|This article contains Chinese text. |
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters. Mojibake is the happenstance of incorrect unreadable characters (garbage characters shown when Computer software fails to render a text correctly according to its associated A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese (
|Tiananmen Square protests of 1989|
|The Unknown Rebel - This famous photo, taken on 5 June 1989 by photographer Jeff Widener, depicts an unknown student attempting to halt the PLA's advancing tanks. Tank Man, or the Unknown Rebel, is the nickname of an anonymous man who became internationally famous when he was videotaped and photographed during the Tiananmen Square Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Jeff Widener (born August 11, 1956) in Long Beach CA is the Associated Press photojournalist who took the world-famous picture of "The The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China.|
|Literal meaning:||June Fourth Incident|
|alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning:||Tiananmen Incident|
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 culminating in the Tiananmen Square Massacre - referred to in China as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with two other Tiananmen Square protests - were a series of demonstrations led by labor activists, students, and intellectuals in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. The Tian'anmen ( literally the "Gate of Heavenly Peace" is a famous monument in Beijing, the capital of People's Republic of China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants were generally against the authoritarianism and economic policies of the ruling Chinese Communist Party and voiced calls for democratic reform within the structure of the government. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the The demonstrations centered on Tiananmen Square in Beijing, but large-scale protests also occurred in cities throughout China, including Shanghai, which stayed peaceful throughout the protests. Tiananmen Square ( is the large Plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally Gate of Heavenly Peace Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million In Beijing, the resulting military crackdown on the protesters by the PRC government left many civilians dead or injured. The reported tolls ranged from 200–300 (PRC government figures), to 300–800 (The New York Times), and to 2,000–3,000 (Chinese student associations and Chinese Red Cross). The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated
Following the violence, the government conducted widespread arrests to suppress protesters and their supporters, cracked down on other protests around China, banned the foreign press from the country and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press. Members of the Party who had publicly sympathized with the protesters were purged, with several high-ranking members placed under house arrest, such as General Secretary Zhao Ziyang. In Justice and Law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or electronic monitoring) is a measure by which The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee ( is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat Zhao Ziyang ( (17 October 1919&ndash17 January 2005 was a politician in the People's Republic of China. The violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square protest caused widespread international condemnation of the PRC government. 
1949–1976, The Mao Era
Geography - Politics - Education
In the Chinese language, the incident is most commonly known as the June Fourth Movement (simplified Chinese: 六四运动; traditional Chinese: 六四運動), the June Fourth Incident (Chinese: 六四事件), or colloquially, simply Six-four (June 4th) (Chinese: 六四). The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of Mainland China since October 1, 1949, when after a near complete victory The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of Mainland China since October 1, 1949, when after a near complete victory See also History of China, History of the People's Republic of China Early 1950s Social revolution The People's Republic of China was founded on The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the The Hundred Flowers Campaign, also termed the Hundred Flowers Movement, ( is the period referring to a brief interlude in the People's Republic of China from The Anti-Rightist Movement ( of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and early 1960s consisted of a series of campaigns to purge alleged "rightists" The Great Leap Forward ( of the People's Republic of China (PRC was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use China 's vast population The Great Chinese Famine ( officially referred to as the Three Years of Natural Disasters ( was the period in the People's Republic of China between 1958 and 1961 The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Lin Biao ( born as Lin Yurong ( December 5, 1907 ?[[September 13]] 1971) was a Chinese Communist military leader The Gang of Four ( was the name given to a leftist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist party officials The Tiananmen Incident ( Sìwǔ Tiān'ānmén shìjiàn, "April 5 Tian'anmen Incident" took place on April 5, 1976 at Tiananmen Square See also History of China, History of the People's Republic of China Power struggles after Mao's death The Chinese economic reform ( refers to the program of economic reforms called " Socialism with Chinese characteristics " in the People's Republic of The Sino–Vietnamese War, also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief but bloody border war fought in 1979 between the People's Republic of China (PRC See also History of China, History of the People's Republic of China Recovery in the 1990s Post-Tiananmen The Tiananmen Square protests " One country two systems " is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s then Paramount Leader of the People's Republic Hong Kong began as a coastal Island geographically located in southern China. Macau is a Special Administrative Region (SAR of the People's Republic of China. There is also a specific Chinese reunification of 1928. Chinese reunification ( is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to See also History of China, History of the People's Republic of China "Fourth Generation" The Hu-Wen Administration Power transition Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era The history of Beijing or Peking can be traced back 3000 years when it was the capital of the ancient State of Yan There were cities in the vicinities of Beijing The history of Shanghai, spanning at least eight Dynasties in Chinese history, closely parallels the development of modern China. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer Jiang Zemin ( born 17 August 1926 was the "core of the third generation " of Communist Party of China leaders serving as General Secretary of Hu Jintao ( born 21 December 1942 is currently the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist This article discusses the culture of the People's Republic of China. China has the second-largest economy in the world with a GDP of over $ 6 The geography of China stretches some 5026 kilometers across the East Asian landmass bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and The politics of the People's Republic of China take place in a framework of a single-party socialist republic. This article is about the education in the People's Republic of China. The nomenclature of the former is consistent with the customary names of the other two great protest actions that occurred in Tiananmen Square: the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and the April Fifth Movement of 1976. The May Fourth Movement ( was an anti- imperialist, cultural and political movement in early modern China. The Tiananmen Incident ( Sìwǔ Tiān'ānmén shìjiàn, "April 5 Tian'anmen Incident" took place on April 5, 1976 at Tiananmen Square Other names which have been used in the Chinese language include June Fourth Massacre (Chinese: 六四屠城; pinyin: Liù-Sì Túchéng or Chinese: 六四屠杀; pinyin: Liù-Sì Túshā). Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use The government of the People's Republic of China has referred to the event as the Political Turmoil between Spring and Summer of 1989 (Chinese: 春夏之交的政治風波). Power within the Government of the People's Republic of China is divided among three bodies the Communist Party of China, the state and the People's
Since 1978, Deng Xiaoping had led a series of economic and political reforms which had led to the gradual implementation of a market economy and some political liberalization that relaxed the system set up by Mao Zedong. Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions This article is about the term itself and its relationships For its implementation and effects see Economy of the People's Republic of China and Chinese economic Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led
Some students and intellectuals believed that the reforms had not gone far enough and that China needed to reform its political system. An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, Power within the Government of the People's Republic of China is divided among three bodies the Communist Party of China, the state and the People's They were also concerned about the social and political controls that the Communist Party of China still had. The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the This group had also seen the political liberalization that had been undertaken in the name of glasnost by Mikhail Gorbachev, so they had been hoping for comparable reform. (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase" Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician
The Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 were in large measure sparked by the death of former Secretary General Hu Yaobang. Hu Yaobang ( Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang 20 November 1915&ndash15 April 1989 was a leader of the People's Hu Yaobang's resignation from the position of Secretary General of the CPC had been announced on January 16, 1987. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) His forthright calls for "rapid reform" and his almost open contempt of "Maoist excesses" had made him a suitable scapegoat in the eyes of Deng Xiaoping and others, after the pro-democracy student protests of 1986–1987 (Spence 1999, 685). See also History of China, History of the People's Republic of China Power struggles after Mao's death Included in his resignation was also a "humiliating self-criticism", which he was forced to issue by the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Hu Yaobang's sudden death, due to heart attack, on April 15, 1989 provided a perfect opportunity for the students to gather once again, not only to mourn the deceased Secretary General, but also to have their voices heard in "demanding a reversal of the verdict against him" and bringing renewed attention to the important issues of the 1986–1987 pro-democracy protests and possibly also to those of the Democracy Wall protests in 1978–1979 (Spence 1999, 697)
Protests started out on a small scale, on April 16 and April 17, in the form of mourning for Hu Yaobang and demands that the party revise their official view of him. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. On April 18, 10,000 students staged a sit-in on Tian'anmen square, in front of the Great Hall of the People. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. On the same evening, a few thousand students gathered in front of Zhongnanhai, the residence of the government, demanding to see government leaders. The Zhongnanhai ( is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China adjacent to the Forbidden City which serves as the central headquarters for the They were dispersed by security.
