|Thomas Henry Huxley|
Huxley in a Woodburytype print by Lock & Whitfield, London 1880 or earlier
|Born||4 May 1825|
|Died||29 June 1895 (aged 70)|
|Fields||Zoology; Comparative anatomy|
|Institutions||Royal Navy, Royal College of Surgeons, Royal School of Mines, Royal Institution University of London|
|Alma mater||Sydenham College London|
Charing Cross Hospital
|Known for||Evolution, Science education, Agnosticism|
|Influences||Thomas Wharton Jones|
Henry Fairfield Osborn
Patrick Geddes, H.G. Wells
E. Ray Lankester
Thomas Henry Huxley FRS, (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was an English biologist, known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. The term Woodburytype refers to both a photomechanical process and the print produced by this process Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Ealing is a Town in the London Borough of Ealing. It is a Suburban development situated 7 Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest by area. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Eastbourne ( is a large town and borough of East Sussex, on the south coast of England with an estimated population of 94816 as of 2007 Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Royal School of Mines comprises the departments of Earth Science and Engineering, and Materials at Imperial College London. The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organization devoted to scientific education and research based in London. The University of London is a university based primarily in London, England, UK. Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval Charing Cross Hospital is a hospital in London, England. It was established in 1823 as the West London Infirmary and was originally located in Villiers Street eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Science education is the field concerned with sharing Science Content and Process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the Thomas Wharton Jones (born St Andrews, Scotland, January 9, 1808; died Ventnor, England, November 7, 1891 Edward Forbes ( February 12, 1815 – November 18, 1854) was a British naturalist. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life Sir Michael Foster ( March 8, 1836 &ndash January 29, 1907) was an English Physiologist. Henry Fairfield Osborn ( August 8, 1857 – November 6, 1935) was an American Geologist, Paleontologist, and Sir Patrick Geddes (1854 - 1932 was a Scottish Biologist and Botanist, known also as an innovative thinker in the fields of Urban planning Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political Sir E Ray Lankester KCB, FRS ( May 15, 1847 – August 13, 1929) was a British Zoologist, born in The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English A biologist is a Scientist devoted to and producing results in Biology through the study of Organisms Typically biologists study organisms and their relationship Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 
Huxley's famous 1860 debate with the Lord Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution, and in his own career. The 1860 Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin Samuel Wilberforce ( 7 September 1805 – 19 July 1873) was an English Bishop in the Church of England, third eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley also debated on whether man was closely related to apes. Sir Richard Owen KCB ( Lancaster, July 20 1804 &ndash December 18 1892) was an English Biologist Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism, and was undecided about natural selection, but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin. Gradualism is the belief that changes occur or ought to occur slowly in the form of gradual steps (see also Incrementalism) Politics and society In Politics Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of He was instrumental in developing scientific education in Britain, and fought against the more extreme versions of religious tradition.
Huxley used the term 'agnostic' to describe his own views on religion, a term whose use has continued to the present day, and which throws light on his demanding criteria for proof in science (see Thomas Henry Huxley and agnosticism). Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the
Huxley had little schooling, and taught himself almost everything he knew. Remarkably, he became perhaps the finest comparative anatomist of the second half of the nineteenth century. Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the Anatomy of Organisms It is closely related to Evolutionary biology and Phylogeny He worked first on invertebrates, clarifying the relationships between groups that were previously little understood. An invertebrate is an Animal lacking a Vertebral column. The group includes 98% of all animal Species — all animals except those in the Chordate Later, he worked more on vertebrates, especially on the relationship between man and the apes. Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes Another of his important conclusions was that birds evolved from dinosaurs, namely, small carnivorous theropods. Theropods (ˈθɪərəpɒd theropoda /θiːˈrɒpədə/ 'beast feet' are a group of Bipedal Saurischian Dinosaurs Although they were primarily This view is widely held today.
The tendency has been for this fine anatomical work to be overshadowed by his energetic controversial activity in favour of evolution, and by his extensive public work on scientific education, both of which had significant effect on society in Britain and elsewhere. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency
Thomas Henry Huxley was born in Ealing (then a village in Middlesex). The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Ealing is a Town in the London Borough of Ealing. It is a Suburban development situated 7 Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest by area. He was the second youngest of eight children of George Huxley and Rachel Withers. Like some other British scientists of the nineteenth century such as Alfred Russel Wallace, Huxley was brought up in a literate middle-class family. Alfred Russel Wallace OM, FRS (8 January 1823 &ndash 7 November 1913 was an British naturalist, Explorer, Geographer The elder Huxley was a mathematics teacher at Ealing School until it closed, putting the family into financial difficulties. As a result, Thomas left school at 10, after only two years of formal schooling.
Despite this unenviable start, Huxley was determined to educate himself. He became one of the great autodidacts of the nineteenth century. Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning At first he read Thomas Carlyle, James Hutton's Geology, Hamilton's Logic. Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881 was a Scottish essayist satirist and historian whose work was highly influential during the Victorian era. James Hutton MD (3 June 1726 OS (14 June 1726 NS) Edinburgh 26 March 1797 was a Scottish Geologist, Sir William Hamilton 9th Baronet ( 8 March 1788 &ndash 6 May 1856) was a Scottish metaphysician. In his teens he taught himself German, eventually becoming fluent and used by Charles Darwin as a translator of scientific material in German. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life He learnt Latin, and enough Greek to read Aristotle in the original.
Later on, as a young adult, he made himself an expert first on invertebrates, and later on vertebrates, all self-taught. An invertebrate is an Animal lacking a Vertebral column. The group includes 98% of all animal Species — all animals except those in the Chordate Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes He was skilled in drawing, and did many of the illustrations for his publications on marine invertebrates. In his later debates and writing on science and religion his grasp of theology was better than most of his clerical opponents. So, a boy who left school at ten became one of the most knowledgeable men in Britain. 
He was apprenticed for short periods to several medical practitioners: at 13 to his brother-in-law John Cooke in Coventry, who passed him on to Thomas Chandler, notable for his experiments using mesmerism for medical purposes. The term's most common usage today refers to a person's sexual attractiveness or raw Charisma. Chandler's practice was in London's Rotherhithe amidst the squalor endured by the Dickensian poor. Rotherhithe is a district of central south-east London in the London Borough of Southwark. Here Thomas would have seen poverty, crime and rampant disease at its worst.  Next, another brother-in-law took him on: John Salt, his eldest sister's husband. Now 16, Huxley entered Sydenham College (behind University College Hospital), a cut-price anatomy school whose founder Marshall Hall discovered the reflex arc. University College Hospital is a Teaching hospital in London, England, part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Marshall Hall (1790 &ndash 1857 was an English Physician and Physiologist. A reflex arc is the Neural pathway that mediates a Reflex action. All this time Huxley continued his program of reading, which more than made up for his lack of formal schooling.
A year later, buoyed by excellent results and a silver medal prize in the Apothecaries' yearly competition, Huxley was admitted to study at Charing Cross Hospital, where he obtained a small scholarship. Charing Cross Hospital is a hospital in London, England. It was established in 1823 as the West London Infirmary and was originally located in Villiers Street At Charing Cross, he was taught by the remarkable Scot, Thomas Wharton Jones, who had been Robert Knox's assistant when Knox bought cadavers from Burke and Hare. Thomas Wharton Jones (born St Andrews, Scotland, January 9, 1808; died Ventnor, England, November 7, 1891 Robert Knox MD FRCSEd FRSEd ( 4 September, 1791 &ndash 20 December, 1862) was a Scottish surgeon The Burke and Hare murders (also known as the West Port murders) The young Wharton Jones, who acted as go-between, was exonerated of crime, but thought it best to leave Scotland. He was a fine teacher, up-to-date in physiology and also an ophthalmic surgeon. In 1845, under Wharton Jones' guidance, Huxley published his first scientific paper demonstrating the existence of a hitherto unrecognized layer in the inner sheath of hairs, a layer that has been known since as Huxley's layer. The second layer of the inner root sheath of the Hair consists of one or two layers of horny flattened nucleated cells known as Huxley's layer. No doubt remembering this, and of course knowing his merit, later in life Huxley organised a pension for his old tutor.
