|The Lord of the Rings|
Cover designs for the three volumes of one edition of The Lord of the Rings
|Author||J. R. R. Tolkien|
|Genre(s)||High fantasy, Adventure novel, Heroic romance|
|Publisher||Allen & Unwin|
|Publication date||1954 and 1955|
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
|Pages||1216 pp (total pages)|
|Preceded by||The Hobbit|
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by the English academic and philologist J. R. R. Tolkien. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located High fantasy, or epic fantasy, is a subgenre of Fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. The adventure novel is a Literary genre of novels that has Adventure, an exciting undertaking involving risk and physical danger as its main theme As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house is now an independent book publisher and distributor based in Australia. A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a Book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with Cloth Paperback, softback, or softcover describe and refer to a Book by the nature of its binding. The Hobbit or There and Back Again is an award-winning fantasy An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation High fantasy, or epic fantasy, is a subgenre of Fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" The story began as merely a sequel to Tolkien's earlier work, The Hobbit, but eventually developed into a much larger story. The Hobbit or There and Back Again is an award-winning fantasy It was written in stages between 1937 and 1949, much of it during World War II.  Although intended as a single-volume work, it was originally published in three volumes in 1954 and 1955, and it is in this three-volume form that it is popularly known. It has since been reprinted numerous times and translated into many different languages, becoming one of the most popular and influential works in 20th-century literature.
The story of The Lord of the Rings takes place in an alternate pre-history, the Third Age of Middle-earth. The Third Age is a time period from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings Middle-earth refers to the fictional lands where most of the stories of author J The lands of Middle-earth are populated by Men (humans) and other humanoid races (Hobbits, Elves, Dwarves, and Orcs), as well as many other creatures, both real and fantastic (Ents, Wargs, Balrogs, Trolls, etc. The race of Men in J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth books such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to The term " humanoid " refers to any being whose body structure resembles that of a Human. In J R R Tolkien 's legendarium, Hobbits are a diminutive race that inhabit the lands of Middle-earth. In J R R Tolkien 's Legendarium, an Elf is an individual member of one of the races that inhabit the lands of Arda. In J R R Tolkien 's Fantasy writings Orcs or Orks are a race of creatures who are used as soldiers and henchmen by both the greater and lesser villains Ents are a fictional race of humanoid Trees from J R R Tolkien 's fantasy world of Middle-earth. This article deals with J R R Tolkien's Balrogs For other uses see Balrog (disambiguation. In J R R Tolkien 's world of Middle-earth, Trolls are very large (twelve feet tall or more humanoids of great strength and poor intellect ). The story centres on the Ring of Power made by the Dark Lord Sauron in an earlier age. Sauron (ˈsaʊrɒn Quenya: /sawrɔn/ literal meaning "Abhorred") is the title character and the principal Antagonist of the Fantasy From quiet beginnings in the Shire the story ranges across Middle-earth following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, most notably the hobbits, Frodo Baggins, Samwise Gamgee, Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took. The Shire is a region of J R R Tolkien 's fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works In the fictional Fantasy -world of J R R Tolkien, the War of the Ring was fought between Sauron and the free peoples of Middle-earth Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner and commonly known as Sam, is a Fictional character in J Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a Fictional character from J Biography Pippin was the only hobbit who had not yet reached his 'coming of age' when the Fellowship set out (being eight years younger than Merry while Frodo himself was 50 The main story is followed in the book by six appendices that provide a wealth of historical and linguistic background material. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields 
The Lord of the Rings has been subjected to extensive analysis of its themes and origins, as have all of Tolkien's works. Since the publication of The Lord of the Rings by J R R Tolkien, a wealth of secondary literature has been published discussing the literary themes Although a major work in itself, the story is only the last movement of a mythology that Tolkien had worked on since 1917. Mythopoeia (also mythopoesis, after Hellenistic Greek grc μυθοποιία μυθοποίησις "myth-making" is a narrative Genre in modern  Influences on this earlier work, and on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology, industrialization, and religion, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I. See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All  The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy, and the impact of Tolkien's works is such that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" has been recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary. 