The protests gained momentum after news of the confrontation between students and police spread; the belief by students that the Chinese media was distorting the nature of their activities also led to increased support (although one national newspaper, the Science and Technology Daily (simplified Chinese: 科技日报; traditional Chinese: 科技日報), published, in its issue dated April 19, an account of the April 18 sit-in). Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland.
On the night of April 21, the day before Hu's funeral, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen square, gathering there before the square could be closed off for the funeral. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) On April 22, they requested, in vain, to meet premier Li Peng, widely regarded to be Hu's political rival. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Li Peng ( (b 20 October 1928 was the Premier of China between 1987 and 1998 the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress On the same day, protests happened in Xi'an and Changsha. UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the
From April 21 to April 23, students from Beijing called for a strike at universities, which included teachers and students boycotting classes. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at The government, which was well aware of the political storm caused by the now-legitimized 1976 Tiananmen Incident, was alarmed. The Tiananmen Incident ( Sìwǔ Tiān'ānmén shìjiàn, "April 5 Tian'anmen Incident" took place on April 5, 1976 at Tiananmen Square On April 26, following an internal speech made by Deng Xiaoping, the CPC's official newspaper People's Daily issued a front-page editorial titled Uphold the flag to clearly oppose any turmoil, attempting to rally the public behind the government, and accused "extremely small segments of opportunists" of plotting civil unrest. Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. The People's Daily ( a daily Newspaper, is the organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation An editorial, leader (UK or leading article (UK is an article in a Newspaper or Magazine that expresses the opinion of the Editor  The statement enraged the students, and on April 27 about 50,000 students assembled on the streets of Beijing, disregarding the warning of a crackdown made by authorities, and demanded that the government revoke the statement. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated
In Beijing, a majority of students from the city's numerous colleges and universities participated with support of their instructors and other intellectuals. This article is a list of Universities in the People's Republic of China by province (22 autonomous region (5 municipality (4 The students rejected official Communist Party-controlled student associations and set up their own autonomous associations. The students viewed themselves as Chinese patriots, as the heirs of the May Fourth Movement for "science and democracy" of 1919. The May Fourth Movement ( was an anti- imperialist, cultural and political movement in early modern China. The protests also evoked memories of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1976 which had eventually led to the ousting of the Gang of Four. The Tiananmen Incident ( Sìwǔ Tiān'ānmén shìjiàn, "April 5 Tian'anmen Incident" took place on April 5, 1976 at Tiananmen Square The Gang of Four ( was the name given to a leftist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist party officials From its origins as a memorial to Hu Yaobang, who was seen by the students as an advocate of democracy, the students' activity gradually developed over the course of their demonstration from protests against corruption into demands for freedom of the press and an end to, or the reform of, the rule of the PRC by the Communist Party of China and Deng Xiaoping, the de facto paramount Chinese leader. Hu Yaobang ( Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang 20 November 1915&ndash15 April 1989 was a leader of the People's Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer Partially successful attempts were made to reach out and network with students in other cities and with workers.
Although the initial protests were made by students and intellectuals who believed that the Deng Xiaoping reforms had not gone far enough and China needed to reform its political systems, they soon attracted the support of urban workers who believed that the reforms had gone too far. This occurred because the leaders of the protests focused on the issue of corruption, which united both groups, and because the students were able to invoke Chinese archetypes of the selfless intellectual who spoke truth to power.
Unlike the Tiananmen protests of 1987, which consisted mainly of students and intellectuals, the protests in 1989 commanded widespread support from the urban workers who were alarmed by growing inflation and corruption. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time In Beijing, they were supported by a large number of people. Similar numbers were found in major cities throughout mainland China such as Urumqi, Shanghai and Chongqing; and later in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese communities in North America and Europe. Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction Ürümchi or Ürümqi, sometimes spelled Wulumuqi (English uːˈruːmtʃi ئۈرۈمچی|Ürümchi) is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Chongqing ( Postal map spelling: Chungking; Wade-Giles: Ch'ung-ch'ing) is the largest and most populous of the People's Republic of China
On May 4, approximately 100,000 students and workers marched in Beijing making demands for free media reform and a formal dialogue between the authorities and student-elected representatives. Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV The government rejected the proposed dialogue, only agreeing to talk to members of appointed student organizations. On May 13, two days prior to the highly-publicized state visit by the reform-minded Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, huge groups of students occupied Tiananmen Square and started a hunger strike, insisting the government withdraw the accusation made in the People's Daily editorial and begin talks with the designated student representatives. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. "Official visit" redirects here For the Yes Minister episode see " The Official Visit " An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union) Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician A hunger strike is a method of Non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political Protest, or to provoke feelings of Hundreds of students went on hunger strikes and were supported by hundreds of thousands of protesting students and part of the population of Beijing, for one week.
Protests and strikes began at colleges in other cities, with many students traveling to Beijing to join the demonstration. Generally, the demonstration at Tiananmen Square was well-ordered, with daily marches of students from various Beijing area colleges displaying their solidarity with the boycott of college classes and with the developing demands of the protest. The students sang "The Internationale", the world socialist anthem, on their way to and within the square. The Internationale ( L'Internationale in French) is a famous socialist, communist, and Social-democratic Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution  The students even showed a surprising gesture of respect to the government by helping police arrest three men from Hunan Province, including Yu Dongyue, who had thrown ink on the large portrait of Mao that hangs from Tiananmen, just north of the square. ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning Yu Dongyue (喻东岳 Hanyu Pinyin: Yù Dōngyuè is a former Chinese journalist imprisoned for almost 17 years in China, for throwing paint-filled eggs onto the 
The students ultimately decided that in order to sustain their movement and impede any loss of momentum a hunger strike would need to be enacted. A hunger strike is a method of Non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political Protest, or to provoke feelings of The students' decision to undertake the hunger strike was a defining moment in their movement. The hunger strike began in May 1989 and grew to include "more than one thousand persons" (Liu 1994, 315). The hunger strike brought widespread support for the students and "the ordinary people of Beijing rallied to protect the hunger strikers. . . because the act of refusing sustenance and courting government reprisals convinced onlookers that the students were not just seeking personal gains but (were) sacrificing themselves for the Chinese people as a whole" (Calhoun 1994, 113).
