|Spoken in:||Tonga, also American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand, Niue, USA, Vanuatu|
|Total speakers:||105,319 (as of 1998)|
Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian
|Official language in:||Tonga|
|Regulated by:||no official regulation|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. The Kingdom of Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean comprising 169 islands 36 of them inhabited stretching over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles American Samoa (Amerika Sāmoa or sm ''Sāmoa Amelika'' is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Niue (niːˈʔuːeɪ/ /ˈnjuːeɪ in English is an Island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Vanuatu, officially the Republic of Vanuatu ( French: République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu) is an Island List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 351 million speakers The family of Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages is a branch of the Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages. The family of Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (EMP languages is a subgroup of the Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages. The Oceanic languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, containing approximately 450 languages The over 200 Central-Eastern Oceanic languages form a branch of the Oceanic Language family within the Austronesian languages. The family of Remote Oceanic languages is a subgroup of the Central-Eastern Oceanic languages. The family of Central Pacific or Fijian-Polynesian languages is a branch of the Central-Eastern Oceanic languages. The family of East Fijian-Polynesian languages is a subgroup of the Central Pacific languages. The Polynesian languages are a Language family spoken in the region known as Polynesia. The family of Tongic languages is a subgroup of the Polynesian languages. The Kingdom of Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean comprising 169 islands 36 of them inhabited stretching over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles This is a list of bodies that regulate Standard languages Natural languages Auxiliary languages Interlingua The auxiliary language ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages ISO 639 -3 (ISO 639-32007 is an international standard for Language codes The standard describes three‐letter codes for identifying languages In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's|
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language spoken in Tonga. The Kingdom of Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean comprising 169 islands 36 of them inhabited stretching over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles It has around 100,000 speakers and is a national language of Tonga. A national language is a Language (or language variant, ie Dialect) which has some connection - de facto or de jure - with The Kingdom of Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean comprising 169 islands 36 of them inhabited stretching over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles It is a VSO (Verb-Subject-Object) language. Verb Subject Object ( VSO) is a term in Linguistic typology. It represents one type of languages when classifying languages according to the sequence of these
Tongan is one of the many languages in the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages, along with Hawaiʻian, Māori, Sāmoan and Tahitian, for example. The Polynesian languages are a Language family spoken in the region known as Polynesia. The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian ‘Ōlelo Hawai‘i) is an Austronesian language that takes its name from Hawai'i, the largest island in the tropical The Sāmoan or Samoan language is the traditional language of Samoa and American Samoa and is an official language &mdash alongside English Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French) Together with Niuean, it forms the Tongic subgroup of Polynesian. The Niuean language or Niue language (Niuean ko e vagahau Niuē) is a Polynesian language belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup The family of Tongic languages is a subgroup of the Polynesian languages. By comparing Tongic to the other subgroup, Nuclear Polynesian, it is possible to reconstruct the phonology of Proto-Polynesian, the theoretical source of the Polynesian languages. Nuclear Polynesian refers to those languages comprising the Samoic and the Eastern Polynesian branches of the Polynesian group of Austronesian Proto-Polynesian is the hypothetical Proto-language, from which all modern Polynesian languages descend
Tongan is unusual among Polynesian languages in that it has a so-called definitive accent. Like all Polynesian languages, Tongan has adapted the phonological system of proto-Polynesian.
|Polynesian sound correspondences|
|Phoneme||Proto-Polynesian||Tongan||Niuean||Sāmoan||Rapa Nui||Tahitian||Māori||Cook Is. Māori||Hawaiian||English|
In the old, "missionary" alphabet, the vowels were put first and then followed by the consonants (a, e, i, o, u, f. Proto-Polynesian is the hypothetical Proto-language, from which all modern Polynesian languages descend The Niuean language or Niue language (Niuean ko e vagahau Niuē) is a Polynesian language belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup The Sāmoan or Samoan language is the traditional language of Samoa and American Samoa and is an official language &mdash alongside English The Rapa Nui language (also Rapanui) is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Rapanui, the inhabitants of Easter Island. Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French) The Cook Islands Maori language also called Māori Kūki 'Āirani or Rarotongan, is the Official language of the Cook Islands. The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian ‘Ōlelo Hawai‘i) is an Austronesian language that takes its name from Hawai'i, the largest island in the tropical English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States An alphabet is a standardized set of letters basic written symbols each of which roughly represents a Phoneme, a Spoken language, either In Phonetics, a vowel is a Sound in spoken Language, such as English ah! or oh!, pronounced with an open Vocal tract In Articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a Speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the upper Vocal tract, the upper vocal . . etc. ). This was still so as of the Privy Council decision of 1943 on the orthography of the Tongan language. A privy council is a body that advises the Head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically but not always in the context of a However, C. M. Churchward's grammar and dictionary favoured the standard European alphabetical order, and since his time that one has been in use exclusively:
Note that the above order is strictly followed in proper dictionaries. Therefore ngatu follows nusi, ʻa follows vunga and it also follows z if foreign words occur. Words with long vowels come directly after those with short vowels. In Linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a Vowel sound Improper wordlists may or may not follow these rules. (For example the Tonga telephone directory for years now ignores all rules. ) The original j, used for /ʧ/, disappeared in the beginning of the 20th century, merging with /s/. By 1943, j was no longer used. Consequently, many words written with s in Tongan are cognate to those with t in other Polynesian languages. For example, Masisi (a star name) in Tongan is cognate with Matiti in Tokelauan; siale (Gardenia taitensis) in Tongan and tiare in Tahitian. Tokelauan is an Austronesian language. Speakers It is spoken by about 1700 people on the atolls of Tokelau, and by the few inhabitants of Gardenia is a Genus of about 250 species of Flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae, native to the Tropical and Subtropical Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French) This seems to be a natural development, as /ʧ/ in many Polynesian languages derived from Proto-Polynesian /ti/.