The great and enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works, and the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. Tolkien fandom is an international informal community of fans of the works of J The Lord of the Rings has inspired, and continues to inspire, artwork, music, films and television, video games, and subsequent literature. The works of J R R Tolkien have served as the inspiration topainters musicians film-makers and writers to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the "father" While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio, theatre, and film. This article is about the films and other media For the article on the musical see The Lord of the Rings (musical The Lord of the The 2001–2003 release of Peter Jackson's widely acclaimed Lord of the Rings film trilogy prompted a new surge of interest in The Lord of the Rings and Tolkien's other works. Peter Robert Jackson, CNZM (born 31 October 1961 is a three-time Academy Award -winning New Zealand director producer and writer best known for directing The Lord of the Rings film trilogy consists of three Live action Fantasy Epic films The Fellowship of the Ring ( 2001 
|The History of Arda|
|Ages of the Children of Ilúvatar|
|Timeline of Arda|
The historical background of the story of The Lord of the Rings is revealed in stages through the story and the Appendices. In J R R Tolkien 's Legendarium, the history of the Fictional universe of Eä began when the Ainur entered Arda, following the In the works of J R R Tolkien, the Valian Years are used to measure the passage of time after the arrival of the Ainur in Arda. In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, the Years of the Lamps are the first of the three great time-periods of Arda. In JRR Tolkien 's Middle-earth Legendarium, the Years of the Trees are one of the three great time-periods of Arda. In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, the Years of the Sun are the last of the three great time-periods of Arda, together with the Years of the Lamps and In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, the Ages of the Children of Ilúvatar chronicle major events in the history of the Eruhíni. In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, the First Age, or First Age of the Children of Ilúvatar in full is the first documented time period and the setting The Second Age is a time period from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings The Third Age is a time period from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings The Fourth Age and the later ages that followed it are time periods from J The Dagor Dagorath, Sindarin for 'Battle of Battles' or 'Final Battle' is an event described in the works of J This article includes several chronologies relating to J R R Tolkien 's Legendarium. It is also elaborated upon in The Silmarillion, published after Tolkien's death. The Silmarillion is a collection of J R R Tolkien 's mythopoeic works edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in The beginnings of the story stretch back thousands of years before the time of the book. The eponymous Lord of the Rings, the Dark Lord Sauron, secretly forged a great Ring of Power called the One Ring, to enslave the wearers of the other Rings of Power. Sauron (ˈsaʊrɒn Quenya: /sawrɔn/ literal meaning "Abhorred") is the title character and the principal Antagonist of the Fantasy The Rings of Power are fictional artifacts of J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth Legendarium. He launched the War of the Elves and Sauron during which he captured 16 of the 19 Elven Rings and distributed them to seven Dwarf Lords and nine Kings of Men. J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings include many wars and battles set in the lands of Aman, Beleriand, Númenor, and The Men who possessed the Nine were corrupted over time and became most feared servants, the undead Nazgûl or Ringwraiths. The Dwarves were more resilient against the Rings; they did not fade, and the only effect upon them was an undying lust for Gold. Sauron failed to capture the remaining Three Rings, which remained in the possession of the Elves who had made them, unlike the other Rings, without Sauron's involvement. The Three Rings of the Elves of Eregion are fictional magical artifacts in J Sauron had made the master ring himself, making a total of 20 Rings of Power.
The Men of the great island-nation of Númenor helped the hard-pressed Elves, ending the war in a victory against Sauron. Númenor (ˈnuːmɛnɔɹ is a Fictional place in J R R Tolkien 's writings which the author intended to be an allusion to the legendary Atlantis. About 1500 years later they sent a great force to overthrow Sauron, who surrendered, and was taken to Númenor as a prisoner. Over time, the cunning Sauron poisoned the minds of the Númenóreans against the Valar (deities on Earth) and deceived them into invading the Undying Lands. The Valar (singular Vala) are characters in J R R Tolkien 's legendarium. The Valar responded by destroying Númenor by drowning it beneath the sea. Sauron's spirit escaped to Middle-earth, as did some faithful Númenóreans who had opposed the invasion, led by Elendil and his sons. Literature Elendil is first introduced in The Fellowship of the Ring.