On May 19 at 4:50 am, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang (simplified Chinese: 赵紫阳; traditional Chinese: 趙紫陽) went to the Square and made a speech urging the students to end the hunger strike. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee ( is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat Zhao Ziyang ( (17 October 1919&ndash17 January 2005 was a politician in the People's Republic of China. Zhao Ziyang ( (17 October 1919&ndash17 January 2005 was a politician in the People's Republic of China. Part of his speech was to become a famous quote, when he said, referring to the older generation of people in China, "We are already old, it doesn't matter to us any more. " In contrast, the students were young and he urged them to stay healthy and not to sacrifice themselves so easily. Zhao's visit to the Square was his last public appearance.
Partially successful attempts were made to negotiate with the PRC government, who were located nearby in Zhongnanhai, the Communist Party headquarters and leadership compound. The Zhongnanhai ( is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China adjacent to the Forbidden City which serves as the central headquarters for the Because of the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev, foreign media were present in mainland China in large numbers. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician Their coverage of the protests was extensive and generally favorable towards the protesters, but pessimistic that they would attain their goals. Toward the end of the demonstration, on May 30, a statue of the Goddess of Democracy was erected in the Square and came to symbolize the protest to television viewers worldwide. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following The Goddess of Democracy ( also known as the Goddess of Democracy and Freedom, the Spirit of Democracy ( minzhu jingshen) and
The Standing Committee of the Politburo, along with the party elders (retired but still-influential former officials of the government and Party), were, at first, hopeful that the demonstrations would be short-lived or that cosmetic reforms and investigations would satisfy the protesters. The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC, abbreviated) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 people usually men and includes The Eight Great Eminent Officials ( Chinese: 八大元老 Pinyin: Bā dà yuán lǎo abbreviated as the Eight Elders (八老 Bā lǎo were a group of They wished to avoid violence if possible, and relied at first on their far-reaching Party apparatus in attempts to persuade the students to abandon the protest and return to their studies. Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes One barrier to effective action was that the leadership itself supported many of the demands of the students, especially the concern with corruption. However, one large problem was that the protests contained many people with varying agendas, and hence it was unclear with whom the government could negotiate, and what the demands of the protesters were. The confusion and indecision among the protesters was also mirrored by confusion and indecision within the government. The official media mirrored this indecision as headlines in the People's Daily alternated between sympathy with the demonstrators and denouncing them. The People's Daily ( a daily Newspaper, is the organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation
Among the top leadership, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang was strongly in favour of a soft approach to the demonstrations while Li Peng was seen to argue in favour of a crackdown. The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee ( is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat Zhao Ziyang ( (17 October 1919&ndash17 January 2005 was a politician in the People's Republic of China. Li Peng ( (b 20 October 1928 was the Premier of China between 1987 and 1998 the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Ultimately, the decision to forcefully intervene on the demonstrations was made by a group of Party elders who saw abandonment of single-party rule as a return of the chaos of the Cultural Revolution. A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Although most of these people had no official position, they were able to control the military. Deng Xiaoping was chairman of the Central Military Commission and was able to declare martial law; Yang Shangkun (simplified Chinese: 杨尚昆) was President of the People's Republic of China, which, although a symbolic position under the 1982 Constitution, was legally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Central Military Commission ( CMC) ( refers to one of two bodies within the People's Republic of China, either to the Central Military Commission of the People's Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice Yang Shangkun ( Simplified Chinese: 杨尚昆 Pinyin: Yáng Shàngkūn 5 July 1907&ndash14 September 1998 was President of the People's Republic of China The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman The Constitution of the People's Republic of China ( is the highest law within the People's Republic of China. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces The Party elders believed that lengthy demonstrations were a threat to the stability of the country. The demonstrators were seen as tools of advocates of "bourgeois liberalism" who were pulling the strings behind the scenes, as well as tools of elements within the party who wished to further their personal ambitions. Bourgeois liberalism ( was a term of disparagement used by People's Republic of China rulers of the late 1980s and early 1990s to refer to a perceived political and
At the beginning of the movement, the Chinese news media had a rare opportunity to broadcast the news freely and truly. The news media refers to the section of the Mass media that focuses on presenting current News to the public Most of the news media were free to write and report however they wanted due to lack of control from the central and local governments. The news was spread quickly across the land. According to Chinese news media's report, students and workers in over 400 cities, including cities in Inner Mongolia, also organized and started to protest. Inner Mongolia ( Mongolian:, Öbür mongɣul; occasionally romanized to Nei Mongol is the Mongol  People also traveled to the capital to join the protest in the Square.
University students in Shanghai also took to the streets to commemorate the death of Hu Yaobang and protest against certain policies of the government. Hu Yaobang ( Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang 20 November 1915&ndash15 April 1989 was a leader of the People's In many cases, these were supported by the universities' Party committees. The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Jiang Zemin (simplified Chinese: 江泽民; traditional Chinese: 江澤民), then-Municipal Party Secretary, addressed the student protesters in a bandage and expressed his understanding, as he was a former student agitator before 1949. Jiang Zemin ( born 17 August 1926 was the "core of the third generation " of Communist Party of China leaders serving as General Secretary of At the same time, he moved swiftly to send in police forces to control the streets and to purge Communist Party leaders who had supported the students.
On April 19, the editors of the World Economic Herald, a magazine close to reformists, decided to publish, in their April 24 #439 issue, a commemorative section on Hu. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Inside was an article by Yan Jiaqi, which commented favourably on the Beijing student protests on April 18 and called for a reassessment of Hu's purge in 1987. Yan Jiaqi 嚴家其 (born December 15, 1942, in Jiangsu) is a Chinese political scientist now a dissident and federalist Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. On April 21, a party official of Shanghai asked the editor in chief, Qin Benli, to change some passages. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Qin Benli refused, so Chen turned to Jiang Zemin, who demanded that the article be censored. Jiang Zemin ( born 17 August 1926 was the "core of the third generation " of Communist Party of China leaders serving as General Secretary of By that time, a first batch of copies of the paper had already been delivered. The remaining copies were published with a blank page . On April 26, the "People's Daily" published its editorial condemning the student protest. Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Student protest encompasses a wide range of activities that indicate Student dissatisfaction with a given Political or Academic issue and mobilization to Jiang followed this cue and suspended Qin Benli. His quick rise to power following the 1989 protests has been attributed to his decisive handling of these two events.
