The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Protocols of the wise men of Zion, Library of Congress's Uniform Title; Russian: "Протоколы сионских мудрецов", or "Сионские протоколы" ; see also other titles), is a plagiarism, literary forgery, and a hoax, alleging a Jewish and Masonic plot to achieve world domination. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility The history of antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group goes back many centuries This timeline of antisemitism chronicles the facts of Antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group This is a list of resources analyzing Antisemitism in the alphabetical order of author's name A number of writers and researchers such as Walter Laqueur, Paul Berman, and Mark Strauss have argued that there is rising acceptance of Antisemitism Jewish exodus from Arab lands|Islam and Antisemitism|Anti Jewish Arabism Oxymoronic, as Although Christian antisemitism is considered to have started around the 12th century its roots are attributed by some scholars to anti-Jewish attitudes and polemic beginning See also Islam and Judaism Islam and antisemitism looks at the teaching of Islam relating to Jews and Judaism and the attitudes of the A number of Jewish organizations Christian organizations Muslim organizations and academics consider the Nation of Islam to be antisemitic New antisemitism is the concept that a new form of Antisemitism is on the rise in the 21st century emanating simultaneously from the left, the Right, and Racial antisemitism is the belief that Antisemitism, hatred or Prejudice toward Jews is justified and justifiable on racial and not religious grounds Origins of religious antisemitism Father Edward Flannery in his The Anguish of the Jews Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism, traces the first clear examples Secondary antisemitism is a distinct kind of Antisemitism which is said to have appeared after the end of World War II. Evidence of antisemitic incidents on university campuses across North America Europe and Australia since 2000 has been recorded by a number of sources This is a list of countries where Antisemitic sentiment has been experienced An antisemitic canard is a deliberately false story inciting Antisemitism. Jewish Deicide is an Antisemitic canard that placed the Responsibility for the death of Jesus on the Jewish people as a whole Blood libels against Jews are false accusations that Jews use Human blood in certain aspects of their Religious rituals and holidays Although Human sacrifice is the act of Homicide (the Killing of one or several Human beings in the context of a Religious ritual ( ritual killing For the logical fallacy see Poisoning the well. Well-poisoning is the act of malicious manipulation of potable water resources in Host Desecration is a form of Sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish Żydokomuna, is a Pejorative Antisemitic expression Usury (ˈjuːʒəri comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, "interest" or "excessive interest" from the Latin usura "interest" The Dreyfus Affair a Political scandal which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s Zionist Occupation Government (abbreviated as ZOG) is an Antisemitic Conspiracy theory according to which Jews secretly control a country Holocaust denial is the claim that the Genocide of Jews during World War II —usually referred to as The Holocaust —did not occur in the On the Jews and Their Lies (Von den Jüden und iren Lügen in modern spelling de ''Von den Juden und ihren Lügen'' is a 65000-word treatise written by German Reformation The International Jew is a four volume set of Booklets or Pamphlets originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. The Culture of Critique series comprises Kevin B MacDonald 's principal writings on Judaism and Jewish culture: A People That Shall See also Antisemitism, History of antisemitism, New antisemitism The persecution of Jews has occurred many times in Jewish history. In the course of history Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Antisemitism numerous times Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as cultural minorities due to their non-Christian beliefs in a Renaissance Christian environment A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses For the modern Jewish skullcap see Kippah. The Jewish hat also known as the Jewish cap, Judenhut ( German) Judensau ( German for "Jews' sow" is a derogatory and dehumanizing image of Jews in obscene contact with a large sow (female Pig) which The yellow badge (or yellow patch) also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their outer garments in order The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости cherta osedlosti) was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia, along its western border in which The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The term neo-Nazism refers to post- World War II Political movements Social movements and ideologies seeking to revive Nazism, The Anti-Defamation League ( ADL) is an Interest group founded in 1913 by B'nai B'rith in the United States whose stated aim is "to stop The Community Security Trust ( CST) is a British charity established in 1994 to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in the UK The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA is a Vienna -based agency of the European Union inaugurated on 1 March 2007 The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a research institute at Tel Aviv University in Israel. The Wiener Library is the world's oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies The Southern Poverty Law Center ( SPLC) is an American Non-profit legal organization internationally known for its tolerance education programs its legal The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC) with headquarters in Los Angeles Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union (abbreviated UCSJ) is an umbrella organization of Jewish Human rights groups working in Eastern The Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (Svenska Kommittén Mot Antisemitism SKMA) is a Sweden -based non-profit organization founded in 1983, that Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress A uniform title in Library cataloging is a title assigned to a work which either has no title or has appeared under more than one title Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work Literary forgery, also Literary forgeries and mystifications, pertains to some Writing, especially in Literature, such as a Manuscript, presented A hoax is a deliberate attempt to Dupe, Deceive or trick an audience into believing or accepting that something is real when in fact it is not or that PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ In a political sense conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power World domination (sometimes world conquest, global domination, or Colloquially taking over the world) in which a single political authority The writing has been revealed to be originally an antisemitic and anti-Masonic (and subsequently anti-Zionist) diatribe and conspiracy theory. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "Avowed opposition to Freemasonry " Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement and ideology that supports a Homeland for the Jewish People in the land known A conspiracy theory attributes the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually Political, Social or Historical events or the concealment It was first published in 1903 in Russian, in Znamya ("The Banner," a newspaper). Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Znamya or Znamia (Знамя literally Banner) was a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper established by an ultra-nationalist journalist Pavel Krushevan The text has failed to pass any scholarly standards of authentication as an alleged historical document or record. Authentication (from Greek αυθεντικός real or genuine from authentes author is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone as A version of it was published in 1905, as a final Chapter XII in a second edition of a book by Serge Nilus on the subject of the coming of the Antichrist. Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus (also Sergiei, Sergyei, Sergius, Serge; Russian: Сергей Александрович Нилус For other uses see Antichrist (disambiguation In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person office Accordingly, "The Protocols" are originally intertwined with this author's Russian Orthodox dogma. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or 
The original manuscript is not extant. A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way Extant literature refers to texts that have survived from the past to the present time No submissions to direct forensic study have ever been made. Rather, scholars and researchers have been forced to rely primarily on textual analysis and reports from alleged witnesses who claimed to have seen the original. Content analysis (sometimes called textual analysis) is a Methodology in the Social sciences for studying the Content of Communication Nevertheless, it has been shown that associated with the alleged original are the elements of a false document. A false document is a form of Verisimilitude that attempts to create a sense of authenticity beyond the normal and expected Suspension of disbelief for a Work 
"The Protocols" (the briefest title by which the text is known) is an early example of contemporary conspiracy theory literature.  Written in the first person singular, the text embodies generalizations, truisms and platitudes on how to take over the world: take control of the media and the financial institutions, change the traditional social order, etc. Grammatical person, in Linguistics, is deictic reference to a participant in an event such as the speaker the Addressee, or others Generalization is a foundational element of Logic and human reasoning. A truism is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device A platitude is a trite meaningless biased or prosaic Statement that is presented as if it were significant and original World domination (sometimes world conquest, global domination, or Colloquially taking over the world) in which a single political authority It is not a how-to handbook by any means. A how-to or a how to is an informal often short description of how to accomplish some specific task A handbook is a type of Reference work, or other collection of instructions that is intended to provide ready reference Although it has never been authenticated, the text is always published by those who subscribe to its authenticity as a revelation of the activities, practices, and policies of Jews. Authentication (from Greek αυθεντικός real or genuine from authentes author is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone as Revelation is the act of revealing or disclosing (see etymology or in the theological perception making something obvious and clearly understood through active or passive communication PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 
