Full and cross-section of a ripe supermarket tomato
|Red tomatoes, raw|
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for In Scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different Scientific names used for a single Taxon. 5 oz)
|Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
The tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum, syn. Solanum lycopersicum) is an herbaceous, usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, as are its close cousins tobacco, chili peppers, potato, and eggplant. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The Solanaceae is a family of Flowering plants that contains a number of important agricultural plants as well as many toxic plants The Solanaceae is a family of Flowering plants that contains a number of important agricultural plants as well as many toxic plants Nicotiana refers to a Genus of Herbs and Shrubs of the Nightshade family ( Solanaceae) indigenous to The chili pepper, chilli pepper, or chili, is the fruit of the plants from the Genus Capsicum, which are members of the nightshade The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae The eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal ( Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades The tomato is native to Central, South, and southern North America from Mexico to Argentina. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. It is a perennial, often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual, typically reaching to 1-3m (3 to 10 ft) in height, with a weak, woody stem that often vines over other plants. A perennial plant or perennial ( Latin per, "through" annus, "year" is a Plant that lives for more than Botanically an annual plant is a Plant that usually germinates, Flowers and dies in one Year. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with 5–9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8cm long, with a serrated margin; both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. The flowers are 1–2cm across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the corolla; they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also A petal (from Ancient Greek petalon "leaf" "thin plate" regarded as a highly modified leaf is one member or part of the corolla The word tomato derives from a word in the Nahuatl language, tomatl. Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family The specific name, lycopersicum, means "wolf-peach" (compare the related species Solanum lycocarpum, whose scientific name means "wolf-fruit", common name "wolf-apple"), as they are a major food of wild canids in South America. In zoological nomenclature a specific name or specific epithet is the second part (second name in the name of a Species (a Binomen)
According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America, the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived, while other researchers have pointed out that many other fruits in continuous cultivation in Peru are not present in the very limited historical record. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America,
There is a competing hypothesis that says the plant, like the word "tomato", originated in Mexico, where one of the two apparently oldest "wild" types grows. It is entirely possible that domestication arose in both regions independently. Diversity data suggests the center of diversity for wild tomatoes is located in Peru, while that of cultivated tomatoes, in Mexico. Thus, it can be hypothesized that wild tomatoes were introduced from Peru to Mexico, where they were domesticated. Some ethnobotanists believe that the wild tomato seeds came to Central America via trade roads, in the manure of llamas and alpacas. The llama ( Lama glama) is a South American Camelid, widely used as a Pack animal by the Incas and other natives of the Andes The Alpaca ( Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American Camelid.
In any case, by some means the tomato migrated to Central America. Mayans and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking, and it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by the 16th Century. The Maya peoples constitute a diverse range of the Native American peoples of southern Mexico and northern Central America. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. Pueblos are traditional communities of Native Americans in the southwestern United States of America. Divination (from Latin divinare "to be inspired by a god" related to Divine, Diva and Deus) is the attempt of ascertaining The large, lumpy tomato, a mutation from a smoother, smaller fruit, originated and was encouraged in Central America. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes.
Two modern tomato cultivar groups, one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato, the other by currant tomatoes, both originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico. Solanum pimpinellifolium, also known as the currant tomato is a species of small tomato native to South America
After the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting They also took it to the Philippines, whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates, and cultivation began in the 1540s. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced, though it was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692, though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the However, in certain areas of Italy, such as Florence, the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was ever incorporated into the local cuisine until the late 17th or early 18th century.
The tomato plant was not grown in England until the 1590s, according to Smith. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard, a barber-surgeon. See also John Gerard SJ John Gerard ( Nantwich, 1545 &ndash February 1611/12 in London) was an English The Barber surgeon was one of the most common Medical practitioners of medieval Europe - generally charged with looking after Soldiers during Gerard's Herbal, published in 1597 and largely plagiarized from continental sources, is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in both Spain and Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Nonetheless, he believed that it was poisonous (tomato leaves and stems contain poisonous glycoalkaloids, but the fruit is safe). Glycoalkaloids are a family of Poisons commonly found in the plant species Solanum dulcamara ( Nightshade) Gerard's views were influential, and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the By the mid-1700s, however, tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain; and before the end of that century, the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups, broths, and as a garnish. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc
In Victorian times, cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses, most famously in Worthing. Worthing (ˈwɜrðɪŋ is a large seaside town and a local government borough in West Sussex, England Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton, and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Littlehampton is a Seaside resort town and Civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex, England. "Market garden" redirects here For the World War II operation see Operation Market Garden. Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, England. It has a long history as a settlement its Roman past and its subsequent importance The British tomato industry has declined over the past fifteen years or so as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets.
