classement géneral (General Classification).
Sometimes a rider takes the overall lead during a stage and gets sufficiently far ahead of the yellow jersey wearer that his current lead is greater than his time deficit to the yellow jersey in the general classification; when this happens, this rider may be referred to as being "the yellow jersey on the road". Obviously, no jerseys can be exchanged in this situation, which is why in some other languages the leading rider is referred to as the "virtual yellow".
The maillot vert (green jersey) is awarded for sprint points. In Road bicycle racing, and in the Grand Tour stage races in particular the Green jersey is the name given to a distinctive racing jersey worn by the leader The points classification is an award category in Road bicycle racing that recognizes the most consistent finisher in a Stage race. In Road bicycle racing, and in the Grand Tour stage races in particular the Green jersey is the name given to a distinctive racing jersey worn by the leader At the end of each stage, points are earned by the riders who finish first, second, etc. Points are higher for flat stages, as sprints are more likely, and less for mountain stages, where climbers usually win.
Flat stages: 35, 30, 26, 24, 22, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 points are awarded to the first 25 riders across the finish.
Medium-mountain stages: 25, 22, 20, 18, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 points are awarded to the first 20 riders across the finish.
High-mountain stages: 20, 17, 15, 13, 12, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 points are awarded to the first 15 riders across the finish.
Time-trials: 15, 12, 10, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 points are awarded to the top 10 finishers of the stage.
Intermediate sprints: 6, 4, and 2 points are awarded to the first three finishers.
In case of a tie, the number of stage wins determine the green jersey, then the number of intermediate sprint victories, and finally, the rider's standing in the overall classification.
The "King of the Mountains" wears a white jersey with red dots (maillot à pois rouges), referred to as the "polka dot jersey" and inspired by a jersey that the former organiser, Félix Lévitan saw while at the Vélodrome d'Hiver track in Paris in his youth. The King of the Mountains (KoM is the title given to the best climber in a Cycling road race usually and officially known as the Mountains classification The competition is calculated by points awarded to the first riders at the top of designated hills and mountains, the greatest number of points being awarded for the hardest ascents.
Climbs rated "Hors Catégorie" (HC): 20, 18, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, 7, 6 and 5 points for the first 10 riders to the summit.
Category 1 climbs: 15, 13, 11, 9, 8, 7, 6 and 5 points for the first 8 riders to the top.
Category 2 climbs: 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, and 5 for the first 6 riders to the top.
Category 3 climbs: 4, 3, 2 and 1 points for the first 4 riders to the top.
Category 4 climbs: 3, 2 and 1 points for the first 3 riders to the top.
NOTE: For the last climb of a stage, the points are doubled (for HC, Cat 1 and Cat 2 climbs only).
In case of a tie, the rider with the most HC wins takes the jersey, then the rider with the most Cat 1 wins, etc. . .
Although the best climber was first recognised in 1933, the jersey was not introduced until 1975.
There are three lesser classifications, though only one awards the leader a jersey. The maillot blanc (white jersey) is for the best-placed rider less than 25 years old on January 1 of the year the Tour is ridden. The Maillot blanc ( French for white jersey) is the jersey given to the best young rider in the Tour de France as determined by the
The "prix de combativité" goes to the rider who has done most to animate the day's racing, usually by trying to break clear of the field. It is decided by a panel of experts. The most combative rider of a stage wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white in the next stage. At the end of the Tour, an award is given to the rider thought to be the most aggressive throughout the entire tour.
The team prize is assessed by adding the times of each team's best three riders each day. The competition does not have its own jersey but since 2006 the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow instead of black-on-white. The number of riders in a team has varied but is now normally nine. Until 1930, teams represented countries, groups of countries or French regions. From 1930, but with the exception of 1967 and 1968 when there was a return to geographical teams, riders have been entered by commercial teams.