At twenty he passed his First M. B. examination at the University of London, winning the gold medal for anatomy and physiology. The University of London is a university based primarily in London, England, UK. Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical However, he did not present himself for the final (2nd M. B. ) exams and consequently did not qualify with a university degree. His apprenticeships and exam results formed a sufficient basis for his application to the Royal Navy. 
Aged 20, Huxley was too young to apply to the Royal College of Surgeons for a licence to practice, yet he was 'deep in debt'.  So, at a friend's suggestion, he applied for an appointment in the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) He had references on character and certificates showing the time spent on his apprenticeship and on requirements such as dissection and pharmacy. Sir William Burnett, the Physician General of the Navy, interviewed him and arranged for the College of Surgeons to test his competence (by means of a viva voce).
Finally Huxley was made Assistant Surgeon ('surgeon's mate') to HMS Rattlesnake, about to start for a voyage of discovery and surveying to New Guinea and Australia. Sir Oswald Walters Brierly ( 1817 - December 14, 1894) English marine painter, who came of an old Cheshire Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental HMS Rattlesnake was a 28-gun Sixth-rate Frigate of the Royal Navy launched in 1822 Rattlesnake left England on December 3, 1846 and, once they had arrived in the southern hemisphere, Huxley devoted his time to the study of marine invertebrates. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display  He began to send details of his discoveries back to England, where publication was arranged by Edward Forbes FRS (who had also been a pupil of Knox). Edward Forbes ( February 12, 1815 – November 18, 1854) was a British naturalist. Both before and after the voyage Forbes was something of a mentor to Huxley.
Huxley's paper On the anatomy and the affinities of the family of Medusae was published in 1849 by the Royal Society in its Philosophical Transactions. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Huxley united the Hydroid and Sertularian polyps with the Medusae to form a class to which he subsequently gave the name of Hydrozoa. Hydrozoa ( hydrozoans) are a Taxonomic class of very massive predatory animals which can be solitary or colonial and which mostly live in saltwater The connection he made was that all the members of the class consisted of two cell layers, enclosing a central cavity or stomach. This is characteristic of the phylum now called the Cnidaria. A phylum ( Plural: phyla) is a Taxonomic rank between Kingdom and above Class. Cnidaria (naɪˈdɛəriə is a phylum containing some 9000 Species of Animals found exclusively in aquatic mostly marine, environments He compared this feature to the serous and mucous structures of embryos of higher animals. When at last he got a grant from the Royal Society for the printing of plates, Huxley was able to summarise this work in The Oceanic Hydrozoa, published by the Ray Society in 1859. The Ray Society was instituted in 1844 and named after John Ray, the 17th century naturalist as a scientific publishing organization whose activities are devoted mainly to the 
The value of Huxley's work was recognized and, on returning to England in 1850, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In the following year, at the age of twenty-six, he not only received the Royal Society Medal but was also elected to the Council. He met Joseph Dalton Hooker and John Tyndall, who remained his lifelong friends. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, OM, GCSI, MD, FRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911 was an English Botanist and Explorer John Tyndall FRS ( August 2, 1820 &ndash December 4, 1893) was a prominent 19th century Irish Physicist. The Admiralty retained him as a nominal assistant-surgeon, so he might work on the specimens he collected and the observations he made during the voyage of Rattlesnake. He produced a number of important papers on such groups as the Ascidians, in which he solved the related problem of Appendicularia, whose place in the animal kingdom Johannes Peter Müller had found himself wholly unable to assign. Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or Sea squirts is a class in the Tunicata Subphylum of sac-like marine Filter feeders The Appendicularia, Larvaceans or KiK are a group of solitary free-swimming pelagic Urochordates found throughout Johannes Peter Müller ( July 14, 1801 &ndash April 28, 1858) was a German Physiologist, comparative anatomist They are both, as Huxley showed, tunicates, today regarded as a sister group to the vertebrates in the phylum Chordata. Tunicate, also known as urochordata, tunicata (and by the common names of urochordates, sea squirts, and sea pork) is the Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates  Other papers on the morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca and on brachiopods and rotifers are also noteworthy. The term morphology in Biology refers to the outward appearance ( Shape, Structure, Colour, Pattern) of an Organism Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around 250000 extant Species within the phylum with an estimated 70000 Brachiopods (from Latin brachium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot are a small phylum of Benthic Invertebrates Also The rotifers make up a Phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate Animals They were first described by Rev  The Rattlesnake's official naturalist, John MacGillivray, did some work on botany, and proved surprisingly good at notating Australian aboriginal languages. John MacGillivray ( December 18, 1821 &ndash June 6, 1867) was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, the son of Ornithologist He wrote up the voyage in the standard Victorian two volume format. 
Huxley effectively resigned from the navy (by refusing to return to active service) and, in July 1854, he became Professor of Natural History at the Royal School of Mines and naturalist to the Geological Survey in the following year. Royal School of Mines comprises the departments of Earth Science and Engineering, and Materials at Imperial College London. The term geological survey can be used to describe both the conduct of a survey for geological purposes and an institution holding geological information In addition, he was Fullerian Professor at the Royal Institution 1855–58 and 1865–67; Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons 1863–69; President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1869–1870; and, later, President of the Royal Society 1883–85; and Inspector of Fisheries 1881–85. The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organization devoted to scientific education and research based in London. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 
The thirty-one years during which Huxley occupied the chair of natural history at the Royal School of Mines included work on vertebrate palaeontology and on many projects to advance the place of science in British life.
Among Huxley's most important work in this period was his continuing investigation of the relationship of man to other animals. For nearly a decade his research and lecturing was directed mainly to this topic, which led him directly into a clash with Richard Owen, a man widely disliked for his behaviour whilst also being admired for his capability. Sir Richard Owen KCB ( Lancaster, July 20 1804 &ndash December 18 1892) was an English Biologist This struggle was to culminate in some severe defeats for Owen. Huxley's Croonian Lecture, delivered before the Royal Society in 1858 on The Theory of the Vertebrate Skull was the start. The Croonian Lectures are prestigious lectureships given at the invitation of the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians. In this, he rejected Owen's view that the bones of the skull and the spine were homologous, an opinion previously held by Goethe and Lorenz Oken. In Evolutionary biology, homology has come to mean any similarity between characters that is due to their shared ancestry. ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə (in English generally ˈgɝːtə 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer Lorenz Oken ( August 1, 1779 &ndash August 11, 1851) was a German naturalist. 
From 1860 to 1863 Huxley developed his ideas, presenting them in lectures to working men, students and the general public, followed by publication. In 1862 he examined the Neanderthal skull-cap, which had been discovered in 1857. The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from It was the first pre-sapiens discovery of a fossil man, and it was immediately clear to him that the brain case was surprisingly large.  Also in 1862 a series of talks to working men was printed lecture by lecture as pamphlets, later bound up as a little green book; the first copies went on sale in December.  Other lectures grew into Huxley's most famous work Evidence as to Man's place in Nature (1863) where he addressed the key issues long before Charles Darwin published his Descent of Man in 1871. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book on Evolutionary theory by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first
Rather less productive was his work on physical anthropology, a topic which fascinated the Victorians. In his Hunterian lectures for 1864 he addressed two key questions: 1. Are the differences [between races] sufficient to justify us in [considering] them as distinct species of men? 2. Can any of the differences [between races] be considered as transitional towards the lower forms of animals? Since Huxley answered no to both questions (as would all biologists today) his views are uncontroversial. In general, his attitudes were liberal though he did not entirely escape the prejudices of his day towards non-Europeans and towards women. 
Huxley classified the human races as: Europeans, Mongolian, Negro (or Ethiopian) and Australian; each of these categories being broken down further into sub-sets. In fact all such anthropological classifications are put in the shade by our modern discovery that the genetic diversity of man in Africa is greater than exists in the rest of mankind put together. 
