|The Texas Chain Saw Massacre|
The original movie poster
|Directed by||Tobe Hooper|
|Produced by||Tobe Hooper|
|Written by||Kim Henkel|
Paul A. Partain
|Music by||Wayne Bell|
|Distributed by|| Bryanston Distributing Company|
New Line Cinema (1983 Re-release)
|Release date(s)||October 1, 1974|
|Running time||80 min. Tobe Hooper (born January 25, 1943) is an American director and Screenwriter, best known for his work in the Horror film Kim Henkel (born Kim David Henkel on January 19, 1946) is an American Screenwriter, director and Producer. Mary Lynn Ann Burns ( July 5, 1950 ? is an American Actress, perhaps best known for her role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Gunnar Hansen (born March 4, 1947) is an Icelandic American Actor and Author, perhaps best known for playing Leatherface Edwin Neal (born July 12, 1945) is an American actor perhaps best known for his role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974 and as Allen Danzinger (born July 23 1942 is an American Actor, perhaps best known for his only movie role as Jerry in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974 Paul A Partain ( May 3, 1946 - January 27, 2005) was an American actor perhaps best known for his role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Jim Nash Siedow ( June 12, 1920 - November 20, 2003) was an American Actor, best known for his role in The Texas Teri McMinn (born August 18, 1951) now 57 is an American Actress, known for her role as Pam in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Bryanston Distribution Company is an American film Distribution company that was very active during the early 1970s and was left dormant for almost thirty years New Line Cinema, founded in 1967 is one of the major American Film studios Though it initially began as an independent film studio it became a Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar.|
|Gross revenue||$36,000,000 (US Box Office)|
|Followed by||The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2|
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre is a 1974 American independent horror film written, directed and produced by Tobe Hooper and Kim Henkel. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2 (also known as The Texas Chainsaw Massacre Part 2 & TCM 2) is a 1986 big-budget long-awaited The year 1974 in film involved some significant events Events February 7 - Blazing Saddles is released The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An independent film, or indie film, is a film that is produced outside of the Hollywood Studio system, a series of oligopolistic practices by several Horror films are Movies that strive to elicit Fear, Horror and terror responses from viewers Tobe Hooper (born January 25, 1943) is an American director and Screenwriter, best known for his work in the Horror film Kim Henkel (born Kim David Henkel on January 19, 1946) is an American Screenwriter, director and Producer. The film is the first in The Texas Chainsaw Massacre film series, and features Marilyn Burns, Gunnar Hansen, Edwin Neal and Paul A. Partain. Mary Lynn Ann Burns ( July 5, 1950 ? is an American Actress, perhaps best known for her role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Gunnar Hansen (born March 4, 1947) is an Icelandic American Actor and Author, perhaps best known for playing Leatherface Edwin Neal (born July 12, 1945) is an American actor perhaps best known for his role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974 and as Paul A Partain ( May 3, 1946 - January 27, 2005) was an American actor perhaps best known for his role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre The plot revolves primarily around a group of friends who embark on a road trip in rural Texas, only to fall victim to a family of cannibals, including the chainsaw-wielding Leatherface. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Cannibalism (from Spanish es ''caníbal'' in connection with cannibalism among the Antillean Caribs, also called anthropophagy (from Greek ἄνθρωπος A chainsaw (or chain saw) is a portable mechanical motorized Saw. Appearances Original series The character was originally played by Gunnar Hansen.
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre was strongly criticized at the time of its release for its graphic content by critics, which led to the film being banned by various countries. The word critic comes from the Greek el κριτικός ( el-Latn kritikós) "able to discern" which in turn derives from the word A ban (derived from Banishment) is generally any Decree that prohibits something The film has since produced three sequels, and a remake, with its own prequel. The Texas Chainsaw Massacre The Beginning is a 2006 horror film and a Prequel to the remake of the 1974 film The Texas Chain
The main cast of the film consisted of:
A group of five close friends are heading through the back roads of Texas en route to their grandfather's potentially vandalized grave. Among them are Sally Hardesty (Marilyn Burns), and her wheelchair-bound brother Franklin (Paul A. Partain). Mary Lynn Ann Burns ( July 5, 1950 ? is an American Actress, perhaps best known for her role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Paul A Partain ( May 3, 1946 - January 27, 2005) was an American actor perhaps best known for his role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre
They encounter an unpleasant hitchhiker (Edwin Neal) who slashes both himself and Franklin with a strange-looking knife. Edwin Neal (born July 12, 1945) is an American actor perhaps best known for his role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974 and as The others manage to eject the hitchhiker from the vehicle, but shortly afterwards, they are forced to stop and wander over to a small, sinister clapboard house nearby in hopes for gas.
