The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers is a book by Robert L. Heilbroner. A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together Robert Heilbroner ( March 24, 1919 &ndash January 4, 2005) was an American Economist and historian of economic thought The book was written in 1953 and has sold more than four million copies through seven editions. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. (The only other book on the same subject to sell more copies is Paul Samuelson's Economics. Paul Anthony Samuelson (born May 15, 1915) is an American neoclassical Economist known for his contributions to many fields of ) Heilbroner begins chapter two by describing the paradoxicalness and precariousness of human behavior. Self-centeredness, he writes, characterizes human life along with cooperation. The result is what he calls a "struggle" (p. 18). In "primitive" (p. 19) societies such as that of the Eskimos, the struggle does not pose a problem: Individuals behave under strong pressure to act in the interest of survival. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Eskimos or Esquimaux are Indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia ( Russia) across He contrasts those societies with "advanced" or "modern" ones, in which "this tangible pressure of the environment, or this web of social obligation, is lacking" (p. 19). In those societies, fewer incentives exist for individuals to act for the purpose of survival. Purpose is the Cognitive Awareness in Cause and effect linking for achieving a Goal in a given System, whether The result is that "society's existence hangs by a hair" (p. 19). Because of modern society's complexity, a small change could lead to social disarray. (One should note that he cautiously uses the words "disorganized" and "breakdown", rather than stronger words like "collapse" or "fail", to describe a society that falls victim to those ills. )
Heilbroner describes three ways in which societies have dealt with such precariousness: tradition, authoritarianism, and market systems. The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union A market system is any systematic process enabling many Market players to Bid and ask: helping bidders and sellers interact and make deals The former two operate in the "old" ways, but the latter one is nothing less, according to Heilbroner, than a modern revolution. (He even goes on to say this revolution was fundamentally more profound than the American Revolution, French Revolution, and Russian revolution of 1917. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them )
The sixth edition finally revealed "backnotes" providing references to support the book. Some such sources were unable to be noted. The book's original research material has, according to Heilbroner, "long since disappeared. " The book's prose also changed with Heilbroner's "own evolving views", though the revisions made over time are unclear and apparently "noticeable perhaps only to scholars in the field". However, Heilbroner mentions references to the "collapse of Soviet communism" which occurred at the time.
The beginning of chapter 6 was heavily plagiarized in Harry Harrison's Stars and Stripes Trilogy. For the radio personality see Harry Harrison (radio. Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12 1925 The Stars and Stripes Trilogy is a collection of three Alternate history novels written by Harry Harrison.