The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710, when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. British North America consisted of the colonies and territories of the British Empire in continental North America after the end of the American Revolutionary William Ryan Salmon (1868-1925 was an American politician and a member of the United States House of Representatives for the 7th congressional district South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. By the mid-18th century, they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations, and probably in other parts of the South as well. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time; and in general, they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. Ornamental plants are typically grown in the flower Garden or as House plants Most commonly they are grown for the display of their Flowers Other common Cultured people like Thomas Jefferson, who ate tomatoes in Paris and sent some seeds home, knew the tomato was edible, but many of the less well-educated did not. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
125 million tonnes of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2005, with China, the largest producer, accounting for about one-fourth of the global output followed by United States and Turkey. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
|Top Tomato Producers — 2005|
|China||31. The FAO Corporate Statistical Database was a multilingual on-line Database of statistics on Agriculture, Nutrition, fisheries forestry food aid land This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES 6|
|United States||11. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 0|
|Turkey||9. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches 7|
|India||7. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 6|
|Egypt||7. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. 6|
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits, with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types, and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from cherry tomatoes, about the same 1–2 cm size as the wild tomato, up to beefsteak tomatoes 10 cm or more in diameter. A cherry tomato is a smaller garden variety of Tomato. It is marketed at a premium to ordinary tomatoes and is popular as a snack and in Salads Cherry tomatoes The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 cm diameter range. Most cultivars produce red fruit; but a number of cultivars with yellow, orange, pink, purple, green, or white fruit are also available. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. Tomatoes grown for canning are often elongated, 7–9 cm long and 4–5 cm diameter; they are known as plum tomatoes. Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food is processed and sealed in an airtight container A plum tomato or paste tomato is a type of Tomato bred for sauce and packing purposes
Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and, along with zucchini, have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. Zucchini ( in North American and Australian English) or courgette (/kʊǝrˈʒɛt/ or in New Zealand and British English
As in most sectors of agriculture, there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes, as well as heirloom tomatoes, to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on Crop rotation, Green manure, Compost, Biological pest control, and mechanical Cultivation An heirloom tomato (also called heritage tomato in the UK) is an Heirloom plant, an open-pollinated (non-hybrid Cultivar of Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well, but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed.
There are a great many tomato varieties grown for various purposes. This is a list of Tomato varieties / cultivars / breedsPlease include when possible determinate /indeterminate/other resistance (VF or other fruit shape color size in Heirloom strains are becoming increasingly popular, particularly among home gardeners and organic producers, since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful crops at the possible cost of some disease resistance. Hybrid plants remain common, since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.
Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories, based mostly on shape and size. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce; beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications - their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life; globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating; oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks, and are shaped like large strawberries; plum tomatoes, or paste tomatoes which does include pear tomatoes, are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong; pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste; cherry tomatoes are small and round, often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads; and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. Beefsteak tomatoes are the largest varieties of cultivated Tomatoes sometimes weighing 1 lb ( A plum tomato or paste tomato is a type of Tomato bred for sauce and packing purposes This article is about the sauces often used with pasta In some countries "tomato sauce" is also used to refer to the condiment Ketchup. Tomato paste is a thick paste made from ripened Tomatoes with skin and seeds removed A cherry tomato is a smaller garden variety of Tomato. It is marketed at a premium to ordinary tomatoes and is popular as a snack and in Salads Cherry tomatoes
Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. Tomato Cultivars are commonly classified as determinate cultivars or indeterminate Determinate, or bush, types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height; they are often good choices for container growing. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time, or home growers interested in canning. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. As an intermediate form, there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate"; these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate, although some determinate heirlooms exist.