More than 100 years later, Sauron again made war against the Númenóreans who had survived and established themselves in Middle-earth. Elendil formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men with the Elven-king Gil-galad. J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings include many wars and battles set in the lands of Aman, Beleriand, Númenor, and Character overview Gil-galad was the last High King of the Noldor in Middle-earth They marched against Mordor, defeating Sauron's armies and besieging his stronghold Barad-dûr. For the album by black metal band Summoning, see Lugburz. Barad-dûr ( Sindarin "Dark Tower" sometimes given After seven years of siege, Sauron himself came forth and engaged in single combat with the leaders of the Last Alliance.
Gil-galad and Elendil wrestled with Sauron and were both killed in the battle. Sauron fell also and was vanquished; his spirit fled as he abandoned his damaged body.  Elendil's sword Narsil broke beneath him when he fell, and using the hilt-shard his son Isildur cut the One Ring from Sauron's hand. In J R R Tolkien 's fictional prehistory of the world ( Arda) Narsil was the sword of King Elendil of the Dúnedain, although in a later age Isildur is a fictional character in J R R Tolkien 's legendarium. Isildur was advised by Elrond and Cirdan to destroy the One Ring outright by casting it into the volcanic Mount Doom where it was forged, but, attracted to its beauty, he refused and kept it as weregild (compensation) for the deaths of his father and his brother Anárion. Character overview Elrond was Lord of Rivendell, one of the mighty rulers of old that remained in Middle-earth in its Third Age. The First Age Círdan may have been among the Elves who awoke at Cuiviénen, although Tolkien never explicitly states this anywhere Weregeld (alternative spellings wergild, wergeld, weregeld, etc
So began the Third Age of Middle-earth. The Third Age is a time period from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings Two years later, Isildur and his soldiers were ambushed by a band of Orcs at the Gladden Fields. J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings include many wars and battles set in the lands of Aman, Beleriand, Númenor, and Isildur tried to escape by putting on the Ring, knowing that it made mortal wearers invisible; but the Ring betrayed him and slipped from his finger while he was swimming in the Great River Anduin. In J R R Tolkien 's fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest River He was seen and shot dead by Orcs, and the Ring was lost for two millennia on the river's bottom.
It was then found by chance by a river hobbit named Déagol. In J R R Tolkien 's legendarium, Hobbits are a diminutive race that inhabit the lands of Middle-earth. Biography Déagol was a Stoor Hobbit who lived in a small community bound by kinship ties - akin to a Clan. His relative and friend Sméagol killed him for the Ring and was eventually banished from his home. Sméagol fled into the Misty Mountains where, corrupted by the power of the Ring, he became a loathsome, slimy creature called Gollum. In J R R Tolkien 's Fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Misty Mountains (also known by its Sindarin name of Hithaeglir Character overview Originally known as Sméagol, this character was later named Gollum after his habit Much later, as told in The Hobbit, another hobbit, Bilbo Baggins, found the Ring seemingly by accident in Gollum's cave, and took it back to his home, Bag End, unaware that it was anything more than just a magic ring. The Hobbit or There and Back Again is an award-winning fantasy Bilbo Baggins is the protagonist of The Hobbit and also makes an appearance in The Lord of the Rings, two of the most well-known of The Shire is a region of J R R Tolkien 's fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works
The story of the The Lord of the Rings is divided into six "books" and has been published in both one and three volume editions. Book I in The Fellowship of the Ring begins in the Shire with Bilbo's 111th (or "Eleventy-first" in Hobbit speak) birthday party, about 60 years after the end of The Hobbit, and his subsequent disappearance using his magic ring. The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J The Shire is a region of J R R Tolkien 's fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works The Hobbit or There and Back Again is an award-winning fantasy Departing to retire in Rivendell, he left many of his belongings, including the ring, to his nephew and adoptive heir, Frodo Baggins. Rivendell ( Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a Fictional realm created by J After 17 years of investigating, their old friend Gandalf the Grey confirmed that this ring was in fact the One Ring, the instrument of Sauron's power, for which the Dark Lord had been searching for most of the Third Age, and which corrupted others with desire for it and the evil power it held. Concept and creation Humphrey Carpenter in his 1977 biography relates that Tolkien owned a Postcard entitled Der Berggeist ("the mountain Unknown to Gandalf, Gollum had made his way to Mordor, where he was captured and the little information he had about the Ring and its whereabouts extracted through torture.