As in all road races, national and world champions wear not their ordinary team colours but their world or national championship jerseys when competing in the appropriate race: the time-trial champion in the time-trial, the road race in massed stages. Road bicycle racing is a popular Bicycle racing Sport held on roads (following the Geography of the area using Racing bicycles The
Previously, there was a red jersey for the standings in non-stage-finish sprints: points were awarded to the first three riders to pass two or three intermediate points during the stage. The red jersey is Cycling jersey awarded to a classification leader or winner for Stage races in Road bicycle racing competitions These sprints also scored points towards the green jersey and bonus seconds towards the overall classification, as well as cash prizes offered by the residents of the area where the sprint took place. The sprints remain, with all these additional effects, the most significant now being the points for the green jersey. The red jersey was abolished in 1989. 
There was also a combination jersey, scored on a points system based on standings for the yellow, green, red, and polka-dot jerseys. The combination jersey (also known as the multi-coloured jersey or technicolour jersey) is the jersey in the Tour de France that was worn by the leader The design was a patchwork, with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was abolished in the same year as the red jersey.
In an ordinary stage, all riders start simultaneously and share the road. The real start (départ réel) usually is some 2 to 5 kilometres (1 to 3 mi) away from the starting point, and is announced by the Tour director in the officials' car waving a white flag.
Riders are permitted to touch (but not push or nudge) and to shelter behind each other, in slipstream (see drafting). The rider who crosses the finish line first wins. In the first week of the Tour, this often leads to spectacular mass sprints.
While only finishers are awarded sprint points, all riders finishing in an identifiable group (with no significant gap to the rider in front, as determined by race officials) are deemed to have finished the stage in the same time as the lead rider of that group for overall classification purposes. This avoids what would otherwise be dangerous mass sprints. It is not unusual for the entire field to finish in a single group, taking some time to cross the line, but being credited with the same time as the stage winner.
Time bonuses are awarded at some intermediate sprints and stage finishes to the first three riders who reach the specified point. These bonuses generally are a maximum of 20 seconds, and can allow a good sprinter to qualify for the yellow jersey early in the Tour.
Riders who crash within the last 3 kilometres of the stage are credited with the finishing time of the group that they were with when they crashed . This prevents riders from being penalised for accidents that do not accurately reflect their performance on the stage as a whole given that crashes in the final kilometre can be huge pileups that are hard to avoid for a rider farther back in the peloton. A crashed sprinter inside the final kilometre will not win the sprint, but avoids being penalised in the overall classification. The final kilometre is indicated in the race course by a red triangular pennant - known as the flamme rouge - raised above the road.
Some ordinary stages take place in the mountains, almost always causing major shifts in the General Classification. On ordinary stages that do not have extended mountain climbs, most riders can manage to stay together in the peloton all the way to the finish; during mountain stages, however, it is not uncommon for some riders to lose 40 minutes to the winner of the stage. The so called mountain stages are often the deciding factor in determining the winner of the Tour de France. With the exception of the now traditional finish at the Champs-Elysées all famous stages, like Alpe d'Huez and Mont Ventoux, are mountain stages, and these often bring out the most spectators who line up the roads by the thousands to cheer and encourage the cyclists and support their favorites. The Tour de France has finished on the Champs-Élysées every year since 1975 Alpe d'Huez is a famous Ski resort 1860 metres / 3330 metres (6102 ft / 10924 ft high
In an individual time trial each rider rides individually. The first stage of the tour is often a short time trial known as a prologue. The prologue is to decide who wears yellow on the opening day, and provide a spectacle for the organising city.
There are usually three or four time trials during the Tour. One may be a team time trial. A team time trial (TTT is a road-based Bicycle race in which teams of Cyclists race against the clock (see Individual time trial for a more detailed Traditionally the final time trial has been the penultimate stage, and effectively determines the winner before the final ordinary stage which is not ridden competitively until the last hour. On a few occasions, the race organisers made the final stage into Paris a time trial. The most recent occasion on which this was done, in 1989, yielded the closest ever finish in Tour history, when Greg LeMond beat Laurent Fignon by eight seconds overall. Gregory James "Greg" LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood California) is a former professional Road bicycle racer from the Laurent Fignon (born August 12, 1960 in Tournan-en-Brie France) is a French former professional Road bicycle racer, who won the Fignon wore the yellow jersey for the final stage, with a lead of 50 seconds, and was beaten by LeMond's superior time trial performance. LeMond's unusual handlebars which placed his forearms close together and reduce wind resistance, and his streamlined helmet, were considered to be a large factor in his victory. 