It is one of the best-known and most-discussed examples of literary forgery. Literary forgery, also Literary forgeries and mystifications, pertains to some Writing, especially in Literature, such as a Manuscript, presented 
Its 105 year circulation and publishing history shows it to have been imprinted substantially in five physical forms: manuscript or typescript form; periodical, both in a journal and a newspaper form; pamphlet or booklet or softcover form; as a book or hardback; and on the web or internet in various electronic formats. A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally A journal (through French from late Latin diurnalis, daily has several related meanings a daily record of events or business a private A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. A pamphlet is an unbound Booklet (that is without a hard cover or binding) Paperback, softback, or softcover describe and refer to a Book by the nature of its binding. A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a Book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with Cloth
From the standpoint of book design, it often consists of 24 or 27 or more paragraphs or sections named or titled protocols, but the diverse editions, imprints, or compilations differ slightly or substantially, but significantly, as to their front matter and back matter. Book design is the art of incorporating the content style, format, Design, and sequence of the various components of a Book into a coherent In Printmaking, an edition is a number of prints struck from one plate usually at the same point in time In the Publishing Industry, an imprint can refer to two different things It can mean a Brand name under which a work is published Book design is the art of incorporating the content style, format, Design, and sequence of the various components of a Book into a coherent Book design is the art of incorporating the content style, format, Design, and sequence of the various components of a Book into a coherent
The text was popularized by those opposed to the Russian revolution, and was first disseminated by the instigator of the Kishinev pogrom, Pavel Krushevan, its first editor (and owner of Znamya), in 1903. This article is part of the History of the Jews in Bessarabia. Pavel Aleksandrovich Krushevan (Павел Александрович Крушеван Pavel Cruşeveanu (– was a journalist editor publisher and an official in the Imperial It was similarly used in opposition to the Russian Revolution of 1905, the October Revolution (1917), and the peace negotiations at the end of World War I which resulted in the Treaty of Versailles (1919), becoming known worldwide during the 1919-1920 period when it was widely circulated in the West, and thereafter. See also Russian Revolution (1917 The 1905 Russian Revolution also known as the Failed Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings It was also published in 1906 and 1907 in Russian, for the first time in pamphlet form, ed. A pamphlet is an unbound Booklet (that is without a hard cover or binding) by G. Butmi, after the pogroms, and in partial response to the Russia defeat in the Sino-Japanese war. G Butmi (Георгий Васильевич Бутми-де-Кацман Czech: Boutmy) b These imprints, published by the Union of the Russian People, bore the title, "Enemies of the Human Race" (translated from the Russian). The Union of the Russian People ( Союз Русского Народа, Romanized Soiuz russkogo naroda) was a Black-Hundredist Counter-revolutionary
It is known to have commenced such circulation in typescript form, translated from the Russian language, among the diplomats and officials involved in the negotiation and execution of the peace settlement which brought a formal end to World War I. A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
It was first published (printed) in the English language in 1919 as two newspaper articles in the Philadelphia Public Ledger by the famous journalist and subsequent Columbia University professor and dean of the journalism department, Carl W. Ackerman, but all references to Jews were replaced by references to Bolsheviks and Bolshevism. Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə The Public Ledger was a daily Newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942 Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Carl William Ackerman (January 16 1890–October 9 1970 was a journalist and author The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction 
The Great Depression and the rise of Nazism were important developments in the history of the Protocols, and the hoax continued to be published and circulated despite its debunking. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German
The text is alternatively known in English as:
The variation in title derives partly from the fact that the book has two titles in Russian - "Сионские протоколы" (Sionskiye protokoly, lit. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries "Protocols of Zion") and "Протоколы сионских мудрецов" (Protokoly sionskih mudretsov, lit. "Protocols of the Sages of Zion") - and partly due to the different translations of the Russian word мудрец (mudrets, a wise man or a sage).
The variation in title also derives from the fact that various (often anonymous) compilers or editors give it a different main title (as distinct from a subtitle), as well as the interest of these to advertise or suit their particular antisemitic agenda, and the fact that the text, which consists roughly of no more than 2 or 3 dozen paragraphs is only sufficient for a pamphlet, and it becomes a book by expansion with prefaces, introductions, addenda, etc.
For example, the first American English language edition, published in Boston in 1920 by Small, Maynard & Company, has the following full title: The Protocols and World Revolution Including a Translation and Analysis of the "Protocols of the Meetings of the Zionist Men of Wisdom". English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Small Maynard & Company ( Small Maynard and Company in bibliographies was a publishing house located in Boston. Only pages 11 through 73 contain the so-called Protocols. The word "Zion" in this edition has not been used; rather, the word "Zionist" is used. Zion ( Hebrew: צִיּוֹן ( Persian: صهیون tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the This contrasts to a similar practice of the prior Russian editions. For example, in 1905 Sergei Nilus's book on the imminent arrival of the anti-Christ The Big within the Small, the Protocols constituted the final twelfth chapter. Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus (also Sergiei, Sergyei, Sergius, Serge; Russian: Сергей Александрович Нилус For other uses see Antichrist (disambiguation In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person office
Elements of the text in the Protocols were plagiarizations from the 1864 book, Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu (Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu), written by the French satirist Maurice Joly. Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu (in the original French Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu) is a satirical Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Maurice Joly (1829—1878 was a French satirist and Lawyer. He was born in Lons-le-Saunier to a French father and an Italian Joly's work attacks the political ambitions of Napoleon III using Machiavelli as a diabolical plotter in Hell as a stand-in for Napoleon's views. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering Joly himself appears to have borrowed material from a popular novel by Eugène Sue, The Mysteries of the People, in which the plotters were Jesuits. "Marie Sue" redirects here For the term in fan fiction see Mary Sue. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Jews do not appear in either work. Since it was illegal to criticize the monarchy, Joly had the pamphlet printed in Belgium, then tried to smuggle it back into France. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The police confiscated as many copies as they could, and it was banned. After it was traced to Joly, he was tried on April 25, 1865, and sentenced to 15 months in prison at Sainte-Pelagie. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Joly committed suicide in 1878.
Hermann Goedsche's 1868 novel, Biarritz (in English as To Sedan) contributed another idea that may have inspired the scribe behind the Protocols. Sir John Retcliffe was the Pseudonym of the German writer Hermann Ottomar Friedrich Goedsche ( February 12 1815 - November 8 1878 In the chapter, “The Jewish Cemetery in Prague and the Council of Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel”, Goedsche wrote about a nocturnal meeting between members of a mysterious rabbinical cabal, describing how at midnight, the Devil appears before those who have gathered on behalf of the Twelve Tribes of Israel to plan a “Jewish conspiracy”. A cabal is a number of people united in some close design usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, State, or other community often The Devil is the See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel. His depiction is also similar to the scene in Alexandre Dumas, père's Joseph Balsamo, where Cagliostro and company plot the affair of the diamond necklace. Count Alessandro di Cagliostro ( 2 June, 1743 – 26 August, 1795) was the alias for the Occultist Giuseppe Balsamo The Affair of the Diamond Necklace was a mysterious incident in the 1780s at the court of Louis XVI of France involving his wife Queen Marie Antoinette With Biarritz appearing at about the same time as The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu, it is possible that Goedsche was inspired by the ideas in Joly's pamphlet, especially in detailing the outcome of the cabal's secret meeting. 
Goedsche, a reactionary to the revolutions of 1848, lost his job in the Prussian postal service after forging evidence to implicate democratic leader Benedict Waldeck of conspiring against the king. Reactionary (also reactionist) is a derogatory term usually used by the Left wing in regards to movements which oppose radical change in society and seeks a return The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Benedict Waldeck was a left-leaning deputy in the Prussian National Assembly, and later in the Second Chamber Following his dismissal, Goedsche began a career as a conservative columnist, while also producing literary work under the pen name Sir John Retcliffe. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Sir John Retcliffe was the Pseudonym of the German writer Hermann Ottomar Friedrich Goedsche ( February 12 1815 - November 8 1878  Goedsche was allegedly a spy for the Prussian Secret Police. The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising 
In 1871, the story was being presented in France as serious history. In 1872, “The Jewish Cemetery in Prague”, translated into Russian, appeared in St. Petersburg as a separate pamphlet of purported non-fiction. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Non-fiction is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as Fact. François Bournand, in his Les Juifs et nos contemporains (1896), reproduced a speech from the chapter as that of a Chief Rabbi “John Readcliff” [sic].