Commonly grown varieties include:
Heritage and heirloom varieties with exceptional taste include:
An excellent source for additional varieties of heritage cultivars is the Seed Savers Exchange. The Brandywine Tomato plant is an heirloom Cultivar of the species with large potato-leaved foliage and which bears large pink beefsteak Cherokee purple is the name of a cultivar of Tomato, unusual for the deep purple/red hue of its fruit Mortgage lifter is the name given to a Cultivar of Tomato developed by M Seed Savers Exchange, or SSE, is a non-profit based in Decorah, Iowa, that preserves Heirloom plant varieties through regeneration distribution
Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing, a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences In addition, some tomato cultivars produce fruit in colors other than red, including yellow, orange, pink, black, brown, and purple, though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores, nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries, but must be bought as seed, often via mail-order. Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength Yellow is the Color evoked by light that stimulates both the L and M (long and medium wavelength Cone cells of the Retina about equally Pink is a pale Red Color that was first recorded in the 17th century to describe the pale red Flowers of pinks, Flowering plants Black is the Color of objects that do not emit or Reflect Light in any part of the Visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of Black, when used as a general term is a color that is a Very dark Black, black, or Black, of low Luminance relative to Purple is a general term for the range of shades of Color occurring between Red and Blue. Likewise, some less common varieties have fuzzy skin on the fruit, as is the case with the Fuzzy Peach tomato and Red Boar tomato plants.
There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars; home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities, while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape, disease and pest resistance, and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.
Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. This article is a list of diseases of Tomatoes ( Lycopersicon esculentum) Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. An heirloom plant, heirloom variety, or (especially in the UK) heirloom vegetable is a Cultivar that was commonly grown during earlier periods One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus, and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes, although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV is an RNA virus that infects Plants especially Tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.  Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions, which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. Mildew refers to certain kinds of Mold or Fungus. In Old English, it meant honeydew (a substance secreted by Aphids on leaves formerly Blight refers to a specific Symptom affecting Plants in response to infection by a Pathogenic Organism. The most common letters are: V - verticillium wilt, F - fusarium wilt strain I, FF - fusarium wilt strain I & II, N - nematodes, T - tobacco mosaic virus, and A - alternaria. Verticillium is a Genus of Fungi in the division Ascomycota. Within the genus diverse groups are formed comprising saprotrophs and parasites Wilting refers to the loss of rigidity of non-woody parts of Plants This occurs when the Turgor pressure in non- lignified plant cells falls towards Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous Fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ The nematodes or roundworms ( Phylum Nematoda from Greek (nema "thread" + -ode "like" are one of the most common Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV is an RNA virus that infects Plants especially Tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae. Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi Alternaria species are known as major plant pathogens.
Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top, carried by the beet leafhopper, which interrupts the lifecycle, ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. This article describes the plant disease For the Shirley Temple movie see Curly Top. The beet leafhopper is a species of Leafhopper with a longer thinner build than most As the name implies, it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.
Some common tomato pests are cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms, aphids, cabbage loopers, whiteflies, tomato fruitworms, flea beetles, red spider mite, slugs, and Colorado potato beetles. The term cutworm is used for the Larvae of many species of Moth. The Five-Spotted Hawkmoth ( Manduca quinquemaculata) is a brown and gray Hawk moth of the Sphingidae family Manduca sexta L is a moth of the family Sphingidae present through much of the American continent The cabbage looper ( Trichoplusia ni) is a member of the Moth family Noctuidae. The whiteflies, comprising only the family Aleyrodidae, are small Homopterans More than 1550 species have been described The Larva of the Moth Helicoverpa zea (formerly in the genus Heliothis) is a major agricultural pest Flea beetles is a general name applied to the small jumping Beetles of the Leaf beetle family (Chrysomelidae Tetranychus urticae (an animal with over 60 common names including red spider mite and two-spotted spider mite) is one of many species of plant-feeding Slug is a common non-scientific word which is often applied to any Gastropod mollusk whatsoever that has a very reduced shell a small internal shell The Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado beetle, ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle
In the wild, original state, tomatoes required cross-pollination; they were much more self-incompatible than domestic cultivars. Pollination in angiosperms and Gymnosperms is the process that transfers pollen grains, which contain the male Gametes (sperm to where the female Self-incompatibility ( SI) is a general name for several genetic mechanisms in Angiosperms, which prevent Self-fertilization and thus encourage Outcrossing As a floral device to reduce selfing, the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. A gynoecium (from Ancient Greek gyne, "woman" is the Female reproductive part of a Flower. The stamens were, and remain, entirely within the closed corolla. The stamen ( Plural stamina or stamens, from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp " is the male A petal (from Ancient Greek petalon "leaf" "thin plate" regarded as a highly modified leaf is one member or part of the corolla
As tomatoes were moved from their native areas, their traditional pollinators, (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. A pollinator is the biotic agent ( vector) that moves Pollen from the male Anthers of a Flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small (> 4 mm to midsize (> 8 mm Bees which are usually dark-colored Bees are flying Insects closely related to Wasps and Ants Bees are a Monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. A pollenizer or polleniser, sometimes pollinizer or polliniser (see spelling differences) is a Plant that provides Pollen A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar
This is not the same as self-pollination, despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. Self-pollination is a form of Pollination that can occur when a Flower has both Stamen and a Carpel in which the Cultivar or That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind, vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually), or more often today, by cultured bumblebees. A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse or hothouse) is a building where plants are cultivated A bumblebee (or bumble bee) is any member of the Bee Genus Bombus, in the family Apidae; there are over 250 known species primarily
The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube, with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface, as with most species. The stamen ( Plural stamina or stamens, from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp " is the male Pollen is a fine to coarse powder consisting of microgametophytes ( pollen grains) which produce the male Gametes (sperm cells of The pollen moves through pores in the anther, but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion.