The first half of Huxley's career as a palaeontologist is marked by a rather strange predilection for 'persistent types', in which he seemed to argue that evolutionary advancement (in the sense of major new groups of animals and plants) was rare or absent in the Phanerozoic:
"Without at all denying the considerable positive differences which exist between the ancient and the modern forms of life. The Phanerozoic (occasionally Phanaerozoic) Eon is the current eon in the Geologic timescale, and the one during which abundant animal life has existed . . these differences and contrasts have been greatly exaggerated. . . of the orders. . . not more than seven per cent are unrepresented [at the present day]. " 
In the same vein he tended to push the origin of major groups such as birds and mammals back into the Palaeozoic era, and to claim that no order of plants had ever gone extinct. The Paleozoic or Palaeozoic Era (from the Greek palaio (παλαιο "old" and zoe (ζωη "life" meaning "ancient life"
Much paper has been consumed by historians of science ruminating on this strange and somewhat unclear idea.  Huxley was wrong to pitch the loss of orders in the Phanerozoic as low as 7%, and he did not estimate the number of new orders which evolved. This article is about the taxonomic rank for the sequence of species in a taxonomic list see Taxonomic order In scientific classification used Persistent types sat rather uncomfortably next to Darwin's more fluid ideas; despite his intelligence, it took him a surprisingly long time to appreciate some of the implications of evolution. However, gradually Huxley moved away from this conservative style of thinking as his understanding of palaeontology, and the discipline itself, developed.
Huxley's detailed anatomical work was, as always, first-rate and productive. His work on fossil fish shows his distinctive approach: whereas pre-Darwinian naturalists collected, identified and classified, Huxley worked mainly to reveal the relationships between groups.
The lobed-finned fish (such as coelacanths and lung fish) have paired appendages whose internal skeleton is attached to the shoulder or pelvis by a single bone, the humerus or femur. Coelacanth (ˈsiːləkænθ adaptation of Modern Latin Cœlacanthus > cœl-us + acanth-us from Greek κοῖλ-ος + ἄκανθ-α) is the common name for Lungfish are freshwater fish belonging to the Subclass Dipnoi. His interest in these fish brought him close to the origin of tetrapods, one of the most important areas of vertebrate palaeontology. Tetrapods ( Greek τετραποδη tetrapoda, Latin Quadruped, "four-footed" are Vertebrate Animals 
The study of fossil reptiles led to his demonstrating, in the course of lectures on birds (delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1867) the fundamental affinity of the two groups which he united under the title of Sauropsida. The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent Professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers His papers on Archaeopteryx and the origin of birds such as Further evidence of the affinity between the dinosaurian reptiles and birds (1870) were of great interest then and still are. Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird" is the earliest and most primitive Bird The origin of birds has been a contentious topic within Evolutionary biology for many years but more recently a scientific consensus has emerged which holds that Birds 
Apart from his great interest in persuading the world that man was a primate, and had descended from the same stock as the apes, Huxley did little work on mammals, with one exception. On his tour of America Huxley was shown the remarkable series of fossil horses, discovered by O.C. Marsh, in Yale's Peabody Museum. Othniel Charles Marsh ( October 29, 1831 &ndash March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent Paleontologists of the 19th century who  Marsh was part palaeontologist, part robber baron, a man who had hunted buffalo and met Red Cloud (in 1874). Red Cloud ( Lakota: Makhpiya Luta) (1822? &ndash December 10, 1909) was a war leader of the Oglala Lakota ( Sioux Funded by his uncle George Peabody, Marsh had made some remarkable discoveries: the huge Cretaceous aquatic bird Hesperornis, and the dinosaur footprints along the Connecticut River were worth the trip by themselves, but the horse fossils were really special. This article is about George Peabody a London-based banker and philanthropist from the northern United States founder of the Peabody Institute and the Peabody Trust The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of Hesperornis is an extinct Genus of flightless aquatic Birds that lived during the Santonian to Campanian sub-epochs of the The Connecticut River is the largest River in New England, flowing south from the Connecticut Lakes in northern New Hampshire, along the border
The collection at that time went from the small four-toed forest-dwelling Orohippus from the Eocene through three-toed species such as Miohippus to species more like the modern horse. Orohippus ( Gr, "mountain horse" is an extinct ancestor of the modern Horse that lived in the Eocene (about 50 million years ago Miohippus (meaning "small horse" (whose species are commonly referred to as the three-toed horses) was a genus of prehistoric horse that lived in what is By looking at their teeth he could see that, as the size grew larger and the toes reduced, the teeth changed from those of a browser to those of a grazer. All such changes could be explained by a general alteration in habitat from forest to grassland. And that, we now know, is what did happen over large areas of North America from the Eocene to the Pleistocene: the ultimate causative agent was global temperature reduction (see Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum). The Eocene epoch (558 ± 02 - 339 ± 01 Ma) is a major division of the Geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Palaeogene period in The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period The Paleocene /Eocene boundary, was marked by the most rapid and significant climatic disturbance of the Cenozoic Era. The modern account of the evolution of the horse has many other members, and the overall appearance of the tree of descent is more like a bush than a straight line. The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern Horse from the fox-sized forest-dwelling Hyracotherium
The horse series also strongly suggested that the process was gradual, and that the origin of the modern horse lay in North America, not in Eurasia. And if so, then something must have happened to horses in North America, since none were there when the Spanish arrived. . . That, however, is another story. The experience was enough for Huxley to give credence to Darwin's gradualism, and to introduce the story of the horse into his lecture series.
From 1870 onwards, Huxley was to some extent drawn away from scientific research by the claims of public duty. From 1862 to 1884 he served on eight Royal Commissions. The term Royal Commission may also be used in the United Kingdom to describe the group of Lords Commissioners who may act in the stead of the From 1871 to 1880 he was a Secretary of the Royal Society and from 1883 to 1885 he was President. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 He was President of the Geological Society from 1868-1870. The Geological Society of London is a Learned society based in the United Kingdom with the aim of "investigating the mineral structure of the Earth" In 1870, he was President of the British Association at Liverpool and, in the same year was elected a member of the newly-constituted London School Board. The School Board for London (often abbreviated to the SBL and known colloquially as the London School Board) was an institution of local government and the first He was made a Privy Councillor in 1892. A privy council is a body that advises the Head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically but not always in the context of a
He was awarded the highest honours then open to British men of science. The Royal Society, who had elected him as Fellow when he was 25 (1851), awarded him the Royal Medal the next year (1852), a year before Charles Darwin got the same award! He was the youngest biologist to receive such recognition. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 The Royal Medals of the Royal Society of London, also as The Queen's Medals were established by King George IV. Then later in life came the Copley Medal in 1888 and the Darwin Medal in 1894; the Geological Society awarded him the Wollaston Medal in 1876; the Linnean Society awarded him the Linnean Medal in 1890. The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of Science established by the Royal Society of London in 1731 The Darwin Medal is given by the Royal Society every even year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of Biology in which Charles Darwin The Geological Society of London is a Learned society based in the United Kingdom with the aim of "investigating the mineral structure of the Earth" The Linnean Society of London is the World 's premier society for the study and dissemination of Taxonomy and natural history The Linnean Medal (formerly referred to as the Gold Medal) of the Linnean Society of London was established in 1888 and is awarded annually to alternately a botanist There were many other elections and appointments to eminent scientific bodies; these and his many academic awards are listed in the Life and Letters. He turned down many other appointments, notably the Linacre chair in zoology at Oxford and the Mastership of University College, Oxford. University College (in full the The Master and Fellows of the College of the Great Hall of the University of Oxford, colloquially referred to as Univ) is one of 
Huxley also found time to write a treatise on physiography (1878)—a detailed physical geography of the Thames River Basin—as a primer in science, and an excellent textbook on the crayfish. Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the three major subfields of Geography. Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the three major subfields of Geography. Crayfish, crawfish, crawdads, or crodgers are freshwater Crustaceans resembling small Lobsters to which they are closely Still of considerable interest is his biography of David Hume, the 18th century Scottish empirical philosopher. David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy This shows that his choice of agnosticism was accompanied by a lengthy period of thought on the foundations of knowledge.