What none of them realize is that this house is the home of the ghoulish Leatherface (Gunnar Hansen) and his evil, demented family of cannibalistic psychopaths. Appearances Original series The character was originally played by Gunnar Hansen. Gunnar Hansen (born March 4, 1947) is an Icelandic American Actor and Author, perhaps best known for playing Leatherface One at a time, the teens are murdered by the evil Leatherface in horrifying ways. Sally soon finds herself an involuntary guest at Leatherface's home where the family torments her for the rest of the night, forcing her to sit at their table while they eat a meal that is obviously made up of human flesh. They bring Grandpa down from upstairs, the patriarch of the family, and slice Sally's finger open, sticking it in the aged man's mouth while he sucks her blood. They tell Sally that "Grandpa" used to work in the slaughterhouse and was the best with a sledgehammer there was. They decide to let Grandpa kill Sally and untie her, forcing her onto her knees and holding her head over a bucket while Grandpa makes several feeble attempts to hit her head with a hammer. The hitchhiker gets frustrated and makes a grab for the hammer to finish her off, and suddenly Sally breaks free. She hurls herself out a window again and lands outside just as dawn begins to break.
The hitchhiker and Leatherface emerge from the house and chase Sally up to the road, the hitchhiker brandishing a knife and Leatherface waving the chainsaw. The hitchhiker very nearly catches her, grabbing for her and catching her hair over and over. A large semi drives by and the hitchhiker is caught off guard; the truck drives over him, killing him. The truck driver slows down and gets out of the rig to see what happened, only to be confronted by a screaming, bloodied Sally with Leatherface close behind, the chainsaw buzzing. He chases Sally and the truck driver to the other side of the cab, when the driver hurls a wrench at him and hits him in the side of the head. Leatherface drops the saw and falls, wounded in the leg by the saw blade. The truck driver flees down the road, but the wounded Sally cannot catch up. Then a pickup truck drives by and Sally abandons the scene by jumping in the back of the truck. Leatherface still gives chase, but the pickup driver pulls away. Sally laughs insanely at Leatherface as she escapes, giggling at him as he swings his chainsaw around in frustration and rage in the middle of the road in the full light of dawn.
Hooper has said that the idea for featuring a chainsaw in a horror film came to him while in the hardware section of a crowded store, as he imagined a way to get out quickly through the crowd.  The concept for the film arose in the early 1970s while he was a college professor and documentary cameraman in his native Austin, Texas. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State.
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre was loosely based on the murders committed by 1950s serial killer Ed Gein, who served as the inspiration for two other horror films, Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) and Jonathan Demme's The Silence of the Lambs (1991). A serial killer is a person who Murders usually three or more people with a "cooling off" period between each murder and whose motivation for killing is largely based Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 Psycho is a suspense / Horror film directed by auteur Alfred Hitchcock, from the Screenplay by Joseph Robert Jonathan Demme (born February 22 1944) is an Academy Award -winning American Film director, producer and The Silence of the Lambs or Silence of the Lamb can refer to the following ''The Silence of the Lambs'' (novel, by Thomas Harris ''The   
Special effects were simple and limited by the budget. The blood shown was often real, as the cast members were accidentally harmed during filming. For example, Marilyn Burns index finger was actually cut with a razor because there were difficulties getting the fake blood to come out of the tube behind the blade. Burns' costume was so drenched in fake blood that it was virtually solid on the last day of the shoot.  The film was distributed and produced through Bryanston Distributing Company. Bryanston Distribution Company is an American film Distribution company that was very active during the early 1970s and was left dormant for almost thirty years
Most of the financing for this film came from the profits of the hugely successful Deep Throat (1972), a previous adult film the production company had financed. Deep Throat is an American Pornographic film released in the summer of 1972, written and directed by Gerard Damiano (listed in the An estimated $83,532 was raised. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been  Hooper produced the film on a relatively small budget of $83,532. 
Many of the cast members had little or no acting credits whatsoever prior to being cast. They consisted of actors native to or living in Texas who had previous roles in commercials, television shows and stage, as well as acquaintances of Hooper. A television advertisement or television commercial (often just commercial or advert (US or ad (UK is a span of television programming produced Involvement in the film propelled many cast members into the motion picture industry. The lead role of Sally went to the then-unknown Marilyn Burns. Mary Lynn Ann Burns ( July 5, 1950 ? is an American Actress, perhaps best known for her role in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Burns previously had appeared on stage, and while attending the University of Texas at Austin, she joined its film commission board. For the role of Leatherface, Icelandic-American actor Gunnar Hansen was cast. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Gunnar Hansen (born March 4, 1947) is an Icelandic American Actor and Author, perhaps best known for playing Leatherface In preparation for his role, Hansen decided that Leatherface was mentally retarded and never learned to talk properly, so he went to a school for the mentally challenged and watched how they moved and listened to them talk to get a feel for the character. 
Upon the completion of post-production, Bryanston Distributing Company found it difficult to secure a distributor willing to market the film because of its graphic content.
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre premiered on October 1, 1974 in Austin, Texas, almost a year after it was actually filmed. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Nationally, it was shown as a Saturday afternoon matinée film and attracted an audience consisting of pre-teens and adolescents, but found success with a broader audience after it was falsely marketed as being a "true story". Preadolescence is a stage of human development through Childhood that occurs in a child's years before Adolescence. The Adolescents are a Hardcore punk band formed in 1980 in Fullerton, California. 
The film grossed an estimated $30 million in the United States, making it one of the most successful independent films, until being overtaken by John Carpenter's Halloween (1978). John Howard Carpenter (born January 16, 1948) is an American Film director, Screenwriter, producer, film score Halloween is a 1978 American independent Horror film set in the fictional midwestern town of Haddonfield, It was translated into more than 25 languages and released across Europe, Canada and, because of controversy, not until 1982 in Australia. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. 
The film earned a major reaction in later weeks by word of mouth. Word of mouth, is a reference to the passing of Information by verbal means especially recommendations but also general information in an informal person-to-person TV Guide called it "An intelligent, absorbing, and deeply disturbing horror film that is nearly bloodless in its depiction of violence" and Empire Magazine called it "The most purely horrifying horror movie ever made". TV Guide is the name of a North American weekly magazine about television programming Empire is a British Film Magazine published Monthly by Bauer Consumer Media.  Mike Emery of the Austin Chronicle called it "Horrifying, yet engrossing . The Austin Chronicle is an Alternative weekly, Tabloid -style Newspaper published every Thursday in Austin Texas, United . . But the worst part about this vision is that despite its sensational aspects, it never seems too far from what could be the truth. " and Chicago Reader said "the picture gets to you more through its intensity than its craft, but Hooper does have a talent. The Chicago Reader is an Alternative newsweekly in Chicago, Illinois, USA " Several reviewers disliked the film's gory special effects. Critic Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times believed that it was well-acted, well-directed and effective; but claimed it became too gratuitously violent and seemed "weird" in parts  Steve Crum of Dispatch-Tribune Newspapers criticises it as "Cultish trash that set new low standards for brutality". Roger Joseph Ebert (iːbɝt born June 18, 1942) is an American film critic and Screenwriter. The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily Newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois. 
More recently however, critics have called it one of the scariest movies ever made.  Rob Gonsalves of eFilmCritic. com refers to the film as "a masterpiece", and hails it as "The Great American Horror Movie" . Noted reviewer Rex Reed called it "The most terrifying motion picture I have ever seen. " Horror novelist Stephen King considers it "Cataclysmic terror", and states "I would happily testify to its redeeming social merit in any court in the country. Horror fiction is broadly Fiction in any medium intended to scare unsettle or horrify the audience Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American Author, Screenwriter, Musician, Columnist, "
Overall critical opinion of the film is highly favorable, with a rating of 89% on the aggregate movie review website RottenTomatoes. com (a relatively high score, especially for a horror film), and a respectable 7. 4/10 at IMDb. com.
Hooper reportedly hoped the complete uncut print of the film would be given a PG rating by the MPAA. It wasn't. The film was released uncensored by the MPAA film rating system and with an R rating. The Motion Picture Association of America's film-rating system is used in the U 
The movie was also banned or delayed in many countries, and where it was released, it was frequently edited. It was not released in Australia until the early 1980s, but it was never banned there. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. It was banned in the United Kingdom largely on the authority of then-BBFC secretary James Ferman, but saw a limited cinema release thanks to various city councils. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Board of Film Classification ( BBFC) originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for Film, DVD James Ferman ( April 11, 1930 – December 24, 2002) was an American Television and Theatre director Censors attempted to cut it for the purposes of a wider release in 1977 but were unsuccessful.
It was released on videotape and CED disc in the 1980s by Wizard Video and Vestron Video, but was again banned in the United Kingdom in 1984, during the moral panic surrounding video nasties. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A moral panic can be defined as "the intensity of feeling expressed by a large number of people about a specific group of people who appear to threaten the social order at a given " Video nasty " was a term coined in the United Kingdom in the 1980s that originally applied to a number of Films distributed on Video cassette that In 1999, after the retirement of Ferman, the BBFC passed the movie uncut on cinema and video, with the 18 certificate, almost 25 years after its original release. 
The film was first followed in 1986 by The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2, once again directed by Tobe Hooper. Events April 12 - Actor Morgan Mason marries The Go-Go's Belinda Carlisle Actor Arnold Schwarzenegger marries The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2 (also known as The Texas Chainsaw Massacre Part 2 & TCM 2) is a 1986 big-budget long-awaited Tobe Hooper (born January 25, 1943) is an American director and Screenwriter, best known for his work in the Horror film Unlike the first film however, the sequel was much more graphic and violent than the original and was banned in Australia for 20 years, but finally released on DVD in a revised edition during 2006. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  The film also had a greater budget than the original, and much more special effects were used. The sequel was less well-received by the critics, as they felt it had moved away from the terror of the original for the sake of dark humour. 
The film spawned two more sequels. Leatherface: The Texas Chainsaw Massacre III (1990) was the second sequel. The film had a budget of $2 million, and was directed by Jeff Burr. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Jeff Burr (born 1963 is an American film director best known for his work in horror sequels such as Stepfather II, Texas Chainsaw Massacre III, Puppet Master R. A. Mihailoff starred as the infamous Leatherface in this sequel. RA Mihailoff is an American Film and Television Actor. Mihailoff is best known for taking the role as " Leatherface " Appearances Original series The character was originally played by Gunnar Hansen. Tobe Hooper did not return for the film, and the film was critically panned, with a 23% rating on the review site Rotten Tomatoes, and only 3 out of 13 reviews were positive. Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies.  Chris Parcellin of Film Threat said "it's really just another generic slasher flick with nothing beyond the Leatherface connection to recommend it to discerning fans. "
The third sequel, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation was released in 1995, starring Renée Zellweger and Matthew McConaughey. Texas Chainsaw Massacre The Next Generation (also known as The Return of the Texas Chainsaw Massacre) is a 1995 poorly received Sequel Renée Kathleen Zellweger (born April 25, 1969) is an Academy Award - BAFTA - SAG Award - and Golden Globe -winning Matthew David McConaughey (məˈkɑnəˌheɪ born November 4 1969 is an American Actor. The film was a semi-remake of the original, although it was originally intended to be a complete redo of the first film. This film was the worst rated out of the three sequels, with Rotten Tomatoes giving it a rating of 16% on the Tomatometer, and only 4 out of the 15 reviews were positive. Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies.  Maitland McDonagh of TV Guide's Movie Guide said that the movie was "Tired and dated. "
A remake, entitled The Texas Chainsaw Massacre was released in 2003. The film starred Jessica Biel, Eric Balfour, Andrew Bryniarski as Leatherface, and R. Lee Ermey as Sheriff Hoyt. Jessica Claire Biel (born March 3, 1982) is an American actress and former model, who has appeared in several Hollywood Eric Salter Balfour (born April 24, 1977) is an American Singer and Actor of Film and Television. Andrew Bryniarski (born February 13, 1969) is an American Actor and a former Bodybuilder. Appearances Original series The character was originally played by Gunnar Hansen. Ronald Lee Ermey (born March 24 1944 is a former US Marine Corps Drill instructor and later Golden Globe -nominated Actor, often playing The film was better critically received than most of the sequels, although it only managed to achieve a 35% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with 52 reviews out of 150 being positive. Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies.  Notable critic Roger Ebert called it "A contemptible film: Vile, ugly and brutal. Roger Joseph Ebert (iːbɝt born June 18, 1942) is an American film critic and Screenwriter. "
A prequel to the remake, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Beginning was released in 2006. The Texas Chainsaw Massacre The Beginning is a 2006 horror film and a Prequel to the remake of the 1974 film The Texas Chain The film was directed by Jonathan Liebesman, produced by Michael Bay and Mike Fleiss. Jonathan Liebesman (born September 15, 1976) is a Film director who has worked primarily in the Horror film Genre. Michael Benjamin Bay (born February 17, 1965) is an American Film director and producer. Mike Fleiss is the creator producer, and Writer of The WB 's Superstar USA, The Bachelorette, and High School Reunion. It had a starring cast of Jordana Brewster, Taylor Handley, with R. Lee Ermey and Andrew Bryniarski reprising their roles as Sheriff Hoyt and Leatherface respectively. Jordana Brewster (born April 26, 1980) is an American actress, perhaps best known for her roles in The Fast and the Furious, Taylor Laurence Handley (born June 1, 1984) is an American Actor. Ronald Lee Ermey (born March 24 1944 is a former US Marine Corps Drill instructor and later Golden Globe -nominated Actor, often playing Andrew Bryniarski (born February 13, 1969) is an American Actor and a former Bodybuilder. Appearances Original series The character was originally played by Gunnar Hansen. The film was panned by most critics, with a 14% fresh rating on Rotten Tomatoes. Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies.  Mark Palermo stated "The focus in (The) Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Beginning isn't on the confrontation of demons, moral reckoning, or terror. It's an unimaginative exercise in suffering". 
Shortly after The Texas Chain Saw Massacre established itself as a success on home video in 1982, a mass market video game adaptation was released for the Atari 2600 by Wizard Video. The popularity of The Texas Chainsaw Massacre film series and its main character Leatherface led to several comic books based on the franchise Comics (via Latin from the Greek "" kōmikos, of or pertaining to "comedy" from kōmos "revel" A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The Atari 2600 is a Video game console released in October 1977  In the game, the player takes on the role of the movie's chainsaw-wielding villain Leatherface and attempts to murder trespassers while avoiding obstacles such as fences and cow skulls. Appearances Original series The character was originally played by Gunnar Hansen.  As one of the first horror-themed video games, Texas Chainsaw Massacre caused a great deal of controversy when it was released, and sold poorly due to many game stores refusing to carry it.  Wizard Video's other commercial release, Halloween, had a similar reception, and the limited number of copies sold have made them both highly valued items amongst Atari collectors. Halloween is a video game for the Atari 2600, released in October 1983 by Wizard Video Games. Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972.
In addition, several comic books based on the franchise were made in 1991 by Northstar Comics entitled Leatherface. They were licenced the Texas Chainsaw Massacre franchise to Avatar Press for use in new comic book stories, the first of which was published in 2005. Avatar Press is an independent American publisher of Comic books founded in 1996 by William A In 2006, Avatar Press lost the license to DC Comics imprint, Wildstorm, who have since begun publishing new stories based on the franchise. Avatar Press is an independent American publisher of Comic books founded in 1996 by William A WildStorm Productions, or simply WildStorm, (sometimes rendered Wildstorm) is a publishing Imprint and studio of American Comic book The series of comics feature none of the main characters seen in the original film (exempting Topps Comics Jason vs. Topps Comics is a division of the American Trading card publisher and gum / Candy distributor the Topps Company Inc Leatherface series) with the exception of Leatherface, however the 1991 "Leatherface" miniseries was loosely based on the third Texas Chainsaw Massacre film. Said writer Mort Castle, "The series was very loosely based on Texas Chainsaw Massacre III. Mort Castle (1946 -) Horror author and writing teacher Mort Castle has more than 350 short stories and a dozen books to his credit including Cursed Be the Child I worked from the original script by David Schow and the heavily edited theatrical release of director Jeff Burr, but had more or less free rein to write the story the way it should have been told. David J Schow (born 1955 in Marburg, Germany) is an American Author of Horror novels Short stories, and The first issue sold 30,000 copies. " Kirk Jarvinen drew the first issue, and Guy Burwell finished the rest of the series. The comics, not having the same restrictions from the MPAA, had much more gore than the finished film. The ending, as well as the fates of several characters, was also altered. An adaptation of The Texas Chain Saw Massacre was planned by Northstar Comics, but never pulled through.