Sauron sent the nine Ringwraiths, in the guise of riders in black, to the Shire in search of the Ring. Frodo escaped, with the help of his loyal gardener Samwise "Sam" Gamgee and three close friends, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck, Peregrin "Pippin" Took, and Fredegar "Fatty" Bolger. Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner and commonly known as Sam, is a Fictional character in J Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a Fictional character from J Biography Pippin was the only hobbit who had not yet reached his 'coming of age' when the Fellowship set out (being eight years younger than Merry while Frodo himself was 50 Fredegar "Fatty" Bolger is a Fictional character in J While Fatty acted as a decoy for the Ringwraiths, Frodo and the others set off to take the Ring to the Elven haven of Rivendell. Rivendell ( Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a Fictional realm created by J They were aided by the enigmatic Tom Bombadil through the Old Forest and Barrow-Downs, and by a man called "Strider", who was later revealed to be Aragorn son of Arathorn, the heir to the kingships of Gondor and Arnor, and direct male descendant of Isildur. Aragorn II is a fictional character from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth Legendarium. Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J R R Tolkien 's writings described as the greatest realm of Men in the west of Middle-earth by the end of the In the fictional Legendarium of J R R Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador Isildur is a fictional character in J R R Tolkien 's legendarium. Aragorn led the hobbits to Rivendell on Gandalf's request. During the journey, Frodo was gravely wounded by the Ringwraiths at the hill of Weathertop. In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, Weathertop ( Sindarin Amon Sûl, "Hill of Wind" is a significant Hill in the Eriador Very ill from his wound, with the help of his companions and the Elf-lord Glorfindel, Frodo entered Rivendell's borders by crossing the ford of the river Bruinen. Appearances Literature Origins Glorfindel first appears in Tolkien's fantasy in The Fall of Gondolin about the conquest of the Elven In J R R Tolkien 's Fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Bruinen or Loudwater is a river which appears in The Hobbit as The Ringwraiths, in close pursuit, were swept away by an enchantment of the river when they entered its waters. Book I ends with Frodo losing consciousness.
Book II reveals that Frodo had recovered under the care of the Half-elven lord Elrond, master of Rivendell. In J R R Tolkien 's fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Half-elven ( Sindarin singular Peredhil, plural Peredhel, Quenya Character overview Elrond was Lord of Rivendell, one of the mighty rulers of old that remained in Middle-earth in its Third Age. Frodo met Bilbo, enjoying his retirement, and saw Elrond's daughter Arwen. Literature Arwen was the youngest child of Elrond and Celebrían; her elder brothers were the twins Elladan and Elrohir. Later, much of the story's exposition is given during a high council, attended by representatives of the major races of Middle-earth (Elves, Dwarves, and Men) and presided over by Elrond. The Lord of the Rings is an epic Gandalf told them of the emerging threat of Saruman, the leader of the Order of Wizards, who wanted the Ring for himself. Concept and creation Saruman first appears in 1954's The Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of the Fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings In order to fulfil an ancient prophecy about the return of the King of Gondor and Arnor, Aragorn was going to war against Sauron armed with Narsil, the broken sword of Elendil. In J R R Tolkien 's fictional prehistory of the world ( Arda) Narsil was the sword of King Elendil of the Dúnedain, although in a later age The shards of the sword had been kept safe through the intervening years, and were now reforged in Rivendell and renamed Andúril. In J R R Tolkien 's fictional prehistory of the world ( Arda) Narsil was the sword of King Elendil of the Dúnedain, although in a later age