|2nd: 20"||12th: 2' 00"|
|3rd: 30"||13th: 2' 10"|
|4th: 40"||14th: 2' 20"|
|5th: 50"||15th: 2' 30"|
|6th: 1'||16th: 2' 35"|
|7th: 1' 10"||17th: 2' 40"|
|8th: 1' 20"||18th: 2' 45"|
|9th: 1' 30"||19th: 2' 50"|
|10th: 1' 40"||20th: 2' 55"|
|11th: 1' 50"||21st: 3' 00"|
Often in the first week of the Tour there is a team time trial (TTT), in which each team rides together without interference from competing teams. In many Racing Sports an athlete (or occasionally a team of athletes will compete in a time trial against the Clock to secure the fastest The team time is determined by the fifth rider to cross the line; all riders ahead of the fifth rider, and those finishing within one bike length of each other, are awarded this same time. Riders who finish more than one bike-length behind their respective teams are awarded their own individual times.
The TTT has been criticized for unfairly favoring strong teams and handicapping strong riders in weaker teams. To address this criticism, the 2004 and 2005 editions of the Tour limited the maximum team time difference relative to the fastest team, according to the team rankings on the stage. The following table indicates the maximum time penalty added to the winning team's time that a team will receive, according to its team time placing. However, this does not apply to riders finishing behind their own teams, and does not protect riders in case of crashing in the last kilometre, unlike during normal stages.
For example, a team that finishes in 14th place, six minutes behind the winning team, would lose only two minutes and 20 seconds in the General Classification relative to the winners of the TTT. If the team time had been 2:13 behind the winning team, then the team time will be 2:13 assuming that this were still the 14th place.
The most recent TTT was held in 2005. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Tour is popular and important for the cycling fans in France and in Europe. Millions of spectators line the route every year, some having camped a week in advance to get the best views. A recognizable part of the crowd each day is Didi Senft who, dressed in a red devil costume, has been known as the Tour de France devil or El Diablo since 1993. Dieter "Didi" Senft (born 1952 in Reichenwalde, Germany) is known as the Tour de France devil or El Diablo. The inspiration for the costume is attributed to the final kilometre of each Tour stage, indicated by a red triangle suspended over the road.
In the hours before the riders pass, a carnival atmosphere prevails. Any amateur cyclist is free to attempt the course on his bicycle in the morning, after which begins a garish cavalcade of advertising vehicles blaring music and tossing hats, souvenirs, sweets and free samples . As word passes that the riders are approaching, the fans sometimes encroach on the road until they are an arm’s length from the riders.
The riders temper their competitiveness and enthusiasm with an elaborate but unwritten code of conduct. When possible, a rider is allowed to lead the race through his home village or on his birthday. It is considered unsporting to attack a leading rider delayed by a mechanical breakdown or other misfortune, one who is eating in the feed zone or one who is satisfying un besoin naturel (roughly translated to "a natural need", referring to urinating). The following terminology is used in the general Cycling, as well as the more specific sports of Road bicycle racing and Mountain bicycle racing. Urination, also known as micturition, voiding, and more rarely emiction, is the process of disposing Urine from the Urinary bladder Not sticking to these customs can lead to animosity. Unless the final stage is a time trial, or the gap between the top two is extremely close, riders generally do not attack on the final stage, leaving the leader to bask in the glory of winning.
The rider ranked last in the general classification, who may wind up in Paris with an overall time five or more hours slower than that of the winner, is called the lanterne rouge. The Lanterne Rouge is the competitor in last place in a cycling race such as the Tour de France. Such was the sympathy shown to the last rider in the past that he could command higher fees in other races than riders who finished better. This custom has died along with the round-the-houses races once run off all over France in the weeks after the Tour.