The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. Sonication or buzz pollination is a technique used by some bees to release pollen which is more or less firmly held by the anthers which makes Pollination more efficient In an outside setting, wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. A biological agent is an Infectious disease or Toxin that can be used in Bioterrorism or Biological warfare.
Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates, and indeed there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse or hothouse) is a building where plants are cultivated Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving In more temperate climates, it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. With the transplanting of tomatoes, there is a process of hardening that the plant must go through before being able to be placed outside in order to have greater survival.
Hydroponic tomatoes are also available, and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. Hydroponics (from the Greek words hydro (water and ponos (labour is a method of growing Plants using mineral Nutrient solutions without
Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier, starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. They may be recognized by their color, which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red.
In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. Transgenic plants possess a Gene or genes that have been transferred from a different Species. The Flavr Savr Tomato was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human consumption Shelf life is that length of time that Food, drink Medicine and other perishable items are given before they are considered unsuitable for sale or However, the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997.
Recently, stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine", which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium), but still may not be the equal of local garden produce.
Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.
Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world, and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Lycopene, one of nature's most powerful antioxidants, is present in tomatoes, and, especially when tomatoes are cooked, has been found beneficial in preventing prostate cancer. Lycopene is a bright red Carotenoid pigment and Phytochemical found in Tomatoes and other red fruits An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules  However, other research contradicts this claim.  Tomato extract branded as Lycomato is now also being promoted for treatment of high blood pressure. 
Though it is botanically a berry, a subset of fruit, the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). The word berry has two meanings one based on a botanical definition the other on common identification The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term, there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable.
Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisine, with Italian being the most notable. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Italian cuisine as a national Cuisine known today has evolved through centuries of social and political changes with its roots traced back to 4th century BC The tomato has an acidic property that is used to bring out other flavors. In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are This same acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning as tomato sauce or paste. Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food is processed and sealed in an airtight container This article is about the sauces often used with pasta In some countries "tomato sauce" is also used to refer to the condiment Ketchup. The first to commercially can tomatoes was Harrison Woodhull Crosby in Jamesburg, New Jersey. Harrison Woodhull Crosby of Jamesburg New Jersey was the first to can Tomatoes commercially in 1847 Jamesburg is a Borough in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. Tomato juice is a Juice made from squeezed Tomatoes It is usually used as a Beverage, either plain or in Cocktails such as a Bloody Mary A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption Unripe green tomatoes can also be used to make salsa, be breaded and fried, or pickled. Salsa is the Spanish, Arabic, and Italian word that can refer to any type of Sauce. Fried green tomatoes are a side dish usually found in the Southern United States, made from unripe (green Tomatoes coated with cornmeal and fried
The town of Buñol, Spain, annually celebrates La Tomatina, a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. Buñol (Catalan/ Valencian: Bunyol) is a town and Municipality in the Province of Valencia, Spain. La Tomatina is a Food fight Festival held on the last Wednesday of August each year in the town of Buñol in the Valencia region of Spain Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests; and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century; today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor. Embracing it for this protest connotation, the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. The Socialist Party ( SP, Dutch: Socialistische Partij) is a Dutch socialist Political party.