The 24 Protocols are posited as instructions to a new Elder, outlining how the group will control the world. The Elders want to trick all "gentile nations", whom they call "goyim", into doing their will. The term Gentile (from Latin, gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe refers to non- Israelite tribes or nations in the Bible. he-Latn '''Goy''' (גוי regular plural he-Latn ''goyim'' he גויים is a transliterated Hebrew word which translates as " Nation " or " people " Their preferred methods include:
|1||Alcoholism, Annihilation of the privileges of the non-Jewish aristocracy, among other topics. Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations|
|2, 9, 12||The propagation of ideas, such as Darwinism, Marxism, Nietzsche-ism, Liberalism, Socialism, Communism, Anarchism, and Utopianism, with the task of undermining established forms of order. Darwinism is a term used for various different movements or concepts related to a greater or lesser extent to Charles Darwin 's work on Evolution. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the|
|10||Staging catastrophes against one's own people, then claiming a moral high ground for leverage (False flag)|
|11, 12, 17||Curtailment of civil liberties with the excuse of defeating the enemies of peace|
|13||Creating the impression of the existence of freedom of press, freedom of speech, human rights and democracy, all of which are subsequently undermined and become mere illusions or deceptive smokescreens behind which actual oppression lies|
|14, 17||Pornographic literature|
|16||The destruction of Christianity, Islam and other religions and cultures, followed by a transitional stage of atheism, followed finally by the hegemony of Judaism|
|22||Undermining financial systems by foreign loans, creating national bankruptcy, destroying money markets and replacing them with government credit institutions|
|23||Justification of previous acts of evil and expectation of a great new society|
|24||Reduction of the manufacture of articles of luxury, destruction of large manufacturers, prohibition of alcohol and hashish, unleashing forces of violence under the mask of principles of freedom, only to have the 'King of the Jews' demolish those very forces to make him appear a saviour|
|25||Training of the king, direct heirs, irreproachability of exterior morality of the King of the Jews|
Control of the media and finance would replace the traditional sources of social order with one based on mass manipulation and state engineered propaganda, where powerful elites and institutions conspire to conceal unpalatable truths from the masses. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. World government is the concept of a political body that would make interpret and enforce International law. A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Erotic literature comprises fictional and factual stories and accounts which sexually arouse the reader whether written with that intention or not Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Atheism Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social Brainwashing (also known as Thought reform or as Re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and Beliefs A recession is a contraction phase of the Business cycle. The U External debt (or foreign debt) is that part of the total debt in a country that is owed to Creditors outside the country Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against In Finance, the money market is the global Financial market for short-term borrowing and lending Evil, in many cultures is used to describe acts or thoughts which are contrary to some particular religion Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed In Theology, salvation can mean three related things being saved from or Liberation from something such as Suffering or the punishment of Social order is a concept used in sociology history and other social sciences Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people In these respects, the Protocols draws on long-standing criticisms of modernity, radicalism and capitalism, but presents them as part of an orchestrated plot, rather than as a product of impersonal historical processes. Modernity is a term that refers to the Modern era. It is distinct from Modernism, and in different contexts refers to cultural and intellectual movements of the Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society or otherwise claimed to violate Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where
The text assumes that the reader already believes that the Freemasons are a secret society with a hidden political agenda, and the Protocols purports to demonstrate that this hidden agenda is itself controlled or guided by the 'Elders', a sort of conspiracy theory within a conspiracy theory. A conspiracy theory attributes the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually Political, Social or Historical events or the concealment In the Protocols, Freemasons and "liberal thinkers" are shown to be mere tools that the Elders will eventually replace with a Jewish theocracy. Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler The Protocols describes a forthcoming "kingdom" and goes into great lengths about how it will be run. Yet even in this kingdom the Elders will avoid direct political control, preferring to assert themselves via usury and manipulation of money. Usury (ˈjuːʒəri comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, "interest" or "excessive interest" from the Latin usura "interest" Even the "King of the Jews" himself will be nothing more than a figurehead. In politics a figurehead, by Metaphor with the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship is a person who holds an important title or office yet executes little
The Protocols 1–19 closely follow the order of The Dialogues in Hell 1–17, with a few exceptions. The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu (in the original French Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu) is a satirical In some places, plagiarism is incontrovertible:
In addition to mentioning Vishnu, improbable in the Jewish religious literature, and the lack of Talmudic citations that would be expected in it, textual references to the "King of the Jews", the semi-messianic idea that carries strong connotations of Jesus, further suggest the author was not well-versed in Jewish culture, as this term has been avoided in the Judaic tradition since the schism between Judaism and Christianity. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena above all it is the Culture of secular communities of Jewish people but it can also include Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious They have happened as a product of historical accident geography and Theology. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings 
Once Philip Graves' Times article showed the extent of the similarity between the two texts, it became clear that the Protocols was not an authentic document. For the Vertigo Comics character see Agent Graves. Philip Perceval Graves ( February 25 1876 &ndash June 3
The idea that the Freemasons formed part of an anti-Christian conspiracy, either separate from or in association with Jews, long predated the spreading of The Protocols. In the late 18th-early 19th centuries, Freemasonry was popular (as were many fraternal organizations), and its most significant opponent, the Roman Catholic Church, opposed its open support for freedom of religion and enlightenment ideals. Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
After some interaction with masons, a Scottish natural philosopher John Robison became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist and expanded on his impressions in his 1797 pamphlet Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies. John Robison ( February 4, 1739  &ndash January 30, 1805) was a Scottish Physicist and Inventor. He did not take into account that French masons were members of several mutually hostile factions and that many of them were executed by their rivals. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( Robison's work does not mention Jews.
Jesuit priest Augustin Barruél had some contact with Robison, but extended the notion to include Jews. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. Abbé Augustin Barruel ( October 2, 1741 - October 5, 1820) was a French Jesuit Priest. He had accused the Jews of founding the Bavarian Illuminati. "Illuminata" redirects here For the 1998 John Turturro film see Illuminata (film.
According to Daniel Pipes,
"The great importance of the Protocols lies in its permitting antisemites to reach beyond their traditional circles and find a large international audience, a process that continues to this day. Daniel Pipes (born September 9 1949 is a American historian and political commentator who particularly focuses on the Middle East and Islam. The forgery poisoned public life wherever it appeared; it was "self-generating; a blueprint that migrated from one conspiracy to another. " The book's vagueness — almost no names, dates, or issues are specified — has been one key to this wide-ranging success. The purportedly Jewish authorship also helps to make the book more convincing. Its embrace of contradiction — that to advance, Jews use all tools available, including capitalism and communism, philo-Semitism and antisemitism, democracy and tyranny — made it possible for the Protocols to reach out to all: rich and poor, Right and Left, Christian and Muslim, American and Japanese. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The are the dominant Ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent of these approximately 127 million are residents of Japan "
Pipes notes that the Protocols emphasizes recurring themes of conspiratorial antisemitism: "Jews always scheme", "Jews are everywhere", "Jews are behind every institution", "Jews obey a central authority, the shadowy 'Elders'", and "Jews are close to success. "
The Protocols is widely considered influential in the development of other conspiracy theories, and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature, such as Jim Marrs' Rule by Secrecy. Jim Marrs (born 5 December 1943) is a Conspiracy reporter, news reporter and author of books and articles on a wide range of assorted Conspiracy Some recent editions proclaim that the "Jews" depicted in the Protocols are a cover identity for other conspirators such as the Illuminati, Freemasons, the Priory of Sion, or even, in the opinion of David Icke, "extra-dimensional entities. "Illuminata" redirects here For the 1998 John Turturro film see Illuminata (film. The Prieuré de Sion, translated from French as Priory of Sion, is the name of multiple groups both real and fictitious David Vaughan Icke (pronounced /aɪk/ born 29 April 1952 is a British writer and public speaker who has devoted himself since 1990 to researching "who and what is really controlling " Other groups that believe in the authenticity of the Protocols have claimed that the book does not depict the way that Jews think and act, but only those belonging to an alleged secret elite group of Zionists, and that the "Elders" were not Rabbis, but secular Zionist leaders. Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. Many conspiracy theorists believe the "Jewish conspiracy" to be disinformation. A conspiracy theory attributes the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually Political, Social or Historical events or the concealment Disinformation is the deliberate dissemination of false Information.