His health broke down in 1885. Alexander Bassano ( May 10, 1829 - October 21, 1913) was the leading high society portrait photographer in Victorian In 1890, he moved from London to Eastbourne where he had the satisfaction of seeing the nine volumes of his Collected Essays published by Macmillan. Eastbourne ( is a large town and borough of East Sussex, on the south coast of England with an estimated population of 94816 as of 2007 In 1884 he heard of the Eugene Dubois' discovery in Java of the remains of Pithecanthropus erectus (now known as Homo erectus). Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin Finally, in 1895 he died of a heart attack (after contracting influenza and pneumonia), and was buried in North London at St. Marylebone (now East Finchley) Cemetery. This small family plot had been purchased upon the death of his beloved little son Noel, who died of scarlet fever in 1860; Huxley's wife is also buried there. No invitations were sent out, but two hundred people turned up for the ceremony; they included Hooker, Flower, Foster, Lankester, Joseph Lister and, apparently, Henry James. Joseph Lister 1st Baron Lister, OM, FRS ( 5 April 1827 &ndash 10 February 1912) was an English surgeon Henry James, OM ( –) son of theologian Henry James Sr, brother of the philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James 
There is so much in his life of scientific and social interest that it seems extraordinary that he was given no award by the British state until he was made Privy Counsellor late in life. A privy council is a body that advises the Head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically but not always in the context of a In this he did better than Darwin, who got no award of any kind from the state. (See Desmond and Moore for the story of how an honour for Darwin was vetoed by ecclesiastical advisors, including Wilberforce. ) Perhaps Huxley had commented too often on his dislike of honours, or perhaps his many assaults on the traditional beliefs of organised religion made enemies in the establishment—he had vigorous debates in print with Prime Ministers Disraeli, Gladstone and Arthur Balfour, and his relationship with Lord Salisbury was less than tranquil. Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was Arthur James Balfour 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930 was a British Conservative politician and "Lord Salisbury" redirects here For other holders of the title see Marquess of Salisbury. 
As recognition of his many public services (he served on eight Royal Commissions—see below, became Inspector of Fisheries for a period, and more or less established scientific education in Britain) he was given a pension by the state. When one compares this with, say, Charles Lyell (who was awarded first a knighthood, then a baronetcy) or William Thomson (who was made a knight, a baron and awarded the Order of Merit) one is forced to conclude that the British establishment treated Huxley in a shabby manner. Sir Charles Lyell 1st Baronet, KT, FRS (14 November 1797 &ndash 22 February 1875 was a Scottish Lawyer, Geologist, and protagonist A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt) or the rare female equivalent a baronetess (abbreviation Btss) is the holder William Thomson 1st Baron Kelvin (or Lord Kelvin) OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, FRSE, (26 June 1824 &ndash 17 December 1907 The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch.
However, in 1873 the King of Sweden made Huxley, Hooker and Tyndall Knights of the Order of the North Star, a remarkable event (they could wear the insignia but not use the title in Britain).  Huxley did collect honorary memberships of foreign societies, academic awards and honorary doctorates from Britain and Germany, and his writings are still widely read today, which can be said of few nineteenth century scientists.
Huxley was the founder of a very distinguished family of British academics, including his grandsons Aldous Huxley the novelist, Sir Julian Huxley the first Director General of UNESCO and a founder of the World Wide Fund for Nature, and Sir Andrew Huxley the physiologist and Nobel laureate. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 &ndash 22 November 1963 was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS ( 22 June 1887 &ndash 14 February 1975) was an English Evolutionary biologist United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, OM, FRS (born 22 November 1917, Hampstead, London) is an English physiologist Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin is awarded once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute.
After Darwin and Wallace, Huxley was for about thirty years evolution's most effective advocate, and for some Huxley was "the premier advocate of science in the nineteenth century [for] the whole English-speaking world". 
Though he had many admirers and disciples, the loss of Francis Balfour in 1882 deprived British zoology of the person whom many regarded as the best of his generation. Francis (Frank Maitland Balfour, known as F M Balfour, ( November 10, 1851 - July 19, 1882) was a British Balfour, the younger brother of A.J. Balfour, was an embryologist and morphologist; his Comparative Embryology (2 vols, 1880-81) was a landmark. Arthur James Balfour 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930 was a British Conservative politician and Huxley had thought he was "the only man who can carry out my work": and the deaths of Balfour and W.K. Clifford were "the greatest loss to science in our time". W K Clifford may refer to William Kingdon Clifford, British mathematician and philosopher Lucy Clifford Mrs W  Balfour died whilst climbing in the Alps; he had just been appointed to a chair at Cambridge.
Huxley was originally not persuaded of 'development theory' as evolution was once called. This article deals with Darwin's life during the period from 1859 to 1861 including immediate reactions to his publication of The Origin of Species. We can see that in his savage review of Robert Chambers' Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, a book which contained some quite pertinent arguments in favour of evolution. Robert Chambers ( 10 July 1802 &ndash 17 March 1871) was a Scottish Author and Publisher, who in partnership Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation was a book published anonymously in England in 1844 Huxley had also rejected Lamarck's theory of transmutation, on the basis that there was insufficient evidence to support it. Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Chevalier de Lamarck ( August 1, 1744 &ndash December 18, 1829) was a French Soldier All this scepticism was brought together in a lecture to the Royal Institution, which made Darwin anxious enough to set about an effort to change young Huxley's mind. It was the kind of thing Darwin did with his closest scientific friends, but he must have had some particular intuition about Huxley, who was from all accounts a most impressive person even as a young man. 
Huxley was therefore one of the small group who knew about Darwin's views before they were published (the group included Joseph Dalton Hooker and Charles Lyell). Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, OM, GCSI, MD, FRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911 was an English Botanist and Explorer Sir Charles Lyell 1st Baronet, KT, FRS (14 November 1797 &ndash 22 February 1875 was a Scottish Lawyer, Geologist, and protagonist The first publication by Darwin of his ideas came when Wallace sent Darwin his famous paper on natural selection, which was presented by Lyell and Hooker to the Linnean Society in 1858 alongside excerpts from Darwin's notebook and a Darwin letter to Asa Gray. The Linnean Society of London is the World 's premier society for the study and dissemination of Taxonomy and natural history Asa Gray ( November 18, 1810 - January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century  Huxley's famous response to the idea of natural selection was "How extremely stupid not to have thought of that!". However, the correctness of natural selection as the main mechanism for evolution was to lie permanently in Huxley's mental pending tray. He never conclusively made up his mind about it, though he did admit it was an hypothesis which was a good working basis.
Logically speaking, the prior question was whether evolution had taken place at all. It is to this question that much of Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species was devoted. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species (published 24 November 1859) is a seminal work in Scientific literature and arguably the Its publication in 1859 completely convinced Huxley of evolution and it was this and no doubt his admiration of Darwin's way of amassing and using evidence that formed the basis of his support for Darwin in the debates that followed the book's publication.
