|Born||February 18, 1931 |
Ohio, United States
|Genres||African American literature|
|Notable work(s)||Beloved, Song of Solomon|
|Notable award(s)||Nobel Prize in Literature|
Toni Morrison (born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18, 1931), is a Nobel Prize-winning American author, editor, and professor. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue, and richly detailed black characters; among the best known are her novels The Bluest Eye, Song of Solomon, and Beloved, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation The Bluest Eye is a 1970 novel by American author and Nobel Prize recipient Toni Morrison. Song of Solomon is a 1977 novel by Pulitzer and Nobel Prize -winning American author Toni Morrison. Beloved is a 1987 Pulitzer Prize winning novel by Nobel laureate Toni Morrison. The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction has been awarded since 1948 for distinguished fiction by an American author preferably dealing with American life In 2001 she was named one of the "30 Most Powerful Women in America" by Ladies' Home Journal. Ladies' Home Journal is a Magazine which first appeared February 16, 1883 and eventually became one of the leading magazines of the 20th Century
Toni Morrison was born in Lorain, Ohio, the second of four children in a working-class family. Lorain is a city in Lorain County, Ohio, United States. The municipality is located in northeastern Ohio on Lake Erie, at the mouth  As a child, Morrison read constantly; among her favorite authors were Jane Austen and Leo Tolstoy. Jane Austen (16 Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ( –) (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, was a Russian Writer widely regarded Morrison's father, George Wofford, a welder by trade, told her numerous folktales of the black community (a method of storytelling that would later work its way into Morrison's writings). 
In 1949 Morrison entered Howard University to study English. Howard University is a private, Coeducational Nonsectarian University located in Washington D While there she began going by the nickname of "Toni," which derives from her middle name, Anthony.  Morrison received a B. A. in English from Howard in 1953, then earned a Master of Arts degree, also in English, from Cornell University in 1955, for which she wrote a thesis on suicide in the works of William Faulkner and Virginia Woolf. A Master of Arts ( Latin: Magister Artium) is a Postgraduate academic Master's degree awarded by universities in a large William Faulkner (born William Cuthbert Falkner) ( September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American Author (Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941 was an English Novelist and Essayist, regarded as one of the foremost  After graduation, Morrison became an English instructor at Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas (from 1955-57) then returned to Howard to teach English. Texas Southern University is one of the largest historically black universities in the United States. She became a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. Alpha Kappa Alpha ( ΆΚΆ) is the first Greek-lettered Sorority established and incorporated by African American college women
In 1958 she married Harold Morrison. They had two children, Harold and Slade, and divorced in 1964. After the divorce she moved to Syracuse, New York, where she worked as a textbook editor. Syracuse (locally ˈsɛrəkjuːs sometimes ˈsɪrəkjuːs or /ˈsɪərəkjuːs/ by non-natives is a city in Central New York, USA. Eighteen months later she went to work as an editor at the New York City headquarters of Random House. The City of New York Random House Inc is the world's largest English-language general trade book publisher 
As an editor, Morrison played an important role in bringing African American literature into the mainstream. African American literature is the body of Literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent She edited books by such black authors as Toni Cade Bambara, Angela Davis and Gayl Jones. Toni Cade Bambara ( March 25, 1939 - December 9, 1995) was an American Author, social activist, and college professor Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham Alabama) is an American Political activist and University Gayl Jones (born November 23, 1949) is an African American writer from Lexington Kentucky. 