Known for its tomato growth and production, the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. Sinaloa is one of the 31 states of Mexico. Geography Sinaloa is bordered to the north by Sonora and Chihuahua; to the south 
Culinary uses of tomatoes include:
Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripe. Tomato paste is a thick paste made from ripened Tomatoes with skin and seeds removed The definitions of tomato purée vary between regions In the USA Tomato purée is a processed food product usually consisting of only tomatoes, but can also be found in pre-seasoned Tomato pie is a type of Pizza that is common in Italian populations around the world Gazpacho is a cold Spanish Tomato -based raw Vegetable Soup, originating in the southern region of Andalusia. Andalusian cuisine is rather varied corresponding to a region that is itself extensive and varied Ketchup (also spelled catsup or catchup) also known as tomato ketchup, tomato sauce, red sauce, Tommy sauce, Pa amb tomàquet (literally bread with tomato in Catalan) is a typical preparation of Catalan cuisine, that consists of Bread — optionally Catalan cuisine refers to the cuisine of Catalonia in Spain. It may also refer to the shared cuisine of the four Catalan-speaking regions of Catalonia Pizza (ˈpiːtsə, in Italian:) is a popular dish made with an Oven -baked flat generally round Bread that is covered with tomatoes or a tomato-based This article is about the sauces often used with pasta In some countries "tomato sauce" is also used to refer to the condiment Ketchup. Italian cuisine as a national Cuisine known today has evolved through centuries of social and political changes with its roots traced back to 4th century BC They are bred to continue ripening, but the enzyme that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. 5°C (54. 5°F). Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature, it will not continue to ripen. Once fully ripe, tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept and eaten at room temperature. A refrigerator (often called a " fridge " for short is a cooling appliance comprising a thermally insulated compartment and a Heat pump - Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor, but will still be edible; thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. 
Tomato plants are vines, initially decumbent, typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred, generally three feet tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands), although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates.
Tomato plants are dicots, and grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Dicotyledons, or "dicots", is a name for a group of Flowering plants whose Seed typically has two embryonic leaves or Cotyledons There When that tip eventually stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other, fully functional, vines. 
Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs. These hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture, especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root.
Tomato plants generally have compound leaves, known as Regular Leaf (RL) plants. Some cultivars, though, have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Potato leaf, or PL, is one of two major styles of leaves which various Tomato plants may have the other kind simply being called "regular leaf" or RL Of regular leaves, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are deeply grooved, angora leaves, which are pubescent (hairy), and variegated (originating in Ireland), which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. Variegation is the appearance of differently coloured zones in the leaves, and sometimes the stems, of Plants This may be due to a number of causes Chlorophyll is a green Pigment found in most Plants Algae and Cyanobacteria. 
Their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounded by the pistil's style. These tend to be self-fertilizing. This is because they are native to the Americas; all plants from the New World evolved without honeybees (which are native to the old world, only), and have other specific means of fertilization.  This, of course, does not take into account pollinators including flies, butterflies, moths and other insects as well as any other external force that would take the pollen from one flower to another that were present in the "new world" and would make it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination.
Its fruit is classified, botanically, as a berry. The word berry has two meanings one based on a botanical definition the other on common identification As a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture, called locular cavities. These vary, among cultivated species, according to type. Some smaller tomatoes have two cavities, globe-shaped typically have three to five, and beefsteak having a great number of smaller ones, while paste tomatoes have very few, very small cavities.
The seeds need to come from a mature fruit, and be dried/fermented before germination.