The chapter "In the Jewish Cemetery in Prague" from Goedsche's Biarritz, with its strong antisemitic theme containing the alleged rabbinical plot against the European civilization, was translated into Russian as a separate pamphlet in 1872. The Protocols, or The Protocols of Zion, are the briefest two common English language titles of the writing more popularly known in the United States as Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages 
In 1921 Princess Catherine Radziwill gave a private lecture in New York. Princess Catherine Radziwill ( March 30, 1858 - May 12, 1941) was a Polish Princess from a famous Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic She claimed that the Protocols were a forgery compiled in 1904-1905 by Russian journalists Matvei Golovinski and Manasevich-Manuilov at the direction of Pyotr Rachkovsky, Chief of the Russian secret service in Paris. Matvei Vasilyevich Golovinski (alternatively Mathieu; Матвей Васильевич Головинский 1865-1920 was a Russian-French writer and journalist Pyotr Ivanovich Rachkovsky (Пётр Иванович Рачковский 1853-1910 was chief of Okhrana, the Secret service in Imperial Russia. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city  Golovinski worked together with Charles Joly (son of Maurice Joly) at Le Figaro in Paris. Le Figaro is one of the leading French morning daily Newspapers Its editorial line is conservative and has generally been supportive of This account, however, contradicts basic chronology of Protocols publication, as they were already published in 1903 in the newspaper Znamya. Znamya or Znamia (Знамя literally Banner) was a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper established by an ultra-nationalist journalist Pavel Krushevan Catherine Radziwill was previously convicted of forging Cecil Rhodes' signature on a promissory note. Cecil John Rhodes, PC DCL (5 July 1853 &ndash 26 March 1902 was an English -born Businessman mining Magnate, and Politician She also authored numerous gossip and propaganda books. In 1935 Radziwill repeated her statement as a witness at the Berne Trial. The Berne Trial is a famous trial held in Berne, Switzerland between 1934 and 1935 under an Obscenity -related Statute involving the Plagiarism
In 1944 German writer Konrad Heiden identified Golovinski as an author of the Protocols. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as 
Radziwill's account was supported by Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine, who published his findings in November 1999 in the French newsweekly L'Express. November 1999: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - L'Express ( is France 's first weekly news Magazine. When founded in 1953 during the First Indochina War, it was modelled on the  Lepekhine considers the Protocols a part of a scheme to persuade Tsar Nicholas II that the modernization of Russia was really a Jewish plot to control the world. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation.
Ukrainian scholar Vadim Skuratovsky offers extensive literary, historical and linguistic analysis of the original text of the Protocols and traces the influences of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's prose (in particular, The Grand Inquisitor and The Possessed) on Golovinski's writings, including the Protocols. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, For the Wikipedia guideline regarding editing articles see WikipediaManual of Style. The Grand Inquisitor is a Parable told by Ivan to Alyosha in Fyodor Dostoevsky 's novel The Brothers Karamazov ( 1879 The Possessed (In Russian: Бесы tr Besy) also translated as The Devils or Demons, is an 1872 
In his book The Non-Existent Manuscript, Italian scholar Cesare G. De Michelis studies early Russian publications of the Protocols. The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging Cesare G De Michelis, (born 1944 Rome) scholar and professor of Russian literature at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
The Protocols were first mentioned in the Russian press in April 1902, by the Saint Petersburg newspaper, Novoye Vremya (Новое Время - The New Times). The article was written by a famous conservative publicist Mikhail Menshikov as a part of his regular series "Letters to Neighbors" ("Письма к ближним") and was entitled "Plots against Humanity. " The author described his meeting with a lady (Yuliana Glinka, as it is known now) who, after telling him about her mystical revelations, implored him to get familiar with the documents later known as the Protocols; but after reading some excerpts Menshikov became quite skeptical about their origin and did not publish them. Yuliana Dmitrievna Glinka (1844- 1918 was a Russian Occultist born to a prominent family in Orel, Russia. 
The Protocols are claimed to have been published at the earliest, in serialized form, from August 28 to September 7 (O.S.) 1903, in Znamya (Знамя - The Banner), a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper, under Pavel Krushevan. Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Znamya or Znamia (Знамя literally Banner) was a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper established by an ultra-nationalist journalist Pavel Krushevan Pavel Aleksandrovich Krushevan (Павел Александрович Крушеван Pavel Cruşeveanu (– was a journalist editor publisher and an official in the Imperial Krushevan had initiated the Kishinev pogrom four months earlier. This article is part of the History of the Jews in Bessarabia. 
The Protocols enjoyed another wave of popularity in Russia after 1905, when progressive political elements in Russia succeeded in creating a constitution and a parliament, the Duma. See also Russian Revolution (1917 The 1905 Russian Revolution also known as the Failed Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those A Duma (Ду́ма is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history The reactionary Union of the Russian People, known as the Black Hundreds, together with the Okhrana, the Tsarist secret police, blamed this liberalization on the "International Jewish conspiracy," and began a program of disseminating the Protocols as propaganda to support the wave of pogroms that swept Russia in 1903–1906 and as a tool to deflect attention from social activism. The Union of the Russian People ( Союз Русского Народа, Romanized Soiuz russkogo naroda) was a Black-Hundredist Counter-revolutionary The Otdeleniye po Okhraneniyu Obshchestvennoy Bezopasnosti i Poryadka ( Отделение по Охранению Общественной Безопасности и Порядка The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses It also was of interest to Tsar Nicholas II, who was fearful of modernization and protective of his monarchy, and he presented the growing revolutionary movement as part of a powerful world conspiracy and blamed the Jews for Russia's problems. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation.
In 1905, self-proclaimed mystic Sergei Nilus gained fame by publishing the full text of the Protocols in Chapter XII, the final chapter (pages 305–417), of the second edition (or third, according to some sources) of his book, Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, which translates as "The Great within the Small: The Coming of the Anti-Christ and the Rule of Satan on Earth". The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" For other uses see Antichrist (disambiguation In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person office See also Yahweh Tetragrammaton (from the Greek, meaning ' of four letters' (tetra "four" + gramma (gen INRI is an Acronym of the Latin phrase IESVS·NAZARENVS·REX·IVDÆORVM (Jesus Nazarenus rex Judæorum which translates to English The tarot (also known as tarocchi, tarock or similar names is typically a set of seventy-eight cards comprised of twenty-one trump cards, one Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus (also Sergiei, Sergyei, Sergius, Serge; Russian: Сергей Александрович Нилус The Protocols, or The Protocols of Zion, are the briefest two common English language titles of the writing more popularly known in the United States as He claimed it was the work of the First Zionist Congress, held in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland. First Zionist Congress ( Hebrew: הקונגרס הציוני הראשון is the name given to the Congress held in Basel (Basle, Switzerland "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. When it was pointed out that the First Zionist Congress had been open to the public and was attended by many non-Jews, Nilus changed his story, saying the Protocols were the work of the 1902–1903 meetings of the Elders, but contradicting his own prior statement that he had received his copy in 1901:
In 1901, I succeeded through an acquaintance of mine (the late Court Marshal Alexei Nikolayevich Sukotin of Chernigov) in getting a manuscript that exposed with unusual perfection and clarity the course and development of the secret Jewish Freemasonic conspiracy, which would bring this wicked world to its inevitable end. Chernihiv, also referred to as Chernigov (Чернігів Чернигов Чарнігаў is a historic city in northern Ukraine. The person who gave me this manuscript guaranteed it to be a faithful translation of the original documents that were stolen by a woman from one of the highest and most influential leaders of the Freemasons at a secret meeting somewhere in France — the beloved nest of Freemasonic conspiracy. 
Nilus also may have had personal motivations for publishing them. Some have alleged that at this time he was trying to gain influence with the Royal Family. This was, it is claimed, part of a faction fight against Papus and Nizier Anthelme Philippe at the Tsarist court (Indeed, Papus was accused in 1920 of having forged the Protocols to discredit Philippe). Gerard Encausse ( July 13, 1865 - 25 October 1916 whose esoteric pseudonym was Papus, was the Spanish -born French Anthelme Nizier Philippe was born on April 25, 1849 in Le Rubathier, Loisieux, Savoy, France, the son of peasants
A subsequent secret investigation ordered by the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers Pyotr Stolypin came to conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897–1898. Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin ( Russian Пётр Арка́дьевич Столы́пин () served as Nicholas II 's Chairman of the Council of Ministers—the Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city  When Nicholas II learned of the results of this investigation, he requested: "The Protocols should be confiscated, a good cause cannot be defended by dirty means. " Despite the order, or because of the "good cause", numerous reprints proliferated. 