Much of the terminology used to describe the Tour de France is used in bicycle racing across the world. The following terminology is used in the general Cycling, as well as the more specific sports of Road bicycle racing and Mountain bicycle racing. Terms specific to the Tour de France include:
A casual fan, Scott Coady attended the 2000 Tour de France with the aim to follow the entire Tour de France with a handheld video camera. By chance, he got a press accreditation and went on to make The Tour Baby! which has gained cult status among cyclists. He made the film to benefit the Lance Armstrong Foundation raising more than $160,000 for the foundation. The Lance Armstrong Foundation ( LAF) is a United States 501(c(3 Nonprofit organization 
In 2005, two films chronicled the efforts of a single team competing in the Tour de France. The German film Höllentour, translated as Hell on Wheels in English, records the Tour in 2003, the centenary year, from the perspective of Team Telekom. Höllentour (literally meaning "Hell Tour" is a German-language film released in 2005. The film was directed by Pepe Danquart who won an Academy Award for Live Action Short Film in 1993 for Black Rider (Schwarzfahrer). This name for the Academy Award for Live Action Short Film was introduced in 1974  Also released was Danish film Overcoming by Tómas Gislason, which records the 2004 Tour de France from the perspective of Team CSC.
One of the most famous films about the Tour is Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle. Louis Malle (30 October 1932 &ndash 23 November 1995 was a French Film director, working in both French and English. This 18 minute short takes a humorous look at the 1962 edition. The 1965 Tour was filmed by Claude Lelouch in Pour un Maillot Jaune. Claude Lelouch (born 30 October 1937 is a French Film director, writer, Cinematographer, Actor and producer. This 30 minute documentary contains no narration and relies on the sights and sounds of the Tour itself.
A movie based on Lance Armstrong's career is currently in a pre-production stage.
In fiction, the plot of the 2003 animated feature Les Triplettes de Belleville (The Triplets of Belleville) ties into the Tour De France. Les Triplettes de Belleville is a 2003 animated Feature film written and directed by Sylvain Chomet.
In 1983, the German music group Kraftwerk released the single "Tour de France" which was described as a minimalistic "melding of man and machine". Kraftwerk (ˈkʁaftvɛɐk German for " power plant " or " Power station " is an influential Electronic music band from " Tour de France " is a song by Kraftwerk. It was first issued in June 1983 peaking at #22 in the UK singles chart  The single was later included on a Kraftwerk record dedicated to the race, the Tour de France Soundtracks album from 2003. Tour de France Soundtracks is a 2003 Album by Kraftwerk. The album was recorded for the one hundreth Anniversary of the first
Allegations of doping have plagued the Tour almost since its beginning in 1903. have been allegations of doping in the Tour de France since the race began in 1903 The 2007 Tour de France was affected by a series of scandals and speculations related to doping. Early Tour riders were said to have consumed alcohol and used ether, among other substances, as a means of dulling the pain of competing in endurance cycling. Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a As time went by, riders began using substances as a means of increasing performance rather than dulling the senses, and organizing bodies such as the Tour and the International Cycling Union (UCI), as well as government bodies, enacted policies to combat the practice. Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI is a Cycling association that oversees competitive cycling events internationally Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI is a Cycling association that oversees competitive cycling events internationally
On July 13, 1967, British cyclist Tom Simpson died climbing Mont Ventoux following use of amphetamines, complicated by the now defunct practice of drinking as little as possible. Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Tom Simpson ( 30 November 1937 &ndash 13 July 1967) was an English Road racing cyclist who died of exhaustion on the Mont Ventoux (Ventor in classical norm or oc ''Ventour'' in Mistralian norm is a Mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km Amphetamine, and related drugs such as Methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and Dopamine His supposed last words, "put me back on my bike", were actually invented by Sid Saltmarsh of the British magazine "Cycling" and the daily paper "The Sun". Cycling Weekly is a British Cycling Magazine. It is published by IPC Media and is devoted mainly to Road bicycle racing The Sun is a Tabloid daily newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Ireland with the highest circulation of any daily English-language 
At the 1998 Tour de France, dubbed the "Tour of Shame", a doping scandal erupted when Willy Voet, one of the soigneurs for the Festina team, was arrested for possession of erythropoietin (EPO), growth hormones, testosterone and amphetamines. The 1998 Tour de France, also called the Tour de Dopage (Tour of Doping) was marred by doping scandals throughout known Willy Voet is a Belgian sports Physiotherapist. He is most widely known for his involvement in the Festina affair in the 1998 Tour de France A cycling team is a group of cyclists who join a team or are acquired and train together to compete in bicycle races of any kind - whether they are recreational or Festina is a Watch Manufacturer. It was founded in 1902 in Switzerland. Erythropoietin (ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪɨtɨn /ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪtən/ or /ɨˌɹiːθɹoʊ-/ or EPO is a Glycoprotein Hormone that controls Growth hormone ( GH) is a Peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries French police raided several teams in their hotels and found doping products in the possession of the TVM team. TVM was a Dutch Road bicycle racing team It folded in 2000 two years after suffering a doping scandal The riders staged a sit-down strike on stage 17. After mediation by Jean-Marie Leblanc, the director of the Tour, police agreed to limit the most heavy-handed tactics and the riders agreed to continue. Jean-Marie Leblanc (born July 27, 1944 in Nueil-sur-Argent, adjoining Nueil-les-Aubiers, a commune in the Deux-Sèvres Some riders and teams had already abandoned and only 96 riders finished the race. In a 2000 criminal trial, it became clear that the management and health officials of the Festina team had organised the doping.