Tomatoes are rich in vitamin C and contain lycopene as well as small (almost negligible) amounts of nicotine. Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian Lycopene is a bright red Carotenoid pigment and Phytochemical found in Tomatoes and other red fruits Nicotine is an Alkaloid found in the Nightshade family of plants ( Solanaceae) which constitutes approximately 0
There are many legends about the tomato. For example, it has been claimed that tomatoes were not widely eaten in the U. S. until the late 1800s. It has sometimes been claimed that tomatoes were considered aphrodisiacs and so were shunned by the Puritans. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Other claims center on the supposed fear that tomatoes were poisonous, based on the fact that they belong to the Solanales Order, or "Nightshade" family, which contains many toxic plants. The Solanales are an order of Flowering plants included in the asterid group of Dicotyledons Some older sources used the name Polemoniales The Solanaceae is a family of Flowering plants that contains a number of important agricultural plants as well as many toxic plants Many legends also maintain that the tomato was introduced into the U. S. from South America by one particular person; Thomas Jefferson is sometimes mentioned. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence
Tomatoes' status as an aphrodisiac may be due to a mistranslation. Legend has it a Frenchman on his travels ate a meal with tomatoes in it and was fascinated with the new taste. He went back to the chef, who was Italian, and asked him what this new ingredient was. The chef said "Pomme de Maure" (Apple of the Moors), but the Frenchman misunderstood and thought he said "Pomme d'amour" (apple of love). The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The modern Italian word for tomato however is "pomodoro", which means "golden apple". However Spanish importation from the New World may explain the connection to the Moors.
In the United States, the most famous legend of this sort was introduced by Joseph S. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Sickler in the mid-1900s, and became the subject of a CBS broadcast of You Are There in 1949. The story goes that the lingering doubts about the safety of the tomato in the United States were largely put to rest in 1820, when Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson announced that at noon on September 26, he would eat a basket of tomatoes in front of the Salem, New Jersey courthouse. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Salem is a City in Salem County, New Jersey, United States. As of the United States 2000 Census, the city population was 5857 Reportedly, a crowd of more than 2,000 persons gathered in front of the courthouse to watch the poor man die after eating the poisonous fruits, and were shocked when he lived. In his book Smith notes that there is little, if any, historical evidence for any of these legends, and that they continue to be repeated largely because they are entertaining stories.
It is also said that the tomato became popular in France during the French Revolution, because the revolutionaries' iconic color was red; and at one point it was suggested that they should eat red food as a show of loyalty. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Since European royalty was still leery of the nightshade-related tomato, it apparently was the perfect choice. This may also be why the first reported use of the tomato in the U. S. was in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1812, because of the French influence in that region. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana "Love apples" or tomatoes were also said to have been grown experimentally by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello twenty years prior, however. 
There is also a story which claims that an agent for Britain attempted to kill General George Washington by feeding him a dish laced with tomatoes during the American Revolution. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots"
"Tomato" also has been used as a slang word for an attractive woman. Slang is the use of highly informal Words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's Dialect or Language. This use was most common from the 1920s through the 1940s, and only within the USA.
In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for (derivation, 'lyco', wolf, plus 'persicum', peach, i. The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The peach ( Prunus persica) is a species of Prunus native to China that bears an edible juicy fruit also called a peach e. , "wolf-peach"). However, in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus, and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. Philip Miller ( 1691 - 18 December 1771) was a botanist of Scottish descent This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ( ICBN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal Botanical names that are given to Technically, the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. ) H.Karst. would be more correct, but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs, which frequently used it and still do). Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann Karsten (1817 - 1908 was a German Botanist and Geologist. Therefore, it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum, making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. A conserved name or nomen conservandum (plural nomina conservanda) is a scientific name that enjoys special nomenclatural protection In botany the correct name is the one and only Botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon when that taxon has a particular taxonomic placement
However, genetic evidence (e. Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is g. , Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum, making the Linnaean name correct; if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum, Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. In Phylogenetics, a group of organisms is said to be paraphyletic if the group contains its most recent common ancestor but does not contain all Despite this, it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come, with both names found in the literature. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum), and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato).
The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research is a renowned research and education organization currently located on the campus of Cornell University in Ithaca New York In classical genetics the genome of a Diploid Organism including Eukarya refers to a full set of chromosomes or genes in a Gamete, thereby  A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. The genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. In Cell biology, an organelle (pronunciation /ɔː(rgəˡnɛl/ is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function and is usually separately enclosed In Cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed Organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. Chloroplasts are Organelles found in Plant cells and eukaryotic Algae that conduct Photosynthesis.
Botanically, a tomato is the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit or, more precisely, a berry. In the Flowering plants an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or Gynoecium. The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The word berry has two meanings one based on a botanical definition the other on common identification However, the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and, from a culinary standpoint, it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal, as are vegetables, rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. Main Course is the Bee Gees ' eleventh album released in 1975 and their last album to be released by Atlantic Records in the U The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal usually consisting of sweet Food but sometimes of a strongly-flavored one such as some Cheeses The As noted above, the term "vegetable" has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term.