After the Russian Revolution, factions connected to the White movement used the Protocols to perpetrate hatred and violence against the Jews. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard The idea that the Bolshevik movement was a Jewish conspiracy for world domination, plus the fact that some top Bolsheviks, particularly Leon Trotsky, were Jews, sparked worldwide interest in the Protocols. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction World domination (sometimes world conquest, global domination, or Colloquially taking over the world) in which a single political authority Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij
The first and "by far the most important" German translation was by Gottfried Zur Beck (pseudonym of Ludwig Müller von Hausen). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) It appeared in January 1920 as a part of a larger antisemitic tract dated 1919. After The Times of London discussed the book respectfully in May 1920 it became a bestseller. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. "The Hohenzollern family helped defray the publication costs, and Kaiser Wilhelm II had portions of the book read out aloud to dinner guests". This article is about the Crown Prince Wilhelm For German ships of the same name please see the Kronprinz Wilhelm or SMS Kronprinz Wilhelm. 
On October 27 and 28, 1919, the Philadelphia Public Ledger published excerpts of an English language translation as the "Red Bible," deleting all references to the purported Jewish authorship and re-casting the document as a Bolshevist manifesto. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə The Public Ledger was a daily Newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942 The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction  The author of the articles was the paper's correspondent at the time, Carl W. Ackerman, who later became the head of the journalism department at Columbia University. Carl William Ackerman (January 16 1890–October 9 1970 was a journalist and author Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League.
On May 8, 1920, an article in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called "uncanny note of prophecy". Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register.
The first English language edition of the Protocols was published in 1920 in London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The full title was The Jewish Peril. Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion; the translator has been subsequently discovered to be George Shanks. George Shanks. The true first translator--identified only in 1978--of the Protocols of Zion into the English language for publication by The Britons
The most widespread English translation of the Protocols is credited (by its anonymous editor(s)) to a British correspondent for The Morning Post in Russia, Victor E. Marsden. The Morning Post, as the paper was named on its Masthead, was a conservative daily Newspaper published in London from 1772 to 1937 when it was Victor Emile Marsden (1866 - 1920 d October 28 1920 was a Journalist and Translator, best known for translating the most widespread English language That anonymous source further claims that Marsden was imprisoned by the Bolsheviks in the Peter and Paul Fortress, subsequently released, and returned to England. The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропа́вловская кре́пость Petropavlovskaya Krepost) is the original Citadel of St England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Marsden, prior to his death on October 28, 1920, had allegedly translated Chapter XII of Nilus' 1905 book on the coming of the Anti-Christ, a copy of which was at hand in the British Museum. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar For other uses see Antichrist (disambiguation In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person office The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. His name does not appear in the first British imprint, issued by Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd., nor in the second, issued by The Britons. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd was the London based printing firm that was the King's Printer, and subsequently after April 1929 a publisher of the same name The Britons, was founded in July 1919 by Henry Hamilton Beamish. It only first pops up in the edition issued one or two years later, in the imprint issued by the Britons Publishing Society. Britons Publishing Society, founded in 1923 was an offshoot of The Britons.
In a single year 1920, five editions sold out in England. That same year in the United States, Henry Ford sponsored the printing of 500,000 copies, and from 1920 to 1922 published a series of antisemitic articles, entitled The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem, in The Dearborn Independent, a newspaper he owned. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Henry Ford ( July 30, 1863 &ndash April 7, 1947) was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of The International Jew is a four volume set of Booklets or Pamphlets originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry The Dearborn Independent, also dubbed The Ford International Weekly, was a newspaper established in 1901 but published by Henry Ford from 1919 In 1921 Ford cited it as evidence of a Jewish threat: "The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on. They are 16 years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time. " In 1927, however, Ford retracted his publication and apologized, claiming his assistants duped him. On the other side, he did so only after court ordered him to. Moreover, he later expressed his admiration for Nazi Germany. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers 
In 1934, an anonymous editor expanded the compilation with "Text and Commentary" (pages 136–141). The production of this uncredited compilation was a 300-page book, an inauthentic expanded edition of the twelfth chapter of Nilus's 1905 on the coming of the anti-Christ. It consists of substantial liftings of excerpts of articles from Ford's antisemitic periodical The Dearborn Independent. This 1934 text circulates most widely in the English-speaking world, as well as on the internet.
The "Text and Commentary" concludes with a comment on Haim Weizman's October 6, 1920 remark at a banquet: "A beneficent protection which God has instituted in the life of the Jew is that He has dispersed him all over the world". Chaim Azriel Weizmann ( Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן – November 27, 1874 &ndash November 9, 1952) was a Zionist Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Marsden, who was dead by then, is credited with the following assertion:
"It proves that the Learned Elders exist. It proves that Dr. Weizmann knows all about them. It proves that the desire for a "National Home" in Palestine is only camouflage and an infinitesimal part of the Jew's real object. It proves that the Jews of the world have no intention of settling in Palestine or any separate country, and that their annual prayer that they may all meet "Next Year in Jerusalem" is merely a piece of their characteristic make-believe. It also demonstrates that the Jews are now a world menace, and that the Aryan races will have to domicile them permanently out of Europe. "
This quote occurs on page 138. On the previous page, the nameless commentator has the following: "There has been recently published a volume of Theodor Herzl's Diaries, a translation of some passages of which appeared in the Jewish Chronicle of July 14, 1922". Theodor Herzl (בנימין זאב הרצל ( Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl) (May 2 1860&ndashJuly 3 1904 was an Austrian Jewish journalist who founded modern Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Accordingly, the commentary must have been written at least two years after Marsden's death.
In 1920-1921, the history of the concepts found in the Protocols was traced back to the works of Goedsche and Jacques Crétineau-Joly by Lucien Wolf (an English Jewish journalist), and published in London in August 1921. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. Jacques Crétineau-Joly was a Catholic journalist and historian b Lucien Wolf (born 1857 in London; died 1930 was an English Jewish Journalist, historian and advocate of Jewish rights But a dramatic expose occurred in the series of articles in The Times by its Constantinople reporter, Philip Graves, who discovered the plagiarism from the work of Maurice Joly. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS For the Vertigo Comics character see Agent Graves. Philip Perceval Graves ( February 25 1876 &ndash June 3 Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work Maurice Joly (1829—1878 was a French satirist and Lawyer. He was born in Lons-le-Saunier to a French father and an Italian
According to writer Peter Grose, Allen Dulles, who was in Constantinople developing relationships in post-Ottoman political structures, discovered 'the source' of the documentation ultimately provided to The Times. Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7 1893 &ndash January 29 1969 was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961 Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Grose writes that The Times extended a loan to the source, a Russian émigré who refused to be identified, with the understanding the loan would not be repaid.  Colin Holmes, a lecturer in economic history of Sheffield University, identified the émigré as Michael Raslovleff, a self-identified antisemite, who gave the information to Graves so as not to "give a weapon of any kind to the Jews, whose friend I have never been. The University of Sheffield is a research University, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. "
In the first article of Graves' series, entitled "A Literary Forgery", the editors of The Times wrote, "our Constantinople Correspondent presents for the first time conclusive proof that the document is in the main a clumsy plagiarism. He has forwarded us a copy of the French book from which the plagiarism is made. " The New York Times reprinted the articles on September 4, 1921. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar  In the same year, an entire book documenting the hoax was published in the United States by Herman Bernstein. Herman Bernstein ( September 21, 1876 - August 31, 1935) was a Jewish - American journalist writer translator and Despite this widespread and extensive debunking, the Protocols continued to be regarded as important factual evidence by antisemites.
In the 1920s, the Protocols occasionally appeared in the Arab polemics linking Zionism and Bolshevism. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The first Arabic translations were made from the French by Arab Christians. The first translation was published in Raqib Sahyun, a periodical of the Roman Catholic community of Jerusalem, in 1926. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Another translation made by an Arab Christian appeared in Cairo in 1927 or 1928, this time as a book. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The first translation by an Arab Muslim was also published in Cairo, but only in 1951. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion 
In 1934, Dr. The Berne Trial is a famous trial held in Berne, Switzerland between 1934 and 1935 under an Obscenity -related Statute involving the Plagiarism Alfred Zander, a Swiss Nazi, published a series of articles accepting the Protocols as fact. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German He was sued in what has come to be known as the Berne Trial. The trial began in the Cantonal Court of Bern on October 29, 1934, the plaintiffs were Dr. The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the states of the Federal state of Switzerland. The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. J. Dreyfus-Brodsky, Dr. Marcus Cohen and Dr. Marcus Ehrenpreis. On May 19, 1935 the court, after full investigation, declared the Protocols to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Judge Walter Meyer, a Christian who had not heard of the Protocols earlier, said in conclusion:
"I hope, the time will come when nobody will be able to understand how in 1935 nearly a dozen sane and responsible men were able for two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are nothing but laughable nonsense". 