Although the acute accent has been available on most personal computers from their early days onwards, when Tongan newspapers started to use computers around 1990 to produce their papers, they were unable to find, or failed to enter, the proper keystrokes, and it grew into a habit to put the accent after the vowel instead on it: not á but a´. A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated But as this distance seemed to be too big, a demand arose for Tongan fonts where the acute accent was shifted to the right, a position halfway in between the two extremes above. Most papers still follow this practice.
English and many other languages only provide two article types:
The phenomenon of the definitive accent allows Tongan to have three article levels, and not only articles, the idea spreads to the possessives as well. A possessive pronoun is a Part of speech that attributes ownership to someone or something
There are three registers which consist of
For example, the phrase "Come and eat!" translates to::
The Tongan language distinguishes 3 numbers: singular, dual, and plural. In linguistics grammatical number is a Grammatical category of nouns pronouns and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one" SINGULAR is a Computer algebra system for Polynomial computations with special emphasis on the needs of Commutative algebra, Algebraic geometry Dual is a Grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and Plural. Plural is a Grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the Referent in the real world They appear as the 3 major columns in the tables below.
The Tongan language distinguishes 4 persons: First person exclusive, first person inclusive, second person and third person. In Linguistics, clusivity is a distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person Pronouns and Verbal morphology, In Linguistics, clusivity is a distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person Pronouns and Verbal morphology, They appear as the 4 major rows in the tables below.
This gives us 12 main groups. In every group the pronoun can be subjective (reddish) or objective (greenish). This marks a distinction that has been referred to, in some analyses of other Polynesian languages, as a-possession versus o-possession respectively. The Polynesian languages are a Language family spoken in the region known as Polynesia. 
The cardinal pronouns are the main personal pronouns which in Tongan can either be preposed (before the verb, light colour) or postposed (after the verb, dark colour). Personal pronouns are Pronouns used as substitutes for proper or common Nouns. For English usage of verbs see the wiki article English verbs. The first are the normal subjective pronouns, the latter the stressed subjective pronouns, which sometimes implies reflexive pronouns, or with kia te in front the objective pronouns. In Linguistics, a subjective pronoun is a Personal pronoun that is used as the subject of a sentence An objective pronoun in Grammar functions as the target of a Verb, as distinguished from a Subjective pronoun, which is the initiator of a verb (There are no possessions involved in the cardinal pronouns and therefore no subjective and objective forms to be considered).
(I, we, us)
|preposed||u, ou, ku||ma||mau|
(one, we, us)
Examples of use.
Another archaic aspect of Tongan is the retention of preposed pronouns. Cinderella ( French: Cendrillon, Slovak: Popoluška, German: Aschenputtel, Spanish: Cenicienta They are used much less frequently in Sāmoan and have completely disappeared in East Polynesian languages, where the pronouns are cognate with the Tongan postposed form minus ki-. (We love you: ʻOku ʻofa kimautolu kia te kimoutolu; Māori: e aroha nei mātou i a koutou).
The possessives for every person and number (1st person plural, 3rd person dual, etc. A possessive pronoun is a Part of speech that attributes ownership to someone or something ) can be further divided into normal or ordinary (light colour), emotional (medium colour) and emphatic (bright colour) forms. The latter is rarely used, but the two former are common and further subdivided in definite (saturated colour) and indefinite (greyish colour) forms. An indefinite pronoun is a Pronoun that refers to one or more unspecified beings objects or places
(his, her, its, their)
Examples of use.
These are the remainders: the pronominal adjectives (mine), indirect object pronouns or pronominal adverbs (for me) and the adverbial posssessives (as me). An object in Grammar is a Sentence element and part of the sentence predicate.
(his, her, its, their)
Examples of use:
ʻOku fiha ia? (how much (does it cost)?) Paʻanga ʻe ua-nima-noa (T$ 2. 50)
In addition there are special, traditional counting systems for fish, coconuts, yams, etc.
Tongan is primarily a spoken, rather than written, language. Only the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and a few other books are written in Tongan. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Book of Mormon is a Sacred text of the churches in the Latter Day Saint movement. There are not enough people who can read Tongan to commercially justify publishing books in the language. Most reading material available in Tonga is in English.
There are several weekly and monthly magazines in Tongan, but there are no daily newspapers.
Weekly newspapers, some of them twice per week:
Monthly or two-monthly papers, mostly church publications: