Toccata (from Italian toccare, "to touch") is a virtuoso piece of music typically for a keyboard or plucked string instrument featuring sections of virtuosic passagework, with or without imitative or fugal interludes, generally emphasizing the dexterity of the performer. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning skill manliness excellence is an individual A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a Musical keyboard. Plucked string instruments are a subcategory of String instruments that are played by plucking the strings Plucking is a way of pulling and releasing the string in In Music, a fugue (ˈfjuːg is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred Less frequently, the name is applied to works for multiple instruments (the opening of Claudio Monteverdi's opera Orfeo being a notable example). L'Orfeo ( L'Orfeo favola in musica, SV 318 or La Favola d'Orfeo, or The Legend of Orpheus) is one of the earliest
The form first appeared in the late Renaissance period. Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 - 1600 It originated in northern Italy. Several publications of the 1590s include toccatas, by composers such as Girolamo Diruta, Adriano Banchieri, Claudio Merulo, Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli, Luzzasco Luzzaschi and others. Girolamo Diruta (c 1554 &ndash after 1610 was an Italian organist music theorist and composer Adriano Banchieri ( September 3, 1568 &ndash 1634 was an Italian composer music theorist, organist and poet of the late Renaissance Claudio Merulo (also spelled Merlotti Merulus also Claudio da Correggio 8 April 1533 – 4 May 1604) was an Italian Composer Andrea Gabrieli (1532/1533? – August 30, 1585) was an Italian Composer and Organist of the late Renaissance. Giovanni Gabrieli (c 1554/1557 &ndash August 12 1612 was an Italian Composer and organist. Luzzasco Luzzaschi (c 1545 &ndash September 10, 1607) was an Italian Composer, Organist, and teacher of the late Renaissance These are keyboard compositions in which one hand, and then the other, performs virtuosic runs and brilliant cascading passages against a chordal accompaniment in the other hand. Among the composers working in Venice at this time was the young Hans Leo Hassler, who studied with the Gabrielis; he brought the form back with him to Germany. Hans Leo Haßler (baptized October 26 1564 – d June 8 1612 was a German composer and organist of the late Renaissance and early Baroque It was in Germany where it underwent its highest development, culminating in the work of Johann Sebastian Bach more than a hundred years later. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
The Baroque toccata, beginning with Girolamo Frescobaldi, is more sectional and increases in length, intensity and virtuosity from the Renaissance version, reaching heights of extravagance equivalent to the overwhelming detail seen in the architecture of the period. Girolamo Frescobaldi (baptized mid-September 1583 – March 1 1643 was an Italian musician one of the most important Composers of keyboard music in the late Often it features rapid runs and arpeggios alternating with chordal or fugal parts. In Music, an arpeggio is a broken chord where the Notes are played or sung in Sequence, one after the other rather than Ringing out simultaneously In Music, a fugue (ˈfjuːg is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred Sometimes there is a lack of regular tempo, and almost always an improvisational feel. Improvisation (also called extemporization) is the practice of acting singing talking and reacting of making and creating in the moment and in response to the stimulus of
Other Baroque composers of toccatas, in the period before Bach, include Johann Pachelbel, Michelangelo Rossi, Johann Jakob Froberger, Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Alessandro Scarlatti and Dieterich Buxtehude. Michelangelo Rossi (Michel Angelo del Violino (born in Genova in 1601 or 1602 died in Rome in 1656 was an important Italian Composer, Violinist Johann Jakob Froberger ( baptized May 19 1616 &ndash May 7 1667 was a German Baroque composer keyboard Virtuoso, and Organist Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (April or May 1562 &ndash October 16 1621 was a Dutch Composer, Organist, and Pedagogue whose work straddled the Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2 1660 &ndash October 24 1725 was an Italian Baroque Composer especially famous for his Operas and chamber Cantatas Dieterich Buxtehude ( Dietrich, Diderich) (c 1637 &ndash 9 May 1707 was a German-Danish Organist, Lutenist
Bach's toccatas are among the most famous examples of the form, and in the modern era one of his most well known is the Toccata and Fugue in D Minor BWV 565 (though its authorship is disputed by some authorities). BWV is also the SIL code for the Language Bahau River Kenyah spoken in Borneo. His toccatas for organ are brilliant improvisatory compositions, and are often followed by an independent fugue movement. In Music, a fugue (ˈfjuːg is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred In such cases the toccata is used in place of the usually more stable prelude. A prelude is a short piece of Music, which its form will vary from piece to piece Bach's toccatas for harpsichord are multi-sectional works which include fugal writing as part of their structure.
Beyond the Baroque period, toccatas are found less frequently, so that Robert Browning used the motif of a toccata of Baldassare Galuppi to evoke thoughts of human transience (see link). Robert Browning (7 May 1812 - 12 December 1889 was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of Dramatic verse, especially Dramatic monologues made him one of Baldassare Galuppi ( October 18, 1706 &ndash January 3, 1785) was an Italian Composer from Venice, noted There are a few notable examples, however. From the Romantic period Robert Schumann and Franz Liszt each wrote a piano toccata - the ambitious Schumann piece being considered one of the most technically difficult works in the repertoire and the foremost representative of the genre in the 1800s. Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann (June 8 1810 &ndash July 29 1856 was a German Composer, Aesthete and influential Music critic The Liszt toccata is a very short and austere composition from his late period, and is practically a toccata only by name. From the early 20th century Prokofiev and Aram Khachaturian each wrote a toccata for solo piano, as did Maurice Ravel as part of Le Tombeau de Couperin and Claude Debussy in his 'Suite: Pour le Piano'. Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев Sergéj Sergéjevič Prokófjev) ( - 5 March 1953 was a Russian composer who Aram Khachaturian ( Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян Aram Il'ič Hačaturjan The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers Le Tombeau de Couperin is a Suite for solo piano by Maurice Ravel, composed between 1914 and 1917 Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji wrote several toccatas for solo piano. Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji ( August 14, 1892 &ndash October 15, 1988) was a British Parsi Composer, music journalist The toccata form was of great importance in the French romantic organ school, something which Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens laid the foundation of with his Fanfare. Toccatas in this style usually consist of rapid chord progressions combined with a powerful tune (often played in the pedal). The most famous examples are the ending movement of Charles-Marie Widor's Symphony No. 5, and the Finale of Louis Vierne's Symphony No. Charles-Marie Jean Albert Widor (February 21 1844 &ndash March 12 1937 was a French organist, Composer and teacher Louis Victor Jules Vierne was a renowned French organist and Composer. 1. More recently, John Rutter wrote Toccata in 7, so called because of its unusual time signature. John Milford Rutter CBE (born) is an English Composer, choral conductor, editor, Arranger and Record producer Toccatas occasionally make appearances in works for full orchestra; a notable example is the final movement of the Eighth Symphony of Ralph Vaughan Williams. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well Ralph Vaughan Williams ' Symphony No 8 in D minor was composed between 1953 and 1955. Ralph (reɪf Vaughan Williams OM (12 October 1872 &ndash 26 August 1958 was an English Composer of symphonies, Chamber music