Vladimir Burtsev, a Russian emigre, anti-Bolshevik and anti-Fascist who exposed numerous Okhrana agents provocateurs in the early 1900s, served as a witness at the Berne Trial. Vladimir L'vovich Burtsev (Владимир Львович Бурцев November 17 1862 &ndash August 21 1942) was a revolutionary activist Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies organizations governments and people Traditionally an agent provocateur ( Plural: agents provocateurs, French for "inciting agent" is a person employed by the police or In 1938 in Paris he published a book, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery, based on his testimony.
On November 1, 1937 the sued party of the trial applied to the Swiss Court of Appeal asking to reverse the verdict, claiming that the law, while prohibiting "obscene literature", means pornography and is inapplicable to the Protocols. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The three judges focused on purely procedural aspects of the case and decided to reverse the verdict. However, the presiding judge stated clearly that the forgery of the Protocols is not questionable and expressed regret that the law does not provide enough protection for Jews from literature of that kind. The court put the costs of both trials upon the sued party.  This decision gave grounds for later allegations that the appeal court "confirmed authenticity of the Protocols" which is opposite to the facts.
A scholarly work on the trial is a 139 page monograph by Urs Luthi.
In an August 1934 case in Grahamstown, South Africa, the court imposed fines totalling £1,775 (about $8,875 at the time or about $130,000 in 2005 dollars) on three men for disseminating a version of the Protocols. Grahamstown is a city in the Eastern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa and is the seat of the Makana municipality The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The pound was the currency of South Africa between 1825 and 1961.
The Protocols also became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution of the Jews. It was made required reading for German students. In The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945, Nora Levin states that "Hitler used the Protocols as a manual in his war to exterminate the Jews":
Despite conclusive proof that the Protocols were a gross forgery, they had sensational popularity and large sales in the 1920s and 1930s. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Nora Levin ( 1916 - October 26, 1989) was a historian of The Holocaust and a writer Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately They were translated into every language of Europe and sold widely in Arab lands, the United States, and England. But it was in Germany after World War I that they had their greatest success. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All There they were used to explain all of the disasters that had befallen the country: the defeat in the war, the hunger, the destructive inflation. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time 
Hitler refers to the Protocols in Mein Kampf:
. Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. . . To what extent the whole existence of this people is based on a continuous lie is shown incomparably by the Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, so infinitely hated by the Jews. They are based on a forgery, the Frankfurter Zeitung moans and screams once every week: the best proof that they are authentic. The Frankfurter Zeitung was a German language Newspaper that appeared from 1856 to 1943 [. . . ] the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims. 
Hitler endorsed it in his speeches from August 1921 on, and it was studied in German classrooms after the Nazis came to power. At the height of World War II, the Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed: "The Zionist Protocols are as up-to-date today as they were the day they were first published. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public " In Norman Cohn's words, it served as the Nazis' "warrant for genocide".
While the first edition of the Protocols (1921) didn't have much success, in the wake of the growing alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, the Protocols were re-published in Italy in 1937 by Giovanni Preziosi with an introduction by Julius Evola. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Julius Evola, also known as Baron Giulio Cesare Evola, ( May 19, 1898 &ndash June 11, 1974) was an Italian Philosopher
While there is continued popularity of The Protocols in nations from South America to Asia, since the defeat of Nazi Germany and fascist Italy in WWII governments or political leaders in most parts of the world have generally avoided claims that The Protocols represent factual evidence of a real Jewish conspiracy. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The exception to this is the Middle East, where a large number of Arab and Muslim regimes and leaders have endorsed them as authentic. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
Past endorsements of The Protocols from Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat of Egypt, one of the President Arifs of Iraq, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, and Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya, among other political and intellectual leaders of the Arab world, are echoed by 21st century endorsements from the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri and Hamas to the education ministry of Saudi Arabia. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Abdullah Muhammad Sara Luluwa Khalid Saud The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi 1 (معمر القذافي) (born 7 June 1942) also known as Colonel Gaddafi Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab This page is about the title and persons carrying the title For the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem (from 1921-1948 see Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri (عكرمة سعيد صبري was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and Palestine from October 1994 to July 1, 2006 Ḥamas (ar حركة حماس acronym ar حركة المقاومة The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi 
As popular opposition to Israel spread across the Middle East in the years following its creation in 1948, many Arab governments funded new printings of the Protocols, and taught them in their schools as historical fact. They have been accepted as such by many Islamist organizations, such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Ḥamas (ar حركة حماس acronym ar حركة المقاومة Reportedly, Arabic editions issued in the Middle East were found on sale as far away as London.  There are at least nine different Arabic translations of the Protocols and more editions than in any other language including German.  The Protocols also figure prominently in the antisemitic propaganda distributed internationally by the Arab countries and have spread to other Muslim countries, such as Pakistan, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. 
The Protocols is a best-seller in Syria and, together with other antisemitic materials published there, is distributed throughout the Arab world. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية  In 1997, the two-volume 8th edition of the Protocols, translated and edited by 'Ajaj Nuwayhid, was published by Mustafa Tlass's publishing house and exhibited and sold at the Damascus International Book Fair (IBF) and at the Cairo IBF. Lt Gen Mustafa Tlass (مصطفى طلاس b 1932 is a Syrian politician and a long time minister of defense now retired At the 2005 Cairo IBF a stand of the Syrian publisher displayed a new, 2005 edition of the Protocols authorized by the Syrian Ministry of Information.  In Syria government-controlled television channels occasionally broadcast mini-series concerning the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, along with several other anti-semitic themes. 
During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt was the main source of internationally distributed antisemitic propaganda. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. In 1960, the Protocols were featured in an article published by Salah Dasuqi, military governor of Cairo, in al-Majallaaa, the official cultural journal. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt.  In 1965, the Egyptian government released an English-language pamphlet titled Israel, the Enemy of Africa and distributed it throughout the English-speaking countries of Africa. The pamphlet used the Protocols and The International Jew as its sources and concluded that all the Jews were cheats, thieves, and murderers. The International Jew is a four volume set of Booklets or Pamphlets originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry 
'When The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were discovered, some 200 years ago, and translated in various languages, including Arabic, the World Zionist Organization attempted to deny the existence of the plot, and claimed forgery. (שמעון פרס born Szymon Perski on August 2 1923, is the ninth President of the State of Israel. Al-Ahram ( Arabic: الأهرام, literally "The Pyramids" founded in 1875 is one of the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspapers The World Zionist Organization ( Hebrew: ההסתדרות הציונית העולמית or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization ( Hebrew The Zionists even endeavoured to purchase all the existing copies, in order to prevent their circulation. But today, Shimon Peres proves unequivocally that the Protocols are authentic, and that they tell the truth. (שמעון פרס born Szymon Perski on August 2 1923, is the ninth President of the State of Israel. '
All the evils that currently affect the world are the doings of Zionism. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. This is not surprising, because the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which were established by their wise men more than a century ago, are proceeding according to a meticulous and precise plan and time schedule, and they are proof that even though they are a minority, their goal is to rule the world and the entire human race. "
In October 2002, a private Egyptian television company Dream TV produced a 41-part "historical drama" A Knight Without a Horse (Fars Bela Gewad), largely based on the Protocols, which ran on 17 Arabic-language satellite television channels, including government-owned Egypt Television (ETV), for a month, causing concerns in the West. October 2002: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Satellite television is Television delivered by the means of Communications satellites as compared to conventional Terrestrial television and Cable  Egypt's Information Minister Safwat El-Sherif announced that the series "contains no antisemitic material". 