Huxley's support started with his anonymous favourable review of the Origin in the Times for 26th December 1859, and continued with articles in several periodicals, and in a lecture at the Royal Institution in February 1860. The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organization devoted to scientific education and research based in London.  At the same time, Richard Owen, whilst writing an extremely hostile anonymous review of the Origin in the Edinburgh Review, also primed Samuel Wilberforce who wrote one in the Quarterly Review, running to 17,000 words. Sir Richard Owen KCB ( Lancaster, July 20 1804 &ndash December 18 1892) was an English Biologist The Edinburgh Review, founded in 1802 was one of the most influential British Magazines of the 19th century Samuel Wilberforce ( 7 September 1805 – 19 July 1873) was an English Bishop in the Church of England, third The Quarterly Review, a literary and political periodical founded in March 1809 by the well known London publishing house John Murray.  The authorship of this latter review was not known for sure until Wilberforce's son wrote his biography. So it can be said that, just as Darwin groomed Huxley, so Owen groomed Wilberforce; and both the proxies fought public battles on behalf of their principals as much as themselves. Though we do not know the exact words of the Oxford debate, we do know what Huxley thought of the review in the Quarterly:
"I am Darwin's bulldog" said Huxley, and it is apt; the second half of Darwin's life was lived mainly within his family, and the younger, combative Huxley operated mainly out in the world at large. A letter from THH to Ernst Haeckel (Nov 2 1871) goes "The dogs have been snapping at [Darwin's] heels too much of late. "
Famously, Huxley responded to Wilberforce in the debate at the British Association meeting, on Saturday 30th June 1860 at the Oxford University Museum. The 1860 Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin He was joined at the debate by his and Darwin's friends Hooker and Lubbock, and they were opposed by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, and Robert FitzRoy, the captain of HMS Beagle. Samuel Wilberforce ( 7 September 1805 – 19 July 1873) was an English Bishop in the Church of England, third Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy ( 5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS ''Beagle'' The chair for this debate was Darwins's former botany tutor John Stevens Henslow, and flanking him on the platform were Dr John William Draper from New York, Rev Dingle, Hooker, Lubbock, Brodie, Professor Beale and Huxley. John Stevens Henslow ( February 6, 1796 - May 16, 1861) was an English Botanist and Geologist. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, OM, GCSI, MD, FRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911 was an English Botanist and Explorer John Lubbock can refer toSeveral members of the Lubbock family Sir John Lubbock 1st Baronet (1744&ndash1816 Sir John Lubbock 2nd Baronet Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie 1st Baronet ( June 9, 1783 &mdash October 21, 1862) was an English Physiologist and surgeon 
Wilberforce had a track record against evolution as far back as the previous Oxford B. A. meeting in 1847 when he attacked Chambers' Vestiges. For the more challenging task of opposing the Origin, and the implication that man descended from apes, he had been assiduously coached by Richard Owen – Owen stayed with him the night before the debate. Sir Richard Owen KCB ( Lancaster, July 20 1804 &ndash December 18 1892) was an English Biologist  On the day Wilberforce repeated some of the arguments from his Quarterly Review article (written but not yet published), then ventured onto slippery ground. His famous jibe at Huxley (as to whether H. was descended from an ape on his mother's side or his father's side) was probably unplanned, and certainly unwise. Huxley's reply to the effect that he would rather be descended from an ape than a man who misused his great talents to suppress debate—the exact wording is not certain—was widely recounted in pamphlets and a spoof play.
The letters of Alfred Newton include one to his brother giving an eye-witness account of the debate, and written less than a month afterwards. Alfred Newton FRS ( Geneva, June 11, 1829 &ndash Cambridge, June 7, 1907) was an English zoologist  Other eyewitnesses, with one or two exceptions (Hooker especially thought he had made the best points), give similar accounts, at varying dates after the event.  The general view was and still is that Huxley got much the better of the exchange though Wilberforce himself thought he had done quite well. In the absence of a verbatim report differing perceptions are difficult to judge fairly; Huxley wrote a detailed account for Darwin, a letter which does not survive; however, a letter to his friend Frederick Daniel Dyster does survive with an account just three months after the event. 
One effect of the debate was to increase hugely Huxley's visibility amongst educated people, through the accounts in newspapers and periodicals. Another consequence was to alert him to the importance of public debate: a lesson he never forgot. A third effect was to serve notice that Darwinian ideas could not be easily dismissed: on the contrary, they would be vigorously defended against orthodox authority.  A fourth effect was to promote professionalism in science, with its implied need for scientific education. A fifth consequence was indirect: as Wilberforce had feared, a defence of evolution did undermine literal belief in the Old Testament, especially the Book of Genesis. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Many of the liberal clergy at the meeting were quite pleased with the outcome of the debate; they were supporters, perhaps, of the controversial Essays and Reviews. Essays and Reviews, published in March 1860 is a broad-church volume of seven Essays on Religion. Thus both on the side of science, and on the side of religion, the debate was important, and its outcome significant.  (see also below)
That Huxley and Wilberforce remained on courteous terms after this debate, and were able to work together on projects such as the Metropolitan Board of Education, says something about both men; whereas Huxley and Owen were never reconciled.
Although Darwin did not publish his Descent of Man until 1871, the general debate on this topic had started years before (there was even a precursor debate in the 18th century between Monboddo and Buffon). James Burnett Lord Monboddo ( October 25, 1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish Judge, scholar of language evolution and Darwin himself had dropped a hint when, in the conclusion to the Origin, he wrote: "In the distant future. . . light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. " Not so distant, as it turned out. A key event had already occurred in 1857 when Richard Owen presented (to the Linnean Society) his view that man was marked off from all other mammals by possessing features of the brain peculiar to the genus Homo. Sir Richard Owen KCB ( Lancaster, July 20 1804 &ndash December 18 1892) was an English Biologist Having reached this (erroneous) opinion, Owen separated man from all other mammals in a subclass of its own.  No other biologist held such an extreme view. Darwin reacted "Man. . . as distinct from a chimpanzee [as] an ape from a platypus. . . I cannot swallow that!" Neither could Huxley, who was able to demonstrate that Owen's idea was completely wrong.
The subject was discussed before a jury of experts at the same 1860 Oxford meeting, then in 1862 at the Cambridge meeting of the B. A. Huxley's friend William Flower gave a public demonstration that the same structures were indeed present in apes. Sir William Henry Flower KCB FRCS FRS (November 30 1831 – July 1 1899 was an English Comparative anatomist and Surgeon. Thus was exposed one of Owen's greatest blunders, revealing Huxley as not only dangerous in debate, but also a better anatomist. Huxley's ideas on this topic were summed up in January 1861 in the first issue (new series) of his own journal, the Natural History Review: "the most violent scientific paper he had ever composed".  This paper was reprinted in 1863 as chapter 2 of Man's place in Nature (his most influential book), but in the 1894 volume 7 in his Collected Essays the history of the Owen/Huxley debate was edited out. Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature is an 1863 book by Thomas Henry Huxley and arguably the first to discuss Human evolution. This extended debate, partly oral and partly in print, was a landmark in Huxley's career. It was highly important in asserting his dominance of comparative anatomy, and in the long run more influential in establishing evolution amongst biologists than was the debate with Wilberforce.
The following was written by Huxley to Rolleston before the 1861 BA meeting:
Huxley was certainly not slavish in his dealings with Darwin. As shown in every biography, they had quite different and rather complementary characters. Important also, Darwin was a field naturalist, but Huxley was an anatomist, so there was a difference in their experience of nature. Lastly, Darwin's views on science were different from Huxley's views. For Darwin, natural selection was the best way to explain evolution because it explained a huge range of natural history facts and observations: it solved problems. Huxley, on the other hand, was an empiricist who trusted what he could see, and some things are not easily seen. With this in mind, one can appreciate the debate between them, Darwin writing his letters, Huxley never going quite so far as to say he thought Darwin was right.
Huxley's reservations on natural selection were of the type "until selection and breeding can be seen to give rise to varieties which are infertile with each other, natural selection cannot be proved. "  Huxley's position on selection was agnostic; yet he gave no credence to any other theory.
Darwin's part in the discussion came mostly in letters, as was his wont, along the lines: "The empirical evidence you call for is both impossible in practical terms, and in any event unnecessary. It's the same as asking to see every step in the transformation (or the splitting) of one species into another. My way so many issues are clarified and problems solved; no other theory does nearly so well. " 
Huxley's reservation, as Helena Cronin has so aptly remarked, was contagious: "it spread itself for years among all kinds of doubters of Darwinism. "  One reason for this doubt was that comparative anatomy could address the question of descent, but not the question of mechanism.  Huxley's resistance to Darwin's massaging and suasion is evidence of mental firmness; he may be Darwin's bulldog, but not his poodle! At least he went so far as to say that he knew of no better hypothesis.