In the years following the Festina scandal, further anti-doping measures were introduced by race organizers and the UCI, including more frequent testing of riders and new tests for blood doping (transfusions and EPO use). Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI is a Cycling association that oversees competitive cycling events internationally Blood doping is the practice of boosting the number of Red blood cells (RBCs in the circulation in order to enhance athletic performance Blood transfusion is the process of transferring Blood or blood-based products from one person into the Circulatory system of another Erythropoietin (ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪɨtɨn /ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪtən/ or /ɨˌɹiːθɹoʊ-/ or EPO is a Glycoprotein Hormone that controls A new, independent organization, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), was also created. The World Anti-Doping Agency ( WADA) Agence mondiale antidopage is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee Evidence of doping has however persisted. In 2002, the wife of Raimondas Rumšas, third in the 2002 Tour de France, was arrested by French police after EPO and anabolic steroids were found in her car. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Raimondas Rumšas (born 14 January, 1972 in Šilutė, Lithuania) a professional Road bicycle racer since 1996 who came out of nowhere The 2002 Tour de France started in Luxembourg on July 6 2002 and ended in Paris on July 28 Erythropoietin (ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪɨtɨn /ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪtən/ or /ɨˌɹiːθɹoʊ-/ or EPO is a Glycoprotein Hormone that controls Anabolic steroids, or anabolic-androgenic steroids ( AAS) are a class of Steroid hormones related to the hormone Testosterone. Rumšas, who had not failed a doping test, was not penalised. In 2004, Philippe Gaumont, a rider with the Cofidis team, told investigators and the press that doping with various substances was endemic to the team. Philippe Gaumont (born February 22, 1973 in Amiens) is a former French professional Road racing cyclist. Fellow Cofidis rider David Millar was forced to confess to EPO use after his home was raided and empty EPO vials were found. David Millar (born 4 January, 1977 in Mtarfa, Malta) is a Scottish Road racing cyclist racing for UCI Professional Erythropoietin (ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪɨtɨn /ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪtən/ or /ɨˌɹiːθɹoʊ-/ or EPO is a Glycoprotein Hormone that controls In the same year, Jesus Manzano, a rider with the Kelme team, described in detail how he had allegedly been forced by his team to use banned substances. Jesús María Manzano Ruano ( San Lorenzo de El Escorial, May 12 1978) is a former Spanish professional Road racing cyclist. 