On November 17, 2003, an Egyptian weekly al-Usbu‘ reported that the manuscript museum at the Alexandria Library, displayed the first Arabic translation of the Protocols at the section of the holy books of Judaism, next to a Torah scroll. Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Bibliotheca Alexandrina ( Latin for "Library of Alexandria" is a major Library and Cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean The museum's director Dr. Youssef Ziedan was quoted as saying in an interview:
". Professor Youssef Ziedan (Arabic يوسف زيدان (born June 30 1958 is an Egyptian scholar specialized in Arabic and Islamic studies . . it has become one of the sacred [texts] of the Jews, next to their first constitution, their religious law . . . more important to the Zionist Jews of the world than the Torah, because they conduct Zionist life according to it . . . It is only natural to place the book in the framework of an exhibit of Torah. "
It also quoted him as saying that no more than one million Jews were killed by the Nazis, but Zionists manipulated the "knowledge that has reached the world".  See also:- Holocaust denial. Holocaust denial is the claim that the Genocide of Jews during World War II —usually referred to as The Holocaust —did not occur in the
After the publication, director of the Library Dr. Ismail Serageldin issued a statement:
"Preliminary investigation determined that the book was briefly displayed in a showcase devoted to rotating samples of curiosities and unusual items in our collection. . . . The book is a well-known 19th century fabrication to foment anti-Jewish feelings. The book was promptly withdrawn from public display, but its very inclusion showed bad judgment and insensitivity. . . "
The first Iranian edition of the Protocols was issued during the summer of 1978 before the Iranian Revolution after which the Protocols were widely publicized by the Iranian government. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed The politics and government of Iran takes place in the framework of a Republic with an Islamic ideology A publication called Imam, published by the Iranian embassy in London, quoted extensively from the Protocols in its issues of 1984 and 1985.  In 1985 a new edition of the Protocols was printed and widely distributed by the Islamic Propagation Organization, International Relations Department, in Tehran. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of The Astan-e Qods Razavi Foundation in Mashhad, Iran, one of the wealthiest institutions in Iran, financed publication of the Protocols in 1994. Mashhad ( literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Parts of the Protocols were published by the daily Jomhouri-ye Eslami in 1994, under the heading The Smell of Blood, Zionist Schemes. Sobh, a far right monthly newspaper, published excerpts from the Protocols under the heading The text of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion for establishing the Jewish global rule in its December 1998–January 1999 issue, illustrated with a caricature of the Jewish snake swallowing the globe. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) January 1999 was a month with thirty-one days The following events also occurred during the month
Iranian writer and researcher Ali Baqeri, who researched the Protocols, finds their plan for world domination to be merely part of an even more grandiose scheme, saying in Sobh in 1999:
In April 2004, the Iranian television station Al-Alam broadcast Al-Sameri wa Al-Saher, a series that reported as fact several conspiracy theories about the Holocaust, Jewish control of Hollywood, and the Protocols. 2004: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as  The Iran Pavilion of the 2005 Frankfurt Book Fair had the Protocols, as well as The International Jew available. Frankfurt Book Fair (Frankfurter Buchmesse is the world's largest Trade fair for Books, based on the number of publishing companies represented 
On the other hand, Iranian author Abdollah Shahbazi, known for his historical reports of several important events of Iran's history, has denied the authenticity of the Protocols officially on his website and has referred to several international investigations as the basis of his claim. Abdollah Shahbazi (born 1955 in Shiraz, Iran) is an Iranian Historian and founder of PSRI the Political Studies and Research Institute 
Saudi Arabian schoolbooks contain explicit summaries of the Protocols as factual:
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: These are secret resolutions, most probably of the aforementioned Basel congress. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi They were discovered in the nineteenth century. The Jews tried to deny them, but there was ample evidence proving their authenticity and that they were issued by the elders of Zion. The Protocols can be summarized in the following points:
The cogent proof of the authenticity of these resolutions, as well as of the hellish Jewish schemes included therein, is the [actual] carrying out of many of those schemes, intrigues and conspiracies that are found in them. Anyone who reads them — and they were published in the nineteenth century — grasps today to what extent much of what is found there has been realized. 
- Upsetting the foundations of the world's present society and its systems, in order to enable Zionism to have a monopoly of world government.
- Eliminating nationalities and religions, especially the Christian nations.
- Striving to increase corruption among the present regimes in Europe, as Zionism believes in their corruption and [eventual] collapse.
- Controlling the media of publication, propaganda and the press, using gold for stirring up disturbances, seducing people by means of lust and spreading wantonness.
According to Freedom House 2006 report, Saudi "textbook for boys for Tenth Grade on Hadith and Islamic Culture contains a lesson on the "Zionist Movement. Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political " It is a curious blend of wild conspiracy theories about Masonic Lodges, Rotary Clubs, and Lions Clubs with antisemitic invective. Rotary International is an organization of Service clubs known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world Lions Clubs International (LCI is the world's largest Secular service organization with over 44500 clubs and more than 1 It asserts that the Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an authentic document and teaches students that it reveals what Jews really believe. It blames many of the world’s wars and discord on the Jews. "
In March 1970, the Protocols were reported to be the top 'nonfiction' bestseller in Lebanon. Non-fiction is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as Fact. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية  The Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2004 by the US Department of State states that "the television series, Ash-Shatat ("The Diaspora"), which centred on the alleged conspiracy of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion to dominate the world, was aired in October and November 2003 by the Lebanon-based satellite television network Al-Manar, owned by Hezbollah. Satellite television is Television delivered by the means of Communications satellites as compared to conventional Terrestrial television and Cable Al-Manar (المنار The Beacon) is the satellite Television station of Hezbollah, broadcasting from Beirut, Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation "
The Charter of Hamas explicitly refers to the Protocols, accepting them as factual and makes several references to Freemasons as one of the "secret societies" controlled by "Zionists". Ḥamas (ar حركة حماس acronym ar حركة المقاومة Secret society is a term used to describe a variety of organizations History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the The Article 32 of the Hamas Charter states:
The PNA frequently used the Protocols in the media and education under their control and some Palestinian academics presented the forgery as a plot upon which Zionism is based. For example, on January 25, 2001, the official PNA daily Al-Hayat al-Jadida cited the Protocols on its Political National Education page to explain Israel's policies:
Disinformation has been one of the bases of moral and psychological manipulation among the Israelis . Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Al-Hayat al-Jadida ( الحياة الجديدة) (The new life is an official daily Newspaper of the Palestinian National Authority. . . The Protocols of the Elders of Zion did not ignore the importance of using propaganda to promote the Zionist goals. The second protocol reads: 'Through the newspapers we will have the means to propel and to influence'. In the twelfth protocol: 'Our governments will hold the reins of most of the newspapers, and through this plan we will possess the primary power to turn to public opinion. '
Later that year the same newspaper wrote: "The purpose of the military policy is to impose this situation on the residents and force them to leave their homes, and this is done in the framework of the Protocols of Zion. . . "
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri appeared on the Saudi satellite channel Al-Majd on February 20, 2005, commenting on the assassination of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. This page is about the title and persons carrying the title For the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem (from 1921-1948 see Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri (عكرمة سعيد صبري was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and Palestine from October 1994 to July 1, 2006 Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية "Anyone who studies The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and specifically the Talmud," he said, "will discover that one of the goals of these Protocols is to cause confusion in the world and to undermine security throughout the world. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history "
In 2005, it was reported that the Palestinian Authority was teaching the Protocols in schools. After media exposure, the PA promised to stop.  On May 19, 2005, The New York Times reported that Palestinian Authority Minister of Information Nabil Shaath removed from his ministry's web site an Arabic translation of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nabil Shaath (نبيل شعث (also spelled Sha'ath born 1938 in Safad Palestine is a senior Palestinian official who has held the following titles Palestinian 
To a great degree, the text is still accepted as truthful in large parts of South America and Asia, especially in Japan where variations on the Protocols have frequently made the bestseller lists. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. 
In Turkey, particularly by ultra-nationalist and Islamist circles. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only The Protocols was first published in the magazine Millî İnkılâb (National Revolution) in 1934 and triggered the Thracian pogroms (Trakya Olayları) the same year. It ran through over 100 editions from 1943 to 2004 and remains a best-seller. 
In the United Kingdom, The Protocols have been endorsed by excommunicated Bishop Richard Williamson of the Society of St. Pius X. Richard Williamson may refer to Richard Williamson (bishop (born 1940 bishop of the Society of St The Society of St Pius X ( SSPX) is an international Traditionalist Catholic organisation whose official Latin name is Fraternitas Sacerdotalis
In February 2003, an Australian new age publication Hard Evidence presented the Protocols as factual and claimed that Jews were responsible for 2002 Bali bombing. February 2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Age ( New Age Movement and New Age Spirituality) is a Social Collective Phenomenon and a Spiritual Nature The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. 