In November 1864 Huxley succeeded in launching a dining club, the X Club, like-minded people working to advance the cause of science; not surprisingly, the club consisted of most of his closest friends. The X Club was a Dining club of nine men who supported the theories of Natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th century England. There were nine members, who decided at their first meeting that there should be no more. The members were: Huxley, John Tyndall, J. D. Hooker, John Lubbock (banker, biologist and cousin of Darwin), Herbert Spencer (social philosopher and sub-editor of the Economist), William Spottiswoode (mathematician and the Queen's Printer), Thomas Hirst (Professor of Physics at University College London), Edward Frankland (the new Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution) and George Busk, zoologist and palaeontologist (formerly surgeon for HMS Dreadnought). John Tyndall FRS ( August 2, 1820 &ndash December 4, 1893) was a prominent 19th century Irish Physicist. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, OM, GCSI, MD, FRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911 was an English Botanist and Explorer John Lubbock can refer toSeveral members of the Lubbock family Sir John Lubbock 1st Baronet (1744&ndash1816 Sir John Lubbock 2nd Baronet Herbert Spencer ( April 27, 1820 – December 8, 1903) was an English Philosopher; prominent classical liberal William Spottiswoode FRS ( January 11 1825, London - June 27 1883 London) was an English mathematician and Thomas Archer Hirst FRS (22 April 1830 – 16 February 1892 was a 19th century mathematician specialising in Geometry. Sir Edward Frankland, KCB, FRS ( January 18, 1825 &ndash August 9, 1899) was a Chemist, one of the foremost George Busk RN FRS ( 12 August 1807 &ndash 10 August 1886) was a British Naval surgeon, All except Spencer were Fellows of the Royal Society. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Tyndall was a particularly close friend; for many years they met regularly and discussed issues of the day. On more than one occasion Huxley joined Tyndall in the latter's trips into the Alps and helped with his investigations in glaciology. Glaciology (from Middle French dialect (Franco-Provençal glace, "ice" or Latin glacies, "frost ice" and Greek λόγος 
There were also some quite significant X-Club satellites such as William Flower and George Rolleston, (Huxley protegées), and liberal clergyman Arthur Stanley, the Dean of Westminster. Sir William Henry Flower KCB FRCS FRS (November 30 1831 – July 1 1899 was an English Comparative anatomist and Surgeon. George Rolleston FRS (1829 – 1881 was an English physician and zoologist Sir Arthur Stanley, GCVO, GBE, CB ( 18 November 1869 &ndash 4 November 1947) was a British Conservative Guests such as Charles Darwin and Hermann von Helmholtz were entertained from time to time. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life 
They would dine early on first Thursdays at a hotel, planning what to do; high on the agenda was to change the way the Royal Society Council did business. It was no coincidence that the Council met later that same evening. First item for the Xs was to get the Copley Medal for Darwin, which they managed after quite a struggle.
The next step was to acquire an organ for propaganda. This was the weekly Reader, which they bought, revamped and redirected. Huxley had already become part-owner of the Natural History Review bolstered by the support of Lubbock, Rolleston, Busk and Carpenter (X-clubbers and satellites). The journal was switched to pro-Darwinian lines and relaunched in January 1861. After a stream of good articles the NHR failed after four years; but it had helped at a critical time for the establishment of evolution. The Reader also failed, despite its broader appeal which included art & literature as well as science. The periodical market was quite crowded at the time, but most probably the critical factor was Huxley's time; he was simply over-committed, and could not afford to hire full-time editors. This occurred often in his life: Huxley took on too many ventures, and was not so astute as Darwin at getting others to do work for him.
However, the experience gained with the Reader was put to good use when the X Club put their weight behind the founding of Nature in 1869. Nature is a prominent Scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869 This time no mistakes were made: above all there was a permanent editor (though not full-time), Norman Lockyer, who served until 1919, a year before his death. Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, FRS ( May 17, 1836 &ndash August 16, 1920) was an English scientist and astronomer Alan P Barr says "To celebrate his 100th birthday, Nature, a journal that Huxley had been instrumental in founding and nurturing, issued a supplement devoted to recollections of him". 
The peak of the X Club's influence was from 1873 to 1885 as Hooker, Spottiswoode and Huxley were Presidents of the Royal Society in succession. The President of the Royal Society ( PRS) is the elected head of the Royal Society of London. The Club continued to meet regularly until 1892, after which it was just an excuse for the surviving members to meet. Hooker died in 1911, and Lubbock (now Lord Avebury) was the last surviving member. Baron Avebury, of Avebury in the County of Wiltshire, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Huxley was also an active member of the Metaphysical Society, which ran from 1869 to 1880. The Metaphysical Society was a British society founded in 1869 by James Knowles.  It was formed around a nucleus of clergy and expanded to include all kinds of opinions. Tyndall and Huxley later joined The Club (founded by Dr. Johnson) when they could be sure that Owen would not turn up. Samuel Johnson (often referred to as Dr Johnson) (18 September 
When Huxley himself was young there were virtually no degrees in British universities in the biological sciences and few courses. Most biologists of his day were either self-taught, or took medical degrees. When he retired there were established chairs in biological disciplines in most universities, and a broad consensus on the curricula to be followed. Huxley was the single most influential person in this transformation.
In the early 1870s the Royal School of Mines moved to new quarters in South Kensington; ultimately it would become one of the constituent parts of Imperial College London. The move gave Huxley the chance to give more prominence to laboratory work in biology teaching, an idea suggested by practice in German universities.  In the main, the method was based on the use of carefully chosen types, and depended on the dissection of anatomy, supplemented by microscopy, museum specimens and some elementary physiology at the hands of Foster.
The typical day would start with Huxley lecturing at 9am, followed by a program of laboratory work supervised by his demonstrators.  Huxley's demonstrators were picked men—all became leaders of biology in Britain in later life, spreading Huxley's ideas as well as their own. Michael Foster became Professor of Physiology at Cambridge; E. Ray Lankester became Jodrell Professor of Zoology at University College London (1875–91), Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford (1891–98) and Director of the Natural History Museum (1898–1907); S. Sir Michael Foster ( March 8, 1836 &ndash January 29, 1907) was an English Physiologist. Sir E Ray Lankester KCB, FRS ( May 15, 1847 – August 13, 1929) was a British Zoologist, born in H. Vines became Professor of Botany at Cambridge; W.T. Thiselton-Dyer became Hooker's successor at Kew (he was already Hooker's son-in-law!); T. Sir William Turner Thiselton-Dyer KCMG FRS FLS (July 28 1843 &ndash December 23 1928 was a British Botanist. Jeffery Parker became Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College, Cardiff; and William Rutherford became the Professor of Physiology at Edinburgh. Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd is a leading University located in the Cathays Park area of Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom William Flower, Conservator to the Hunterian Museum, and THH's assistant in many dissections, became Sir William Flower, Hunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy and, later, Director of the Natural History Museum. Sir William Henry Flower KCB FRCS FRS (November 30 1831 – July 1 1899 was an English Comparative anatomist and Surgeon.  It's a remarkable list of disciples, especially when contrasted with Owen who, in a longer professional life than Huxley, left no disciples at all. "No one fact tells so strongly against Owen. . . as that he has never reared one pupil or follower". 
Huxley's courses for students were so much narrower than the man himself that many were bewildered by the contrast: "The teaching of zoology by use of selected animal types has come in for much criticism"; Looking back in 1914 to his time as a student, Sir Arthur Shipley said "[Although] Darwin's later works all dealt with living organisms, yet our obsession was with the dead, with bodies preserved, and cut into the most refined slices". Sir Arthur Everett Shipley GBE FRS ( 10 March 1861 &ndash 22 September 1927) was an English Zoologist  E. W MacBride said "Huxley. . . would persist in looking at animals as material structures and not as living, active beings; in a word. . . he was a necrologist.  To put it simply, Huxley preferred to teach what he had actually seen with his own eyes.