Doping controversy has surrounded seven-time Tour champion Lance Armstrong for some time, although there has never been evidence for him to be penalized. Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson September 18 1971 is an American professional road racing cyclist for UCI ProTeam Team Astana In late August 2005, one month after Armstrong's seventh consecutive victory, the French sports newspaper l'Équipe claimed to have uncovered evidence that Armstrong had used EPO in the 1999 Tour de France. The 1999 Tour de France was the 86th Tour de France, taking place from July 3 to July 25 1999  Armstrong denied using EPO. In response to the L'Equipe allegations, an investigation was begun by the UCI in October 2005. The investigation reported that Armstrong did not engage in doping and that the actions of the World Anti-Doping Agency were "completely inconsistent" with testing rules.  At the same 1999 Tour, Armstrong's urine showed traces of a glucocorticosteroid hormone, although the amount detected was well below the “positive” threshold. Armstrong explained that he had used the skin cream Cemalyt containing triamcinolone to treat saddle sores. Triamcinolone (trade names Kenalog Aristocort Nasacort Tri-Nasal Triderm Azmacort Trilone Volon A Tristoject, Fougera, Tricortone, Triesence A saddle sore is a Skin ailment on the buttocks due to or exacerbated by riding on a Bicycle saddle.  Armstrong had previously received permission from the UCI to use this skin cream for his saddle sores. 
The 2006 Tour had been plagued by the Operación Puerto doping case before its beginning, when many favorites, such as Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso, were banned by their teams one day prior to the Prologue due to doping allegations. The Operación Puerto doping case (meaning Operation Mountain Pass) is a Spanish doping case against doctor Eufemiano Fuentes and a number of accomplices Jan Ullrich (born December 2 1973 in Rostock, East Germany) is a German former professional Road bicycle racer. Ivan Basso (born 26 November 1977) is an Italian professional Road bicycle racer who is currently suspended but has signed with Italian Seventeen riders were implicated. Then, the most serious doping charge in Tour history emerged just four days after the end of the 2006 Tour de France: it was announced that the American rider Floyd Landis had a positive test for a testosterone imbalance in his 'A' or initial test sample, after he won stage 17; this was confirmed in his 'B' sample result, published on August 5, 2006. Floyd Landis (born October 14 1975 is an American cyclist, currently suspended from competition who was stripped of overall victory in the 2006 Tour de France Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The decision to strip Landis of the victory rests with the International Cycling Union, but Tour de France director Christian Prudhomme said, "It goes without saying that for us Floyd Landis is no longer the winner of the 2006 Tour de France". Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI is a Cycling association that oversees competitive cycling events internationally Landis has stated that he will fight to clear his name. 
At a press conference on May 24, 2007, Erik Zabel admitted using EPO during the first week of the 1996 Tour de France, when he won the overall maillot vert (green jersey). Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Following a plea from Zabel for former cyclists to admit to using drugs, former Tour de France winner and manager of Team CSC, Bjarne Riis admitted at a press conference in Copenhagen on May 25, 2007 that he used EPO regularly from 1993 to 1998, including during his 1996 Tour de France win. Bjarne Lykkegård Riis (born April 3, 1964 in Herning) nicknamed the Eagle from Herning (Ørnen fra Herning is a Danish Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  His admission means the top three finishers in the 1996 Tour have all been linked to doping, with two admitting to cheating. Riis is the second Tour de France winner to confess the use of doping, following the example of Bernard Thevenet (winner in 1975 and 1977). Bernard Thévenet, born January 10, 1948, in Saint-Julien-de-Civry France, is a retired bicycle racer
On 24 July 2007 Tour de France rider Alexander Vinokourov tested positive for a banned blood transfusion (Blood doping) after winning a time trial, prompting his Astana team to pull out and police to raid the hotel of the team. Alexander Nikolaevich Vinokourov, also written Alexandre Vinokourov, (Алексaндр Николаевич Винокуров born September 16, 1973 Blood doping is the practice of boosting the number of Red blood cells (RBCs in the circulation in order to enhance athletic performance 
On 25 July 2007 it was announced that rider Cristian Moreni tested positive for testosterone. Cristian Moreni (born November 21 1972 in Asola) is an Italian Road racing cyclist who rode for Cofidis le Crédit par Téléphone Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries His Cofidis team pulled out as a result. 
On 25 July 2007 the Tour leader Michael Rasmussen of Denmark was removed from the race for "violating internal team rules" by missing random drug tests on 9 May and 28 June. Michael Rasmussen (born June 1 1974 in Tølløse) is a Danish professional Road bicycle racer who last rode for the Dutch At first, he was punished with three administrative warnings, after Rasmussen had claimed to have been in Mexico visiting his wife's family without notifying his team about his whereabouts. On 25 June, the Italian journalist Davide Cassani told on Danish television that he had seen Rasmussen training in Italy when Rasmussen had claimed to be in Mexico. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The alleged lying prompted his firing by the Rabobank team manager, Theo de Rooij. 