In Hong Kong, on May 27, 1989, over 300,000 people gathered at Happy Valley Racecourse for a gathering called "Democratic songs dedicated for China. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Happy Valley Horse Racing Track ( Chinese 快活谷馬場 or 跑馬地馬場 is one of the two Racecourses for Horse racing in Hong Kong. " Many famous Hong Kong and Taiwanese celebrities sang songs and expressed their support for the students in Beijing. The following day, a procession of 1. 5 million people, one fourth of Hong Kong's population, led by Martin Lee, Szeto Wah and other organization leaders, paraded through Hong Kong Island. Martin Lee QC SC JP ( Chinese 李柱銘 Pinyin: Lǐ Zhùmíng born June 8, 1938) was the founding chairman Szeto Wah ( Pinyin Situ Hua (born February 28, 1931, hometown Hoi Ping) currently the chairman of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Hong Kong Island ( is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong, China.
Across the world, especially where Chinese lived, people gathered and protested. Many governments, such as those of the USA, Japan, etc. , also issued warnings advising their own citizens not to go to the PRC.
Although the government declared martial law on May 20, the military's entry into Beijing was blocked by throngs of protesters, and the army was eventually ordered to withdraw. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held  Meanwhile, the demonstrations continued. The hunger strike was approaching the end of the third week, and the government resolved to end the matter before deaths occurred. After deliberation among Communist party leaders, the use of military force to resolve the crisis was ordered, and a deep divide in the politburo resulted. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Politburo, short for Political Bureau, Russian Politicheskoye Buro, is the executive organization for a number of Political parties, most notably General Secretary Zhao Ziyang was ousted from political leadership as a result of his support for the demonstrators. Zhao Ziyang ( (17 October 1919&ndash17 January 2005 was a politician in the People's Republic of China. The military also lacked unity on the issue, and purportedly did not indicate immediate support for a crackdown, leaving the central leadership scrambling to search for individual divisions willing to comply with their orders.
Soldiers and tanks from the 27th and 28th Armies of the People's Liberation Army were sent to take control of the city. A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces. A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical The 27th Army was a military formation of the People's Volunteer Army (Chinese People's Volunteers (CPV or Chinese Communist Forces (CCF during the Korean War. The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The 27th Army was led by a commander related to Yang Shangkun. Yang Shangkun ( Simplified Chinese: 杨尚昆 Pinyin: Yáng Shàngkūn 5 July 1907&ndash14 September 1998 was President of the People's Republic of China In a press conference, US President George H. W. Bush announced sanctions on the People's Republic of China, following calls to action from members of Congress such as US Senator Jesse Helms. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Jesse Alexander Helms Jr (October 18 1921 – July 4 2008 was a five-term Republican United States Senator from North Carolina who served as chairman The President suggested that intelligence he had received indicated some disunity in China's military ranks, and even the possibility of clashes within the military during those days. Intelligence reports also indicated that 27th and 28th units were brought in from outside provinces because the local PLA were considered to be sympathetic to the protest and to the people of the city. Reporters described elements of the 27th as having been most responsible for civilian deaths. After their attack on the square, the 27th reportedly established defensive positions in Beijing - not of the sort designed to counter a civilian uprising, but as if to defend against attacks by other military units. The locally-stationed 38th Army, on the other hand, was reportedly sympathetic to the uprising. History The 38th Army was a military formation of the People's Volunteer Army (Chinese People's Volunteers (CPV or Chinese Communist Forces (CCF XIII Army They were supplied no ammunition, and were said to be torching their own vehicles as they abandoned them to join the protests.
Entry of the troops into the city was actively opposed by many citizens of Beijing. Protesters burned public buses and used them as roadblocks to stop the military's progress. The battle continued on the streets surrounding the Square, with protesters repeatedly advancing toward the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and constructing barricades with vehicles, while the PLA attempted to clear the streets using tear gas, rifles, and tanks. The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China. Riot control agents are Less-lethal Lachrymatory agents used for Riot control. Many injured citizens were saved by rickshaw drivers who ventured into the no-man's-land between the soldiers and crowds and carried the wounded off to hospitals. Rickshaws (or rickshas) are a mode of Human-powered transport: a runner draws a two-wheeled Cart which seats one or two persons After the attack on the square, live television coverage showed many people wearing black armbands in protest of the government's action, crowding various boulevards or congregating by burnt out and smoking barricades. "Live TV" redirects here For the British TV station formerly known by this name see L!VE TV. Meanwhile, the PLA systematically established checkpoints around the city, chasing after protesters and blocking off the university district.
Within the Square itself, there was a debate between those who wished to withdraw peacefully, including Han Dongfang, and those who wished to stand within the square, such as Chai Ling. Han Dongfang (韩东方 Pinyin: Hán Dōngfāng has been an advocate for workers' rights in China for more than two decades during which time he has won numerous international Chai Ling ( Chinese: 柴玲 Pinyin: Chái Líng) (born April 15, 1966 in Rizhao, Shandong Province,
The assault on the square began at 10:30 p. m. on June 3, as armored personnel carriers (APCs) and armed troops with fixed bayonets approached from various positions. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Armoured personnel carriers (APCs are Armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport Infantry on the Battlefield They usually have only a Machine A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a Knife - Dagger - or spike-shaped Weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle These APCs rolled on up the roads, firing ahead and off to the sides, perhaps killing or wounding their own soldiers in the process. BBC reporter Kate Adie spoke of "indiscriminate fire" within the square. Kate Adie OBE (born Kathryn Adie September 19 1945) is a British Journalist. Students who sought refuge in buses were pulled out by groups of soldiers and beaten with heavy sticks. Even students attempting to leave the square were beset by soldiers and beaten. Leaders of the protest inside the square, where some had attempted to erect flimsy barricades ahead of the APCs, were said to have "implored" the students not to use weapons (such as molotov cocktails) against the oncoming soldiers. The Molotov cocktail, also known as the booze bomb, alcohol bomb or Molotov bomb, is a generic name used for a variety of improvised incendiary Meanwhile, many students apparently were shouting, "Why are you killing us?" By 5:40 a. m. the following morning, June 4, the Square had been cleared.
The suppression of the protest was immortalized in Western media by the famous video footage and photographs of a lone man in a white shirt standing in front of a column of tanks which were attempting to drive out of Tiananmen Square. Taken on June 5 as the column approached an intersection on the Avenue of Eternal Peace, the footage depicted the unarmed man standing in the center of the street, halting the tanks' progress. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Chang'an Avenue ( Hanyu Pinyin: cháng ān jiē 长安街 meaning "Long Peace Avenue" is a major through route in Beijing, People's Republic of China As the tank driver attempted to go around him, the "tank man" moved into the tank's path. Tank Man, or the Unknown Rebel, is the nickname of an anonymous man who became internationally famous when he was videotaped and photographed during the Tiananmen Square He continued to stand defiantly in front of the tanks for some time, then climbed up onto the turret of the lead tank to speak to the soldiers inside. He reportedly said, "Why are you here? You have caused nothing but misery. " After returning to his position blocking the tanks, the man was pulled aside by onlookers who perhaps feared he would be shot or run over. Time Magazine dubbed him The Unknown Rebel and later named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and The Time 100 The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's most influential politicians artists innovators scientists and cultural icons British tabloid the Sunday Express reported that the man was 19-year-old student Wang Weilin; however, the veracity of this claim is dubious. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A tabloid is a Newspaper industry term which refers to a smaller newspaper format per spread to a weekly or semi-weekly alternative newspaper that focuses on local-interest The Daily Express is a conservative Middle-market British Tabloid Newspaper. Tank Man, or the Unknown Rebel, is the nickname of an anonymous man who became internationally famous when he was videotaped and photographed during the Tiananmen Square What happened to the 'tank man' following the demonstration is not known. In a speech to the President's Club in 1999, Bruce Herschensohn — former deputy special assistant to President Richard Nixon — reported that he was executed 14 days later. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. In Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now, Jan Wong writes that the man is still alive and hiding in mainland China. Jan Wong ( Pinyin: Huáng Míngzhēn 黃明珍(born 1953 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian journalist of Chinese In Forbidden City, Canadian children's author William Bell, claims the man was named Wang Ai-min and was killed on June 9 after being taken into custody. William E Bell is a Canadian children's Author who lives in Orillia Ontario. Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits The last official statement from the PRC government about the tank man came from Jiang Zemin in a 1990 interview with Barbara Walters. When asked about the whereabouts of the tank man, Jiang responded that the young man was "I think never killed". 