This largely morphological program of comparative anatomy remained at the core of most biological education for a hundred years until the advent of cell and molecular biology and interest in evolutionary ecology forced a fundamental rethink. The term morphology in Biology refers to the outward appearance ( Shape, Structure, Colour, Pattern) of an Organism Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the Anatomy of Organisms It is closely related to Evolutionary biology and Phylogeny It is an interesting fact that the methods of the field naturalists who led the way in developing the theory of evolution (Darwin, Wallace, Fritz Müller, Henry Bates) were scarcely represented at all in Huxley's program. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life Alfred Russel Wallace OM, FRS (8 January 1823 &ndash 7 November 1913 was an British naturalist, Explorer, Geographer Johann Friedrich Theodor Müller ( March 31, 1821 &ndash May 21, 1897) always known as Fritz, was a German biologist and physician Henry Walter Bates FRS, FLS, FGS ( February 8, 1825 &ndash February 16, 1892) was an English Ecological investigation of life in its environment was virtually non-existent, and theory, evolutionary or otherwise, was at a discount. Michael Ruse finds no mention of evolution or Darwinism in any of the exams set by Huxley, and confirms the lecture content based on two complete sets of lecture notes. 
Since Darwin, Wallace and Bates did not hold teaching posts at any stage of their adult careers (and Műller never returned from Brazil) the imbalance in Huxley's program went uncorrected. It is surely strange that Huxley's courses did not contain an account of the evidence collected by those naturalists of life in the tropics; evidence which they had found so convincing, and which caused their views on evolution by natural selection to be so similar. Desmond suggests that "[biology] had to be simple, synthetic and assimilable [because] it was to train teachers and had no other heuristic function".  That must be part of the reason; indeed it does help to explain the stultifying nature of much school biology. But zoology as taught at all levels became far too much the product of one man.
Huxley was comfortable with comparative anatomy, at which he was the greatest master of the day. He was not an all-round naturalist like Darwin, who had shown clearly enough how to weave together detailed factual information and subtle arguments across the vast web of life. Huxley chose, in his teaching (and to some extent in his research) to take a more straightforward course, concentrating on his personal strengths.
Huxley was also a major influence in the direction taken by British schools: in November 1870 he was voted onto the London School Board. The School Board for London (often abbreviated to the SBL and known colloquially as the London School Board) was an institution of local government and the first  In primary schooling, he advocated a wide range of disciplines, similar to what is taught today: reading, writing, arithmetic, art, science, music, etc. In higher education he also foresaw how schools should be run, with two years of basic liberal studies followed by two years of some upper-division work, focusing on a more specific area of study. This was a fresh approach to the general study of classics in contemporary English colleges. His educational approach is illustrated by his famous essay On a piece of chalk  first published in Macmillan's Magazine in London, 1868. The piece reconstructs the geological history of Britain, from a simple piece of chalk and demonstrates the methods of science as "organized common sense".
Huxley supported the reading of the Bible in schools. This may seem out of step with his evolutionary theories and personal agnostic convictions, but he believed that the Bible's significant moral teachings and superb use of language were quite relevant to English life. However, what Huxley proposed was to create an edited version of the Bible, shorn of "shortcomings and errors. . . statements to which men of science absolutely and entirely demur. . . these tender children [should] not be taught that which you do not yourselves believe. "  The Board voted against his idea, but it also voted against the idea that public money should be used to support students attending church schools. Vigorous debate took place on such points, and the debates were minuted in detail. Huxley said "I will never be a party to enabling the State to sweep the children of this country into denominational schools".  The Act of Parliament which founded board schools permitted the reading of the Bible, but did not permit any denominational doctrine to be taught.
It may be right to see Huxley's life and work as contributing to the secularisation of British society which gradually occurred over the following century. Ernst Mayr said "It can hardly be doubted that [biology] has helped to undermine traditional beliefs and value systems"  — and Huxley more than anyone else was responsible for this trend in Britain. Some modern Christian apologists consider Huxley the father of atheistic evangelism, though he himself maintained that he was an agnostic, not an atheist. Christian apologetics is a field of Christian theology that aims to present a rational basis for the Christian faith, defend the faith against objections Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is active opposition to Theism. He was, however, a lifelong and determined opponent of almost all forms of organised religion, especially the "Roman Church. . . carefully calculated for the destruction of all that is highest in the moral nature, in the intellectual freedom, and in the political freedom of mankind".  Perhaps Lenin was right when he remarked (in Materialism and empirio-criticism) "In Huxley's case. . . agnosticism serves as a fig-leaf for materialism" (see also above).
Huxley's interest in education went still further than school and university classrooms; he made a great effort to reach interested adults of all kinds: after all, he himself was largely self-educated. There were his lecture courses for working men, many of which were published afterwards, and there was the use he made of journalism, partly to earn money but mostly to reach out to the literate public. For most of his adult life he wrote for periodicals—the Westminster Review, the Saturday Review, the Reader, the Pall Mall Gazette, Macmillan's Magazine, the Contemporary Review. The Westminster Review was founded in 1823 by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill as a quarterly journal for philosophical radicals, and was published from 1824 The Pall Mall Gazette was an evening newspaper founded in London on February 7 1865. Germany was still ahead in formal science education, but interested people in Victorian Britain could use their initiative and find out what was going on by reading periodicals and using the lending libraries. 
In 1868 Huxley became Principal of the South London Working Men's College in Blackfriars Road. The moving spirit was a portmanteau worker, Wm. Rossiter, who did most of the work; the funds were put up mainly by F. D. Maurice's Christian Socialists. Maurice is a name used as a given name or surname It is a French and has become an English name derived from the Roman Mauricius Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and Socialist and who see these two philosophies as  At sixpence for a course and a penny for a lecture by Huxley, this was some bargain; and so was the free library organised by the college, an idea which was widely copied. The time Huxley gave to his College showed his commitment to working class education. He thought, and said, that the men who attended were as good as any country squire. Huxley resigned as Principal in 1880. 
The technique of printing his more popular lectures in periodicals which were sold to the general public was extremely effective. A good example was The physical basis of life, a lecture given in Edinburgh on November 8th, 1868. Its theme — that vital action is nothing more than "the result of the molecular forces of the protoplasm which displays it" — shocked the audience, though that was nothing compared to the uproar when it was published in the Fortnightly Review for February 1869. John Morley, the editor, said "No article that had appeared in any periodical for a generation had caused such a sensation". It was like "the stir that in a [former] epoch was made by Swift's Conduct of the Allies, or Burke's French Revolution" (Morley 1917 p90). The issue was reprinted seven times and protoplasm became a household word; Punch added 'Professor Protoplasm' to his other soubriquets. Protoplasm is the living contents of a cell that are surrounded by a Plasma membrane.
The topic had been stimulated by Huxley seeing the cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells, which is indeed a sensational sight. Cytoplasmic streaming is the flowing of Cytoplasm in Eukaryotic cells. For these audiences Huxley's claim that this activity should not be explained by words such as vitality, but by the working of its constituent chemicals, was surprising and shocking. Today we would perhaps emphasise the extraordinary structural arrangement of those chemicals as the key to understanding what cells do, but little of that was known in the nineteenth century.
When the Archbishop of York thought this 'new philosophy' was based on August Comte's positivism, Huxley corrected him: "Comte's philosophy [is just] Catholicism minus Christianity" (Huxley 1893 vol 1 of Collected Essays Methods & Results 156). Auguste Comte (full name Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; 17 January 1798 – 5 September 1857 was a French thinker who is generally credited for having Positivism is the Philosophy that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience A later version was "[positivism is] sheer Popery with M. Comte in the chair of St Peter, and with the names of the saints changed. " (lecture on The scientific aspects of positivism Huxley 1870 Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews p149). Huxley's dismissal of positivism damaged it so severely that Comte's ideas withered in Britain.