On 20 September 2007, 2006 winner Floyd Landis was found guilty of doping by an arbitrator's ruling. Floyd Landis (born October 14 1975 is an American cyclist, currently suspended from competition who was stripped of overall victory in the 2006 Tour de France He was stripped of his 2006 title, and received a two-year ban from cycling. 
Apart from the deaths of riders, another four fatal accidents have also occurred.
One rider has won seven times:
Four other riders have won five times:
Three other riders have won three times:
The youngest winner was Henri Cornet aged 19 in 1904. Henri Cornet (born Henri Jaudry August 4, 1884 - March 18, 1941) was a French Cyclist who won the 1904 Tour de France Results Next youngest was Romain Maes aged 21 in 1935. Romain Maes ( 18 August 1913 in Zerkegem &ndash 22 February 1983 in Groot-Bijgaarden) was a Belgian cyclist who Results Overall standings
The oldest winner was Firmin Lambot aged 36 in 1922. Firmin Lambot ( 14 March 1886 – 19 January 1964) was a Belgian Bicycle racer who twice won the Tour de France Results Stages Overall standings Next oldest were Henri Pelissier (1923) and Gino Bartali (1948) both 34. Henri Pélissier ( 22 January 1889 – 1 May 1935) was a French Racing cyclist from Paris and champion of Results Stages Overall standings Gino Bartali, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( July 18, 1914 - May 5, 2000) was an Italian professional Road racing Results Overall standings Jersey progression
Gino Bartali holds the longest time span between titles, having earned his first and last Tour victories 10 years apart (in 1938 and 1948). Gino Bartali, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( July 18, 1914 - May 5, 2000) was an Italian professional Road racing
Riders from France have won most (36), followed by Belgium (18), United States (10), Spain (10), Italy (9), Luxembourg (4), Switzerland and the Netherlands (2 each) and Ireland, Denmark and Germany (1 each).
One rider has won the points competition six times:
One rider has won the King of the Mountains seven times:
Two riders have won the King of the Mountains six times:
One rider has won the King of the Mountains, the points competition, and the Tour in the same year:
The most appearances have been by Joop Zoetemelk with 16 and no abandonments. Hendrik Gerardus Jozef "Joop" Zoetemelk (born December 3, 1946 in Rijpwetering) is a retired Cyclist from The Netherlands Three riders (Lucien van Impe, Guy Nulens and Viatcheslav Ekimov) have made 15 appearances; van Impe and Ekimov finished all 15 whereas Nulens abandoned twice. Lucien van Impe (born 20 October 1946 in Mere, Belgium) was a Belgian cyclist from 1969 to 1987 Viatcheslav Vladimirovich Ekimov ( Russian Вячеслав Владимирович Екимов; born February 4, 1966 in Vyborg
In the early years of the Tour, cyclists rode individually, and were sometimes even forbidden by the organization to ride together. This led to large gaps between the winner and the number two. Since the cyclists tend to stay together in a peloton, the margins of the winner have become smaller, as the difference can only originate from time trials or breakaways. For the supercomputing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory see Peloton (super computer, and for the military unit see Peloton (military. In the table below, the ten smallest margins between the winner and the second placed cyclists at the end of the Tour are given. 
|8"||1989||Greg LeMond - Laurent Fignon|
|23"||2007||Alberto Contador - Cadel Evans|
|32"||2006||Óscar Pereiro - Andreas Klöden|
|38"||1968||Jan Janssen - Herman Van Springel|
|40"||1987||Stephen Roche - Pedro Delgado|
|48"||1977||Bernard Thévenet - Hennie Kuiper|
|55"||1964||Jacques Anquetil - Raymond Poulidor|
|1'01"||2003||Lance Armstrong - Jan Ullrich|
|1'07"||1966||Lucien Aimar - Jan Janssen|
|1'25"||1956||Roger Walkowiak - Gilbert Bauvin|
A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International