After the crackdown in Beijing on June 4, protests continued in much of mainland China for several days. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. There were large protests in Hong Kong, where people again wore black in protest. There were protests in Guangzhou, and large-scale protests in Shanghai with a general strike. Guangzhou ( Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹; Yale: Gwóngjàu) is the Capital and a Sub-provincial city There were also protests in other countries, many adopting the use of black arm bands as well. However, the government soon regained control. Although no large-scale loss of life was reported in ending the protests in other cities, a political purge followed in which officials responsible for organizing or condoning the protests were removed, and protest leaders jailed.
The number of dead and wounded remains unclear because of the large discrepancies between the different estimates. The Chinese government released casualty count of 241, but did not release list of the deceased.
According to Nicholas D. Kristof "The true number of deaths will probably never be known, and it is possible that thousands of people were killed without leaving evidence behind. But based on the evidence that is now available, it seems plausible that about a dozen soldiers and policemen were killed, along with 400 to 800 civilians. " One reason the number may never be known is suspicion that Chinese troops may have quickly removed and disposed of bodies. 
The Chinese government has maintained that there were no deaths within the square itself, although videos taken there at the time recorded the sound of gunshots. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and State Council claimed that "hundreds of PLA soldiers died and more were injured. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会 Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì formerly " Yuan Mu, the spokesman of the State Council, said that a total of about 300 people died, most of them soldiers, along with a number of people he described as "ruffians. " According to Chen Xitong, Beijing mayor, 200 civilians and several dozen soldiers died. Chen Xitong ( (born June 1930 was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and the Mayor of Beijing until he was removed from office on charges  Other sources stated that 3,000 civilians and 6,000 soldiers were injured.  In May 2007, CPPCC member from Hong Kong, Chang Ka-mun said 300 to 600 people were killed in Tiananmen Square. The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference ( People's Political Consultative Conference He echoed that "there were armed thugs who weren't students. "
However, foreign journalists who witnessed the incident have claimed that at least 3,000 people died. Some lists of casualties were created from underground sources with numbers as high as 5,000. 
Ambassador James Lilley's account of the massacre notes that State Department diplomats witnessed Chinese troops opening fire on unarmed people and based on visits to hospitals around Beijing a minimum of hundreds had been killed. 
A strict focus on the number of deaths within Tiananmen Square itself does not give an accurate picture of the carnage and overall death count since Chinese civilians were fired on in the streets surrounding Tiananmen Square. And students are reported to have been fired on after they left the Square, especially in the area near the Beijing concert hall. 
Statistics and estimates generated from different groups of sources would indicate:
According to the Chinese government, the "official figure is 241 dead, including soldiers, and 7,000 wounded".
Declassified NSA document mentioned casualty estimate of 180-500. 
During and after the demonstration, the authorities attempted to arrest and prosecute the student leaders of the Chinese democracy movement, notably Wang Dan, Chai Ling, Zhao Changqing and Wuer Kaixi. The Chinese democracy movement ( abbreviated as Mínyùn "民运" is a loosely organized political movement in Mainland China against continued Chai Ling ( Chinese: 柴玲 Pinyin: Chái Líng) (born April 15, 1966 in Rizhao, Shandong Province, Zhao Changqing, (b April 1969) a history teacher and Political activist in the People’s Republic of China. Wúěrkāixī ( or ( ئۆركەش دۆلەت / Ɵrkəx Dɵlət 17th February 1968 –) is a Chinese student leader of Uyghur ethnicity in Wang Dan was arrested, convicted, and sent to prison, then allowed to emigrate to the United States on the grounds of medical parole. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Parole may have different meanings depending on the field and judiciary system As a lesser figure in the demonstrations, Zhao was released after six months in prison. However, he was once again incarcerated for continuing to petition for political reform in China. Wuer Kaixi escaped to Taiwan. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. He is married and holds a job as a political commentator on national Taiwan television. Chai Ling escaped to France, and then to the United States. Chai Ling ( Chinese: 柴玲 Pinyin: Chái Líng) (born April 15, 1966 in Rizhao, Shandong Province, In a recent public speech given at the University of Michigan, Wang Dan commented on the current status of former student leaders: Chai Ling started a hi-tech company in the U. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor ( U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a top-ranked Coeducational public research Chai Ling ( Chinese: 柴玲 Pinyin: Chái Líng) (born April 15, 1966 in Rizhao, Shandong Province, S. and was permitted to come back to China and do business, while Li Lu became an investment banker in Wall Street and started a company. Li Lu (born 1966 was an organizer and leader of the Chinese student dissidents who took part in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. As for himself, Wang Dan said his plan was to find an academic job in the U. S. after receiving his PhD from Harvard University, although he was eager to return to China if permitted. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation.
Smaller protest actions continued in other cities for a few days. Some university staff and students who had witnessed the killings in Beijing organised or spurred commemorative events upon their return to school. At Shanghai's prestigious Jiaotong University, for example, the party secretary organised a public commemoration event, with engineering students producing a large, metal wreath. However, these were quickly put down, with those responsible being purged.
Chinese authorities summarily tried and executed many of the workers they arrested in Beijing. In contrast, the students - many of whom came from relatively affluent backgrounds and were well-connected - received much lighter sentences. Even Wang Dan, the student leader who topped the most wanted list, spent only seven years in prison. Nevertheless, many of the students and university staff implicated were permanently politically stigmatized, some never to be employed again.