The following list is given by Leonard Huxley in his biography of his father (titles somewhat shortened here).  The Royal Commission is the senior investigative forum in the British constitution. The term Royal Commission may also be used in the United Kingdom to describe the group of Lords Commissioners who may act in the stead of the A rough analysis shows that five commissions involved science and scientific education; three involved medicine and three involved fisheries. Two were directed solely to Scotland and two to Ireland. Several involve difficult ethical and legal issues. All are directed partly or wholly towards the examination of possible changes to law and/or administrative practice.
He was also elected to two general Commissions on Ireland (which at that time referred to the whole island).
In 1855, he married Henrietta Anne Heathorn (1825–1915), an English emigrée whom he had met in Sydney. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 They kept correspondence until he was able to send for her. They had five daughters and three sons:
Huxley's relationship with his relatives and children were quite genial by the standards of the day—so long as they lived their lives in an honourable manner, which some did not. After his mother, his eldest sister Lizzie was the most important person in his life until his own marriage. He remained on good terms with his own children, which is more than can be said of many Victorian fathers. This excerpt from a letter to Jessie, his eldest daughter is full of affection:
Huxley's descendents include children of Leonard Huxley:
Other significant descendents of Huxley, such as Sir Crispin Tickell, are treated in the Huxley family. Sir Crispin Tickell GCMG KCVO FRSGS (Hon FRIBA (Hon FRI (Hon FCIWEM (Hon The Huxley family is a British family with outstanding scientific medical artistic and literary talent
Biographers have sometimes noted the occurrence of mental illness in the Huxley family. His father became "sunk in worse than childish imbecility of mind" , and later died in Barming Asylum; brother George suffered from "extreme mental anxiety"  and died in 1863 leaving serious debts. Brother James was at 55 "as near mad as any sane man can be" ; and there is more.
His favourite daughter, the artistically talented Mady (Marion), who became the first wife of artist John Collier, was troubled by mental illness for years. The Honourable John Maler Collier OBE RP ROI ( January 27, 1850 &ndash April 11, 1934) was a British writer and painter in By her mid-twenties it was becoming clear that she was not sane, and was getting steadily worse (the diagnosis is uncertain). Huxley persuaded Jean-Martin Charcot, one of Freud's teachers, to examine her with a view to treatment; but soon Mady died of pneumonia. Jean-Martin Charcot ( 29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French Neurologist and professor of Anatomical pathology Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded  It was a terrible blow to her husband and parents.
About Huxley himself we have a more complete record. As a young apprentice to a medical practitioner, aged thirteen or fourteen, Huxley was taken to watch a post-mortem dissection. Afterwards he sank into a 'deep lethargy' and though Huxley ascribed this to dissection poisoning, Bibby and others may be right to suspect that emotional shock precipitated the depression. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression Huxley recuperated on a farm, looking thin and ill.
The next episode we know of in Huxley's life when he suffered a debilitating depression was on the third voyage of HMS Rattlesnake in 1848.  This voyage was mostly to New Guinea and the NE Australian coast, including the Great Barrier Reef, which is a kind of wonderland for any zoologist, especially a young man hoping to make his career. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest Coral reef system in the world composed of over 2900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for 2600 kilometres (1600 mi The story is clear from the diary Huxley kept: p112 'little interest in the Barrier Reef'; p116 'two entries in seven weeks'; p117 '3 months passed and no journal' p124 'the black months of struggle and depression'.  For Huxley to pass up such a golden opportunity speaks of his state of mind quite painfully.
Huxley had periods of depression at the end of 1871 ('overwork' the explanation, true, but when was he not overworked?): alleviated by a cruise to Egypt.  Again in 1873, this time coincident with expensive building work on his house. His friends were really alarmed, and his doctor ordered three months rest. The three wives of Lyell, Darwin and Tyndall decided something had to be done. Darwin picked up his pen, and with Tyndall's help raised £2,100 — an enormous sum! The money was partly to pay for his recuperation, and partly to pay his bills. Huxley set out in July with Hooker to the Auvergne, and his wife and son Leonard joined him in Cologne, while the younger children stayed at Down House in Emma Darwin's care. 
Finally, in 1884 he sank into another depression, and this time it precipitated his decision to retire in 1885, at the age of only 60.  He resigned the Presidency of the Royal Society in mid-term, the Inspectorship of Fisheries, and his chair (as soon as he decently could) and took six month's leave. His pension was a fairly handsome £1500 a year.
This is enough to indicate the way depression (or perhaps a moderate bi-polar disorder) interfered with his life, yet unlike some of the other family members, he was able to function extremely well at other times. Perhaps it is not too surprising to find that the perceptive Beatrice Webb had written in her diary, after a conversation with Huxley, "Huxley, when not working, dreams strange things; carries on conversations between unknown persons living within his brain. This article is about the socialist politician For the children's author see Beatrix Potter. There is a strain of madness in him".  An overstatement, but probably not written for publication.
The problems continued sporadically into the third generation. Two of Leonard's sons suffered serious depression: Trevennen committed suicide in 1914 and Julian suffered a breakdown in 1913, and five more later in life. Of course, there are many family members for whom no biographical information is available, but both the talent and the mental problems would have interested Francis Galton. Sir Francis Galton FRS ( 16 February 1822 &ndash 17 January 1911) half-cousin of Charles Darwin, was an His Hereditary Genius contained this comment: "The direct result of this enquiry is. . . to prove that the laws of heredity are as applicable to the mental faculties as to the bodily faculties".
Darwin's ideas and Huxley's controversies gave rise to many cartoons and satires. It was the debate about man's place in nature that roused such widespread comment: cartoons are so numerous as to be almost impossible to count; Darwin's head on a monkey's body is one of the visual clichés of the age. Three or four items of especial ripeness are:
Next HUXLEY replies
That OWEN he lies
And garbles his Latin quotation;
That his facts are not new,
His mistakes not a few,
Detrimental to his reputation.
To twice slay the slain
By dint of the Brain
(Thus HUXLEY concludes his review)
Is but labour in vain,
unproductive of gain,
And so I shall bid you "Adieu"!
Say am I a man or a brother,
Or only an anthropoid ape?
Policeman X — Huxley, your Worship, I take to be a young hand, but very vicious; but Owen I have seen before. He got into trouble with an old bone man, called Mantell, who never could be off complaining as Owen prigged his bones. People did say that the old man never got over it, and Owen worritted him to death; but I don't think it was so bad as that. Hears as Owen takes the chair at a crib in Bloomsbury. I don't think it will be a harmonic meeting altogether. And Huxley hangs out in Jermyn Street.
An illustration by Linley Sambourne showed Huxley and Owen studying a captured water baby. Edward Linley Sambourne (4 January 1844&ndash3 August 1910 was a Cartoonist for Punch. In 1892 Thomas Henry Huxley's five-year-old grandson Julian saw this engraving and wrote his grandfather a letter asking:
Dear Grandpater – Have you seen a Waterbaby? Did you put it in a bottle? Did it wonder if it could get out? Could I see it some day? – Your loving Julian.
Huxley wrote back:
My dear Julian – I could never make sure about that Water Baby.
I have seen Babies in water and Babies in bottles; the Baby in the water was not in a bottle and the Baby in the bottle was not in water. My friend who wrote the story of the Water Baby was a very kind man and very clever. Perhaps he thought I could see as much in the water as he did – There are some people who see a great deal and some who see very little in the same things.
When you grow up I dare say you will be one of the great-deal seers, and see things more wonderful than the Water Babies where other folks can see nothing.
- Abram, Abraham became
- By will divine
- Let pickled Brian's name
- Be changed to Brine!
– THH Poem in letter to J.D. Hooker 4th Dec 1894, on hearing that JDH's son had fallen into a salt vat. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, OM, GCSI, MD, FRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911 was an English Botanist and Explorer 
There are also many obituary notices in newspapers, periodicals and reference works.
L-G de Koninck
Joseph Dalton Hooker
Alphonse de Candolle
Joseph Dalton Hooker