The New Zealand National Front sells copies published by their former national secretary, Kerry Bolton. The New Zealand National Front is a small White Nationalist political party in New Zealand. Kerry Raymond Bolton (born 1956 is a Far-right activist in New Zealand. Bolton also publishes (and the NZNF sells) a book entitled The Protocols of Zion in Context that seeks to refute the idea that the Protocols are a forgery.
Idi Amin, the President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979, cited the book as evidence of a Jewish conspiracy to take over the world, and as justification for his self-proclaimed plans to destroy Israel. Idi Amin Dada (mid 1920s &ndash 16 August 2003 commonly known as Idi Amin, was a Ugandan military dictator and the President of Uganda The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. He reveals this in an interview during the 1974 documentary Idi Amin Dada. General Idi Amin Dada A Self Portrait (Général Idi Amin Dada Autoportrait is a 1974 Documentary film by French director Barbet Schroeder
In Indonesia a translation of the Protocols is available in Indonesian in a bundle with The International Jew. Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of The books were translated and published in 2006 by the Hikmah division of the publisher Mizan. The front cover of The International Jew shows a quote by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: "The big question is how can the American government support this despicable Zionist regime". The President of Iran is the highest elected official in the Islamic Republic of Iran, second only to the Supreme Leader. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (محمود احمدینژاد; born October 28, 1956) is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran
The Protocols have had a tumultuous history in the United States ever since influential people such as Henry Ford began publishing them under the title of The International Jew. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Protocols were republished as fact in 1991 in Milton William Cooper's conspiracy book Behold a Pale Horse, though Cooper himself holds the Illuminati and not the Jews at fault. Milton William Cooper ( May 6, 1943 - November 5, 2001) was an American Writer, Shortwave broadcaster "Illuminata" redirects here For the 1998 John Turturro film see Illuminata (film.
The Plot, the final graphic novel by famed writer/artist Will Eisner, was about the history of the Protocols and the fact that they had been proven to be false numerous times. A William Erwin Eisner ( March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American Comics Writer, Artist and
The American retail chain Wal-Mart, was criticized for selling The Protocols of the Elders of Zion on its website with a description that suggested it might be genuine. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Chain stores are Retail outlets that share a Brand and central management and usually have standardized business methods and practices Wal-Mart Stores Inc (or Walmart as written in its new logo is an American public corporation that runs a chain of large discount department stores A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages  It was withdrawn from sale in September 2004, as 'a business decision'. September 2004: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August It is distributed in the United States by Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam. Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott, May 11, 1933) is the Supreme Minister of the Nation of Islam as the National Representative The Nation of Islam ( NOI) (أمة الإسلام Ummah al-Islāmu) is a group founded in Detroit, Michigan, 
In 2002, the Paterson, New Jersey-based Arabic language newspaper The Arab Voice published excerpts from the Protocols as true. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Arab Voice is a New Jersey -based Arabic Newspaper, published by and for Arab Americans The paper's editor Walid Rabah  The paper's editor and publisher Walid Rabah defended himself from criticism with the protestation that "some major writers in the Arab nation accept the truth of the book. Walid Rabah is a New Jersey -based Arab American Publisher. In 2002 Walid Rabah was accused of Antisemitism after he published "
During his October 2003 presentation at the College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio, Samir Makhlouf of the Presbyterian Peacemakers organization stated that the Protocols was a factual text that explains how Zionists have been taking over the world's politics, economics and communications. October 2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way After the controversy became public, the group's sponsors "agreed that they had made a grave mistake, and . . . that antisemitism is anti-Christianity. "
Abraham H. Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League has said "The non-Jewish world to a large extent believes in the myth of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and to some extent we in the Jewish community have not disabused them. Abraham Foxman is the current National Director and Chairman of the Anti-Defamation League. The Anti-Defamation League ( ADL) is an Interest group founded in 1913 by B'nai B'rith in the United States whose stated aim is "to stop Look. I know every time I meet with a world leader who comes to see me, he's not coming to see me because I'm Abe Foxman, the national director of the ADL. I know he's coming because he's been told, or someone sold him on the concept, that the Jewish community is very strong and powerful. You know it because . . . they want to know what you can do for them in the media, what you can do for them in the Congress, and so on. That's why the Prime Minister of Bosnia comes . . . Nicaragua, you name it. You've got to ask yourself, what is this about. The answer is, it's because they believe a little of that. "
"In late July 1967, Moscow launched an unprecedented propaganda campaign against Zionism as a "world threat. Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928 is a historian and an author The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Zionology ( Russian language: сионология sionologiya) also called Soviet Anti-Zionism, was a doctrine promulgated in the Soviet " Defeat was attributed not to tiny Israel alone, but to an "all-powerful international force" . . . In its flagrant vulgarity, the new propaganda assault soon achieved Nazi-era characteristics. The Soviet public was saturated with racist canards. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. Extracts from Trofim Kichko's notorious 1963 volume, Judaism Without Embellishment, were extensively republished in the Soviet media. Yuri Ivanov's Beware: Zionism, a book essentially replicated The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, was given nationwide coverage. "
A similar picture is drawn by Paul Johnson:
(the mass media) "all over the Soviet Union portrayed the Zionists and Israeli leaders as engaged in a world-wide conspiracy along the lines of the old Protocols of Zion. Paul Johnson (born Paul Bede Johnson on 2 November 1928 in Manchester, England) is a British Roman Catholic "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" It was, Sovietskaya Latvia wrote 5 August 1967, an 'international Cosa Nostra with a common centre, common programme and common funds'". The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century 
Despite stipulations against fomenting hatred based on ethnic or religious grounds (Article 282 of Russia Penal Code), the Protocols have enjoyed numerous reprints in the nationalist press after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A penal code is a portion of a State 's Laws defining Crimes and specifying the Punishment. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 In 2003, one century after the first publication of the Protocols, an article in the most popular Russian weekly Argumenty i fakty referred to it as a "peculiar bible of Zionism" and showed a photo of the First Zionist Congress of 1897. Argumenty i Fakty ("Аргументы и факты" commonly abbreviated "АиФ" - English Arguments and Facts) is a weekly newspaper The co-president of the National-Patriot Union of Russia Alexander Prokhanov wrote: "It does not matter whether the Protocols are a forgery or a factual conspiracy document. Alexander Andreyevich Prokhanov (Александр Андреевич Проханов born on February 26 1938 in Tbilisi) is a writer in Russia " The article also contained refutation of the allegations by the president of the Russian Jewish congress Yevgeny Satanovsky.
As recently as 2005, the Protocols was "a frequent feature in Patriarchate churches". See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure  On January 27, 2006, members of the Public Chamber of Russia and human rights activists proposed to establish a list of extremist literature whose dissemination should be formally banned for uses other than scientific research. The Public Chamber (In Russian: Общественная палата is a state institution with 126 members created in 2005 in Russia to analyze Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society or otherwise claimed to violate 
In 2006, Masterpiece Publications issued a version of the Protocols under the title World Conquest Through World Jewish Government (ISBN 983-3710-28-X). Copies of the book are held at the Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia. 
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
First publication of The Protocols
Writers, editors, and publishers associated with The Protocols
The Straight Dope is a popular question-and-answer Newspaper column published in the Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty Newspapers Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The Anti-Defamation League ( ADL) is an Interest group founded in 1913 by B'nai B'rith in the United States whose stated aim is "to stop See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Umberto Eco (born 5 January 1932 is an Italian Medievalist, semiotician, Philosopher, literary critic and Novelist, best The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance ( OCRT) is a group in Ontario, Canada, formed with the stated purpose of Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Nova is a Popular science Television series from the US produced by WGBH Boston For the radio station specifically see WGBH (FM. WGBH is a non-commercial Television and Radio broadcast service located in Boston The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Eli Eshed is an Israeli researcher of Popular culture who has spent considerable time and effort analyzing the Israeli Pulp magazines and Paperbacks A William Erwin Eisner ( March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American Comics Writer, Artist and Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington D Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Edward Rothstein is a music critic and composer who supports the idea that music may be linked in a distant way to physical and mathematical ideas such as String theory. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Robert Todd Carroll (born 1945 PhD, is an American writer and academic Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Elie Wiesel (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30 1928 in Sighetu Marmaţiei, Romania) is a Jewish writer professor political activist Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.