Morrison began writing fiction as part of an informal group of poets and writers at Howard University who met to discuss their work. She went to one meeting with a short story about a black girl who longed to have blue eyes. The story later evolved into her first novel, The Bluest Eye (1970), which she wrote while raising two children and teaching at Howard. The Bluest Eye is a 1970 novel by American author and Nobel Prize recipient Toni Morrison.  In 2000 it was chosen as a selection for Oprah's Book Club. Oprah's Book Club is a book club segment of the American Talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, highlighting books chosen by host 
In 1973 her novel Sula was nominated for the National Book Award. Sula is a 1974 novel by Nobel Prize -winning author Toni Morrison. The National Book Awards are among the most eminent literary prizes in the United States. Her third novel, Song of Solomon (1977), brought her national attention. Song of Solomon is a 1977 novel by Pulitzer and Nobel Prize -winning American author Toni Morrison. The book was a main selection of the Book-of-the-Month Club, the first novel by a black writer to be so chosen since Richard Wright's Native Son in 1940. Richard Wright may refer to Richard Wright (musician (1943–2008 also known as Rick Wright founding member of Pink Floyd Richard B Native Son (1940 is a novel by American author Richard Wright. It won the National Book Critics Circle Award. The National Book Critics Circle Award is an annual award given by the National Book Critics Circle (NBCC to promote the finest books and reviews published in
In 1988 Morrison's novel Beloved became a critical success. Beloved is a 1987 Pulitzer Prize winning novel by Nobel laureate Toni Morrison. When the novel failed to win the National Book Award as well as the National Book Critics Circle Award, a number of writers protested the omission.  Shortly afterward, it won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction. The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction has been awarded since 1948 for distinguished fiction by an American author preferably dealing with American life Beloved was adapted into the 1998 film of the same name starring Oprah Winfrey and Danny Glover. Beloved, originally Toni Morrison 's eponymous Pulitzer-Prize -winning 1987 novel was released as a motion picture in 1998 Oprah Gail Winfrey (born January 29 1954 often referred to simply as Oprah, is an American Danny Lebern Glover (born July 22 1946 is an American Actor, Film director, and Political activist. Morrison later used Margaret Garner's life story again in an opera, Margaret Garner, with music by Richard Danielpour. Margaret Garner is an American Opera loosely based on actual events in the life of runaway slave Margaret Garner. Richard Danielpour (born 28 January 1956 in New York) is an American Composer. In May 2006, The New York Times Book Review named Beloved the best American novel published in the previous twenty five years. American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America.
In 1993 Morrison was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the first black woman to win it. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred  Her citation reads: Toni Morrison, "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality. " Shortly afterwards, a fire destroyed her Rockland County, New York home. 
Although her novels typically concentrate on black women, Morrison does not identify her works as feminist.  She has stated that she thinks "it's off-putting to some readers, who may feel that I'm involved in writing some kind of feminist tract. I don't subscribe to patriarchy, and I don't think it should be substituted with matriarchy. I think it's a question of equitable access, and opening doors to all sorts of things. "
In addition to her novels, Morrison has also co-written books for children with her youngest son, Slade Morrison, who works as a painter and musician.
Morrison taught English at two branches of the State University of New York. In 1984 she was appointed to an Albert Schweitzer chair at the University at Albany, The State University of New York. Albert Schweitzer, MD, OM, (January 14 1875 &ndash September 4 1965 was an Alsatian theologian, Musician, Philosopher The University at Albany State University of New York, commonly known as the University at Albany is a Public university located in the capital of New From 1989 until her retirement in 2006, Morrison held the Robert F. Goheen Chair in the Humanities at Princeton University. Robert Francis Goheen ( 1919 - March 31 2008) was an American academic educated at The Lawrenceville School and graduating from Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. 
Though based in the Creative Writing Program, Morrison did not regularly offer writing workshops to students after the late 1990s, a fact that earned her some criticism. Rather, she has conceived and developed the prestigious Princeton Atelier, a program that brings together talented students with critically acclaimed, world-famous artists. Together the students and the artists produce works of art that are presented to the public after a semester of collaboration. In her position at Princeton, Morrison used her insights to encourage not merely new and emerging writers, but artists working to develop new forms of art through interdisciplinary play and cooperation.
At its 1979 commencement ceremonies, Barnard College awarded her its highest honor, the Barnard Medal of Distinction. Barnard College is a women's liberal arts college founded in 1889 Oxford University awarded her an honorary Doctor of Letters degree in June 2005. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding Doctor of Letters ( Latin: Litterarum doctor; DLitt; or Litt D
In November 2006, Morrison visited the Louvre Museum in Paris as the second in its "Grand Invité" program to guest-curate a month-long series of events across the arts on the theme of "The Foreigner's Home. The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city "
She currently holds a place on the editorial board of The Nation magazine. This article is about the US Publication. For other newspapers magazines and alternate uses by the same name see The Nation (disambiguation.
Morrison caused a stir when she called Bill Clinton "the first Black President;" saying "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald's-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. " This opinion was both adopted by Clinton supporters like the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) and ridiculed by critics. It should be noted that, in the context of the 2008 Democratic Primary campaign, during which Clinton made some remarks that were construed as unsympathetic to African-Americans, Morrison revisited her statement. Morrison stated to Salon magazine: "People misunderstood that phrase. I was deploring the way in which President Clinton was being treated, vis-à-vis the sex scandal that was surrounding him. I said he was being treated like a black on the street, already guilty, already a perp. I have no idea what his real instincts are, in terms of race. " However, in the 2008 presidential race, Morrison has endorsed Senator Barack Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton. Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26 1947 is the junior United States Senator from 
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American novelist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 18, 1931|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Lorain, Ohio|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|