The Party leadership expelled Zhao Ziyang from the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC), because he opposed martial law, and Zhao remained under house arrest until his death. Zhao Ziyang ( (17 October 1919&ndash17 January 2005 was a politician in the People's Republic of China. The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC, abbreviated) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 people usually men and includes Hu Qili, the other member of the PSC who opposed the martial law but abstained from voting, was also removed from the committee. Hu Qili ( is a politician of the People's Republic of China. Biography Hu Qili was born in Shaanxi Province, China, in October of 1929 The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC, abbreviated) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 people usually men and includes He was, however, able to retain his party membership, and after "changing his opinion," was reassigned as deputy minister of Machine-Building and Electronics Industry. Another reform minded Chinese leader, Wan Li, was also put under house arrest immediately after he stepped out of an airplane at Beijing Capital International Airport upon returning from his shortened trip abroad, with the official excuse of "health reasons. Wan Li ( Traditional Chinese: 萬里 Simplified Chinese: 万里 (born December 1916 was during a long administrative career in the People's Republic of China Beijing Capital International Airport, ( is the main international Airport that serves the capital city of Beijing, People's Republic of China. " When Wan Li was released from his house arrest after he finally "changed his opinion" he, like Qiao Shi, was transferred to a different position with equal rank but mostly ceremonial role. Wan Li ( Traditional Chinese: 萬里 Simplified Chinese: 万里 (born December 1916 was during a long administrative career in the People's Republic of China Qiao Shi ( born December 1924 is a Politician in the People's Republic of China.
The event elevated Jiang Zemin - then Mayor of Shanghai - to become the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. Jiang Zemin ( born 17 August 1926 was the "core of the third generation " of Communist Party of China leaders serving as General Secretary of Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Jiang's decisive actions in Shanghai, in closing down reform-leaning publications and preventing deadly violence, won him support from party elders in Beijing. Members of the government prepared a white paper explaining the government's viewpoint on the protests. A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that often addresses problems and how to solve them An anonymous source within the PRC government smuggled the document out of China, and Public Affairs published it in January 2001 as the Tiananmen Papers. The Tiananmen Papers are presented as the formerly secret Chinese official documents relating to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The papers include a quote by Communist Party elder Wang Zhen which alludes to the government's response to the demonstrations. Wáng Zhèn ( 王[[wikt 震|震]] (1908 March 12, 1993) was a Chinese political figure and one of the Eight Immortals of the Communist Party
Two news anchors who reported this event on June 4 in the daily 1900 hours (7:00 pm) news report on China Central Television were fired because they showed their sad emotions. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV ( is the major television broadcaster in Mainland China Wu Xiaoyong, the son of a Communist Party of China Central Committee member, and former PRC foreign minister and vice premier Wu Xueqian were removed from the English Program Department of Chinese Radio International. Wu Xueqian ( Chinese: 吴学谦 Pinyin: Wú Xuéqiān December 19, 1921 - April 4, 2008) was the former Foreign Minister China Radio International (CRI, (Chinese 中国国际广播电台 Pinyin Zhōng Guó Guó Jì Guǎng Bō Diàn Tái the former Radio Beijing and originally Radio Editors and other staff at the People's Daily (the newspaper of the Communist Party of China), including its director Qian Liren and Editor-in-Chief Tan Wenrui, were also removed from their posts because of reports in the paper which were sympathetic towards the students. The People's Daily ( a daily Newspaper, is the organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation Qian Liren (born 1924 ( is a Chinese politician diplomat and translator Several editor were arrested, with Wu Xuecan, who organised the publication of an unauthorised Extra edition, sentenced to four years' imprisonment.
The Tiananmen Square protests damaged the reputation of the PRC in the West. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Western media had been invited to cover the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev in May, and were thus in an excellent position to cover some of the government crackdown live through networks such as the BBC and CNN. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner Protestors seized this opportunity, creating signs and banners designed for international television audiences. Coverage was further facilitated by the sharp conflicts within the Chinese government about how to handle the protests. Thus, broadcasting was not immediately stopped.
All international networks were eventually ordered to terminate broadcasts from the city during the crackdown, with the government shutting down the satellite transmissions. Broadcasters attempted to defy these orders by reporting via telephone. Footage was quickly smuggled out of the country, including the image of "the unknown rebel. Tank Man, or the Unknown Rebel, is the nickname of an anonymous man who became internationally famous when he was videotaped and photographed during the Tiananmen Square " The only network which was able to record some images during the night was TVE. TVE redirects here This article is about Televisión Española 
CBS correspondent Richard Roth and his cameraman were imprisoned during the crackdown. CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Roth was taken into custody while in the midst of filing a report from the Square via mobile phone. In a frantic voice, he could be heard repeatedly yelling what sounded like "Oh, no! Oh, no!" before the phone was disconnected. He was later released, suffering a slight injury to his face in a scuffle with Chinese authorities attempting to confiscate his phone. Roth later explained he had actually been saying, "Let go!"
Images of the protests - along with the collapse of Communism that was occurring at the same time in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe - would strongly shape Western views and policy toward the PRC throughout the 1990s and into the 21st century. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. There was considerable sympathy for the student protests among Chinese students in the West. Almost immediately, both the United States and the European Economic Community announced an arms embargo, and China's image as a reforming country and a valuable ally against the Soviet Union was replaced by that of a repressive authoritarian regime. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992 An arms embargo is an Embargo that applies to weaponry It may also include "dual use" items The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union The Tiananmen protests were frequently invoked to argue against trade liberalization with mainland China and by the United States' Blue Team as evidence that the PRC government was an aggressive threat to world peace and US interests. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions Blue Team can represent several things Blue Team, the friendly side in a Wargame / Military simulation, see Red Team
Among overseas Chinese students, the Tiananmen Square protests triggered the formation of Internet news services such as the China News Digest and the NGO China Support Network. The China Support Network (CSN is a US-based organization promoting democracy for Mainland China. In the aftermath of Tiananmen, organizations such as the China Alliance for Democracy and the Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars were formed, although these organizations would have limited political impact beyond the mid-1990s. The Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars (IFCSS was founded on 08-01 1989 when over 1000 Chinese student representatives from more than
The Tiananmen square protests dampened the growing concept of political liberalization that was popular in the late 1980s; as a result, many democratic reforms that were proposed during the 1980s were swept under the carpet. Although there has been an increase in personal freedom since then, discussions on structural changes to the PRC government and the role of the Communist Party of China remain largely taboo. A taboo is a strong Social prohibition (or ban) against words objects actions or discussions that are considered undesirable or offensive by a group culture
Despite early expectations in the West that PRC government would soon collapse and be replaced by the Chinese democracy movement, by the early 21st century the Communist Party of China remained in firm control of the People's Republic of China, and the student movement which started at Tiananmen was in complete disarray. The Chinese democracy movement ( abbreviated as Mínyùn "民运" is a loosely organized political movement in Mainland China against continued The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
In Hong Kong, the Tiananmen square protests led to fears that the PRC would not honour its commitments under one country, two systems in the impending handover in 1997. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders " One country two systems " is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s then Paramount Leader of the People's Republic One consequence of this was that the new governor Chris Patten attempted to expand the franchise for the Legislative Council of Hong Kong which led to friction with the PRC. Christopher Francis Patten Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC (born 12 May 1944 in Cleveleys, Lancashire) is a prominent British Conservative The Legislative Council ( LegCo) is the Unicameral Legislature of Hong Kong. There have been large candlelight vigils attended by tens of thousands in Hong Kong every year since 1989 and these vigils have continued following the transfer of power to the PRC in 1997.
