The United States Magazine and Democratic Review was a periodical published by John L. O'Sullivan during the mid-19th century. John Louis O'Sullivan ( November 15, 1813 – March 24, 1895) was an American columnist and editor who used the term " Manifest Its motto, "The best government is that which governs least," was famously paraphrased by Henry David Thoreau in On the Duty of Civil Disobedience. Civil Disobedience ( Resistance to Civil Government) is an essay by Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849 
In 1837, O'Sullivan co-founded and served as editor for The United States Magazine and Democratic Review (generally called the Democratic Review). It was a highly regarded journal meant to champion Jacksonian Democracy, a movement that had usually been disparaged in the more conservative North American Review. Jacksonian Democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his supporters The North American Review ( NAR) was the first literary magazine in the United States. The magazine featured political essays—many of them penned by O'Sullivan—extolling the virtues of Jacksonian Democracy and criticizing what Democrats regarded as the aristocratic pretensions of their opponents. The journal supported Martin Van Buren in the 1840 presidential election (he lost) and James K. Polk in the 1844 election (he won). Martin Van Buren (December 5 1782 July 24 1862 was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841 The United States presidential election of 1840 saw President Martin Van Buren fight for re-election against an economic depression and a Whig Party James Knox Polk ( November 2 1795&ndashJune 15 1849 was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4 1845 to March 4 1849 The United States presidential election of 1844 saw Democrat James Knox Polk defeat Whig Henry Clay in a close contest that turned on foreign
The Democratic Review was also (perhaps even primarily) a literary magazine, promoting the development of American literature by publishing works of authors such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, and Nathaniel Hawthorne. American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25 1803 &ndash April 27 1882 was an American essayist philosopher poet and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century Walter Whitman (May 31 1819 &ndash March 26 1892 was an American poet, Essayist journalist, and humanist. Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4 1804 – May 19 1864 was an American novelist and Short story writer Hawthorne and O'Sullivan became close friends, and Hawthorne had more pieces published in O'Sullivan's magazine than in any other periodical. The Democratic Review was always in financial difficulties, since it accepted no advertising and relied on subscriptions and donations to survive. O'Sullivan relinquished his editorial duties for a short time to practice law, though he continued to write for the magazine.