This argument has had legal implications in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary See also Taxation, Indirect Tax In Economics, a duty is a kind of Tax, often associated with Customs, a payment due to the The U.S. Supreme Court settled the controversy in 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use, that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Hedden (149 U. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Nix v Hedden, 149 US 304 ( 1893) was a case in which the United States Supreme Court addressed whether a Tomato was classified S. 304)). The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3, 1883, and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes other than paying a tax under a tariff act.
The tomato has been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law, citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. In 2006, the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit, but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. The Ohio House of Representatives is the Lower house of the Ohio General Assembly, the state legislature of the U The Ohio Senate is the upper house in Ohio 's Bicameral Legislature, the Ohio General Assembly; the lower house is the Ohio House of Representatives Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. A. W. Livingston, of Reynoldsburg, Ohio played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Reynoldsburg is a city in Fairfield, Franklin, and Licking counties in the U
Due to the scientific definition of a fruit, the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants, cucumbers, and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. The eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal ( Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades The cucumber ( Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the Gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending Zucchini ( in North American and Australian English) or courgette (/kʊǝrˈʒɛt/ or in New Zealand and British English Pumpkin is a Gourd -like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds
The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries; the two most common variants are /təˈmɑːtəʊ/ and /təˈmeɪtoʊ/. Differences in Pronunciation between American English (AmE and British English (BrE can be divided into differences in accent (i The following is a list of Sovereign states and territories where English is an Official language, in order of Population. Speakers from the British Isles, most of the Commonwealth, and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈmɑːtəʊ/, while most American and Canadian speakers usually say /təˈmeɪtoʊ/. The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan Southern American English is a group of Dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from Southern Most or all languages, apart from American English, have a word that corresponds more to the former pronunciation, including the original Nahuatl word "tomatl" from which they are all taken. Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology.
The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pəˈteɪtoʊ/ and I like /pəˈtɑːtəʊ/ / You like /təˈmeɪtoʊ/ and I like /təˈmɑːtəʊ/) and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes. Free variation in Linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect Ira Gershwin ( 6 December 1896 &ndash 17 August 1983) was an American Lyricist who collaborated with his younger George Gershwin (September 26 1898 &ndash July 11 1937 was an American Composer. " Let's Call the Whole Thing Off " is a song written by George Gershwin and Ira Gershwin for the 1937 film Shall We Dance Nitpicking is the act of removing nits (the eggs of Lice, generally Head lice) from the host's Hair. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈmeɪtoʊ, təˈmɑːtəʊ/ when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. "
On October 30, 2006 the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might be the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states . The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated Salmonella is a Genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever The affected states include Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont and Wisconsin. Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Rhode Island ( officially named the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network).  Again in the late spring of 2008, a salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States. This time at least 167 cases of salmonella and 23 hospitalizations have occured as a result of contaminated tomatoes. 
The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. 51 kg (7 lb 12 oz), of the cultivar 'Delicious', grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond, Oklahoma in 1986. Gordon Graham is an American journalistIn the early 1990s Graham was a CNN Headline Edmond is a city in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, United States, and a part of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area in the central part of the state The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. 8 m (65 ft) length, grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley, Lancashire, UK, in 2000.
The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista, Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. Walt Disney World Resort is the most visited and largest recreational resort in the world containing four Theme parks two Water parks twenty-three themed hotels Lake Buena Vista is a city in Orange County, Florida, United States. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder, with a harvest of more than 32,000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1,151. 84 pounds. This one-of-a-kind plant yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. Yong Huang, Epcot's manager of agricultural science discovered the unique plant in Beijing, China. Epcot is a Theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort. The park is dedicated to international Culture and technological Innovation. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. Living with the Land is a ride located within The Land pavilion which is part of Epcot theme park in Walt Disney World Resort at Lake Buena Vista
On August 30, 2007, 40,000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115,000 kilograms of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Buñol (Catalan/ Valencian: Bunyol) is a town and Municipality in the Province of Valencia, Spain. The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family La Tomatina is a Food fight Festival held on the last Wednesday of August each year in the town of Buñol in the Valencia region of Spain A festival is an event usually and ordinarily staged by a local community which centers on some unique aspect of that community Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British, French and Germans.