The protests also marked a shift in the political conventions which governed politics in the People's Republic. In Politics, a political convention is a meeting of a Political party, typically to select party candidates Prior to the protests, under the 1982 Constitution, the President was a largely symbolic role. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China ( is the highest law within the People's Republic of China. By convention, power was distributed between the positions of President, Premier, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, all of whom were intended to be different people, in order to prevent the excesses of Mao-style dictatorship. The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee ( is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led However, after Yang Shangkun used his reserve powers as head of state to mobilize the military, the Presidency again became a position imbued with real power. Yang Shangkun ( Simplified Chinese: 杨尚昆 Pinyin: Yáng Shàngkūn 5 July 1907&ndash14 September 1998 was President of the People's Republic of China Subsequently, the President became the same person as the General Secretary of the CPC, and wielded paramount power.
In 1989, neither the Chinese military nor the Beijing police had adequate anti-riot gear, such as rubber bullets and tear gas commonly used in Western nations to break up riots.  After the Tiananmen Square protests, riot police in Chinese cities were equipped with non-lethal equipment for riot control.
In the immediate aftermath of the protests, some within the Communist Party attempted to curtail free market reforms that had been undertaken as part of Chinese economic reform and reinstitute administrative economic controls. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Wrocław (Breslau Vratislav Vratislavia or Wratislavia Yiddish: ברעסלוי) is the chief City of the historical region of Lower Silesia A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers The Chinese economic reform ( refers to the program of economic reforms called " Socialism with Chinese characteristics " in the People's Republic of However, these efforts met with stiff resistance from provincial governors and broke down completely in the early 1990s as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union and Deng Xiaoping's trip to the south. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer The continuance of economic reform led to economic growth in the 1990s, which allowed the government to regain much of the support that it had lost in 1989. Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time In addition, none of the current PRC leadership played any active role in the decision to move against the demonstrators, and one major leadership figure Premier Wen Jiabao was an aide to Zhao Ziyang and accompanied him to meet the demonstrators. The Premier of the State Council ( sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Prime Minister" is the Chairman of the State Council of the People's Republic of China This is a Chinese name; the family name is Wen. Wen Jiabao ( (born 15 September 1942 is the Premier of the Zhao Ziyang ( (17 October 1919&ndash17 January 2005 was a politician in the People's Republic of China. Today there are economic "sectors" in which business can thrive and this has opened up economic freedom and access to goods. Economic freedom is freedom to produce trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force fraud or theft
The protest leaders at Tiananmen were unable to produce a coherent movement or ideology that would last past the mid-1990s. Many of the student leaders came from relatively well off sectors of society and were seen as out of touch with common people. A number of them were socialists. Many of the organizations which were started in the aftermath of Tiananmen soon fell apart due to personal infighting. Several overseas democracy activists were supportive of limiting trade with mainland China which significantly decreased their popularity both within China and among the overseas Chinese community. A number of NGOs based in the U. S. , which aim to bring democratic reform to China and relentlessly protest human rights violations that occur in China, remain. Democratization ( British English: Democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic Political regime. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled One of the oldest and most prominent of them, the China Support Network (CSN), was founded in 1989 by a group of concerned Americans and Chinese activists in response to Tiananmen Square.
Unlike the Cultural Revolution, about which people can still easily find information through government approved books, Internet sites, etc. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into , this topic completely disappeared from any media (including books, magazines, newspapers and internet web sites) inside mainland China. It is a forbidden topic by the Chinese government. The Chinese government also reportedly brainwashed its citizens at the time into forgetting the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests . Brainwashing (also known as Thought reform or as Re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and Beliefs
The official media in mainland China views the crackdown as a necessary reaction to ensure stability. It is common for Chinese youth to be entirely unaware of the Tiananmen protests.  Every year there is a large rally in Victoria Park, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong, where people remember the victims and demand that the CPC's official view be changed.
Petition letters over the incident have emerged from time to time, notably from Dr. Jiang Yanyong and Tiananmen Mothers, an organization founded by a mother of one of the victims killed in 1989 where the families seek vindication, compensation for their lost sons, and the right to receive donations, particularly from abroad. Jiang Yanyong ( Traditional Chinese: 蔣彥永 Simplified Chinese: 蒋彦永 Hanyu Pinyin: Jiǎng Yànyǒng Wade-Giles The Tiananmen Mothers is a group of Chinese democracy activists promoting a change in the government's position over the suppression of the Tiananmen Square protests of  Tiananmen Square is tightly patrolled on the anniversary of June 4 to prevent any commemoration on the Square. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China.
After the PRC Central Government reshuffle in 2004, several cabinet members mentioned Tiananmen. In October 2004, during President Hu Jintao's visit to France, he reiterated that "the government took determined action to calm the political storm of 1989, and enabled China to enjoy a stable development. Hu Jintao ( born 21 December 1942 is currently the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist " He insisted that the government's view on the incident would not change.
In March 2004, Premier Wen Jiabao said in a press conference that during the 1990s there was a severe political storm in the PRC, amid the breakdown of the Soviet Union and radical changes in Eastern Europe. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Wen. Wen Jiabao ( (born 15 September 1942 is the Premier of the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Cold War period of 1985 to 1991 began with the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet leader and ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 He stated that the Communist Central Committee successfully stabilized the open-door policy and protected the "Career of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. "
Currently, due to strong Chinese government censorship including Internet censorship, the news media is forbidden to report anything related to the protests. Censorship in the People's Republic of China is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the People's Republic of China This article is about media in Mainland China. See also Media of Hong Kong and Media of Macau. The event has been almost completely absent from Chinese media, including the Internet. No one is allowed to make any websites related to the protests. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages A search for Tiananmen Square protest information on the Internet in Mainland China largely returns no results apart from the government-mandated version of the events and the official view, which are mostly found on Websites of People's Daily and other heavily-controlled media. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction The People's Daily ( a daily Newspaper, is the organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation
In January 2006, Google agreed to censor their mainland China site, Google. Censorship by Google is Google corporation's removal or lack of inclusion of information from its services in order to comply with local laws or with the company's policies cn, to remove information about the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, as well as other topics such as Tibetan independence, the banned spiritual practice Falun Gong and the political status of Taiwan. Falun Gong was introduced to the general public by Li Hongzhi (李洪志 in Changchun, China, in 1992 Falun Gong ( or Falun Dafa is a spiritual practice founded in China by Li Hongzhi （李洪志） in 1992 The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu should remain effectively independent as territory When people search for those censored topics, it will list the following at the bottom of the page in Chinese, "According to the local laws, regulations and policies, part of the searching result is not shown. " The uncensored Wikipedia articles on the 1989 protests, both in English and Chinese Wikipedia, have been attributed as a cause of the blocking of Wikipedia by the government in mainland China. The Chinese Wikipedia (中文維基百科/中文维基百科 is the Chinese language edition of Wikipedia, run by the Wikimedia Foundation. On several occasions the government and Internet service providers of the People's Republic of China (PRC have blocked access to Wikipedia in Mainland China
In 2006, the American PBS program "Frontline" broadcast a segment filmed at Peking University, many of whose students participated in the 1989 protests. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the Peking University ( of Beijing, colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大 Běidà) is the first formally established university and the first Four students were shown a picture of the Tank man, but none of them could identify what was happening in the photo. Some responded that it was a military parade, or an artwork.
On May 15, 2007, the leader of the pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong, Ma Lik, provoked much criticism when he said that "there was not a massacre" during the protests, as there was "no intentional and indiscriminate shooting. The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB ( or 民建聯 in short formerly known as The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong Biography Ma attended the Pui Kiu Middle School, graduated with a Bachelor's degree (with Honours from the Department of Chinese from United College Biography Ma attended the Pui Kiu Middle School, graduated with a Bachelor's degree (with Honours from the Department of Chinese from United College " He said Hong Kong was "not mature enough" due to believing foreigners' rash claims that a massacre took place. He said that Hong Kong showed through its lack of patriotism and national identity that it would thus "not be ready for democracy until 2022. " His remarks were met with wide condemnation.
On June 4, 2007, the anniversary of the massacre, an ad reading, "Paying tribute to the strong-(willed) mothers of June 4 victims" was published in the Chengdu Evening News newspaper. The matter is currently being investigated by the Chinese government, and three editors have since been fired from the paper.  The clerk who approved the ad had reportedly never heard of the June 4 crackdown and had been told that the date was a reference to a mining disaster. 
The European Union and United States embargo on weapons sales to the PRC, put in place as a result of the violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square pro-democracy protests, still remains in place. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons The PRC has been calling for a lifting of the ban for many years and has had a varying amount of support from members of the Council of the European Union. The Council of the European Union is the principal decision making institution in the European Union (EU In early 2004, France spearheaded a movement within the EU to lift the ban. Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder publicly added his voice to that of former French President Jacques Chirac to have the embargo lifted. The Head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (Kanzler ˌɡeɐ̯haɐ̯t fʁɪʦ kʊɐ̯t ˈʃʁøːdɐ (born 7 April 1944 German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005 The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected
The arms embargo was discussed at a PRC-EU summit in the Netherlands between December 7 and 9, 2004. In the run-up to the summit, the PRC had attempted to increase pressure on the EU Council to lift the ban by warning that the ban could hurt PRC-EU relations. PRC Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Yesui had called the ban "outdated", and he told reporters, "If the ban is maintained, bilateral relations will definitely be affected. " In the end, the EU Council did not lift the ban. EU spokeswoman Françoise le Bail said there were still concerns about the PRC's commitment to human rights. But at the time, the EU did state a commitment to work towards lifting the ban.
The PRC continued to press for the embargo to be lifted, and some member states began to drop their opposition. Jacques Chirac pledged to have the ban lifted by mid-2005. However, the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China passing in March 2005 increased cross-strait tensions, damaging attempts to lift the ban, and several EU Council members changed their minds. The Anti-Secession Law ( is a Law of the People's Republic of China. Members of the U.S. Congress had also proposed restrictions on the transfer of military technology to the EU if they lifted the ban. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Thus the EU Council failed to reach a consensus, and although France and Germany pushed to have the embargo lifted, the embargo was maintained.
Britain took charge of the EU Presidency in July 2005, making the lifting of the embargo all but impossible for the duration of that period. Britain had always had some reservations on lifting the ban and wished to put it to the side, rather than sour EU-US relations further. Other issues such as the failure of the European Constitution and the ensuing disagreement over the European Budget and Common Agricultural Policy superseded the matter of the embargo in importance. The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented international Treaty intended The Common Agricultural Policy ( CAP) is a system of European Union Agricultural subsidies and programmes Britain wanted to use its presidency to push for wholesale reform of the EU, so the lifting of the ban became even more unlikely. The election of José Manuel Barroso as European Commission President also made a lifting of the ban more difficult. José Manuel Durão Barroso (ʒuˈzɛ mɐnuˈɛɫ duˈɾɐ̃ũ bɐˈʁozu born 23 March 1956 is the 12th President of the European Commission. The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union. At a meeting with Chinese leaders in mid-July 2005, he said that China's poor record on human rights would slow any changes to the EU's ban on arms sales to China. 
Political will also changed in countries that had previously been more in favor of lifting the embargo. Schröder lost the 2005 German federal election to Angela Merkel, who became chancellor on November 22, 2005 - Merkel made her position clear that she was strongly against lifting the ban. German federal elections took place on September 18, 2005 to elect the members of the 16th German Bundestag, the federal parliament of Germany (ˈaŋɡela doʁoˈteːa ˈmɛɐ̯kəl (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954 in Hamburg, West Germany) is the Chancellor of Germany. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Jacques Chirac declared he would not stand again as a candidate for the French Presidency in 2007. His successor, Nicolas Sarkozy, is less in favour of lifting the embargo compared to Chirac. Nicolas Sarkozy (pronounced,
In addition, the European Parliament has consistently opposed the lifting of the arms embargo to the PRC. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU Though its agreement is not necessary for lifting the ban, many argue it reflects the will of the European people better as it is the only directly elected European body—the EU Council is appointed by member states. The European Parliament has repeatedly opposed any lifting of the arms embargo on the PRC:
The arms embargo has limited China's options from where it may seek military hardware. Among the sources that were sought included the former Soviet bloc that it had a strained relationship with as a result of the Sino-Soviet split. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were The Sino-Soviet split was a gradual divergence of diplomatic ties between the People's Republic of China (PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR Other willing suppliers have previously included Israel and South Africa, but American pressure has restricted future co-operation. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Although the Chinese government never officially acknowledged wrongdoing when it came to the incident, in April 2006 a payment was made to the family of one of the victims, the first publicized case of the government offering redress to a Tiananmen-related victim's family. The payment was termed a "hardship assistance", given to Tang Deying (唐德英) whose son, Zhou Guocong (simplified Chinese: 周国聪; traditional Chinese: 周國聰) died at the age of 15 while in police custody in Chengdu on June 6, 1989, two days after the Chinese Army dispersed the Tiananmen protestors. ( located in southwest People's Republic of China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a Sub-provincial city. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The woman was reportedly paid 70,000 yuan (approximately $8,700 USD), which is quite a significant amount in China. Currency has been used in China since the New Stone Age, in which Chinese also invented paper money in the 9th century The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been This has been welcomed by various Chinese activists, but was regarded by some as a measure to maintain social stability and not believed to herald a changing of the Party's official position. 
The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China group led by Szeto Wah have said the olympic slogan should be changed to "the same world, the same human rights, the same dream, vindication for the June 4 Tiananmen Square protest". The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China (the Alliance) ( Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China Szeto Wah ( Pinyin Situ Hua (born February 28, 1931, hometown Hoi Ping) currently the chairman of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic And that the five Fuwa doll should represent democracy, freedom, human rights, the rule of law and peace. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War.