The Council decided that the only course of action that could save Middle-earth was to destroy the Ring. But the Ring could not be destroyed by any means other than by casting it into the fires of Mount Doom in which it was forged, in Sauron's domain and stronghold, the land of Mordor. At the council there was much debate about who would take the Ring to Mordor, with each of the representatives of the races of Middle-Earth vying for the task. Surprising all, even himself, Frodo volunteered for the task without forethought; with the support of Gandalf and Elrond, this ended the debate. The council formed the "Fellowship of the Ring" to accompany Frodo, comprised of his three Hobbit companions, Gandalf, Aragorn, Boromir of Gondor, Gimli the Dwarf, and Legolas the Elf, and with Frodo himself they were nine companions to go against the nine Ringwraiths. The Fellowship of the Ring, or Company of the Ring, as described in the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, which bears the same name is Boromir is a supporting character in J R R Tolkien 's Legendarium. Character overview Gimli was a Dwarf of Durin's Folk who volunteered to accompany Frodo Baggins as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring Appearances Literature Legolas was the son of Thranduil, King of the Woodland Realm of Northern Mirkwood, who appears as "the Elvenking"
The company journeyed along the foothills of the Misty Mountains, but after an unsuccessful mountain-pass crossing because of Saruman and a Warg attack they were forced to travel underground through the abandoned Mines of Moria, where they were tracked by Gollum, who, having been released by Sauron, desperately sought to regain the ring he called his "Precious". In the fiction of J R R Tolkien, Moria was the name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth Character overview Originally known as Sméagol, this character was later named Gollum after his habit When they were almost through the mines the party was attacked by Orcs and a cave-troll. In J R R Tolkien 's Fantasy writings Orcs or Orks are a race of creatures who are used as soldiers and henchmen by both the greater and lesser villains Gandalf battled a Balrog, an ancient demon creature, and fell into a deep chasm, apparently to his death. This article deals with J R R Tolkien's Balrogs For other uses see Balrog (disambiguation. Escaping from Moria the Fellowship, now led by Aragorn, took refuge in the Elvish wood of Lothlórien, the realm of the Lady Galadriel and the Lord Celeborn. In J R R Tolkien 's fiction Lothlórien is a Welsh -sounding name given to the fairest forest realm of the Elves remaining in Middle-earth Appearances Literature Stories of Galadriel's life prior to The Lord of the Rings are collected in the Unfinished Tales. The Fellowship then travelled down the great River Anduin by boat, and Frodo eventually decided to continue the trek to Mordor on his own, largely due to the Ring's growing influence on Boromir and the threat it posed to the others. In J R R Tolkien 's fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest River At the end of the book, Frodo attempted to continue his mission alone, but Sam was able to catch him at the last minute, and the two of them went off together towards Mordor.
The second volume, The Two Towers, deals with two parallel storylines, one in each of its books. The Two Towers is the second volume of J R R Tolkien 's High fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings. Book III details the exploits of the remaining members of the Fellowship who aid the country of Rohan in its war against Saruman. Rohan, is a fictional realm in J R R Tolkien 's Fantasy era of Middle-earth. At the beginning of the book, the remaining members of the Fellowship are attacked by Saruman's Orcs, and in the battle Boromir is killed and Merry and Pippin are kidnapped by the Orcs (Saruman, now turned traitor and seeking the One Ring himself, had sent them to intercept the Fellowship and bring any Hobbits to him alive). Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli pursued Merry and Pippin's captors, and met Gandalf, who had returned as "Gandalf the White". He had defeated the Balrog at the cost of his life, but had been sent back to Middle-earth because his work was not finished. The four helped Rohan defeat Saruman's armies at the Battle of the Hornburg. The Battle of the Hornburg is a fictional Battle in J R R Tolkien 's novel The Lord of the Rings. Meanwhile Merry and Pippin, freed from captivity, motivated the ancient, tree-like Ents to attack Saruman at his stronghold of Isengard. Ents are a fictional race of humanoid Trees from J R R Tolkien 's fantasy world of Middle-earth. The two groups were reunited in the aftermath of battle. Saruman refused to repent of his folly and Gandalf cast him from the Order of Wizards, stripping Saruman of most of his power.
Book IV tells of Frodo and Sam's exploits on the way to Mount Doom. They managed to capture Gollum and convinced him to guide them to the Black Gate, which they found to be impenetrable. Gollum then suggested a secret path into Mordor, through the dreaded valley of Minas Morgul. Minas Morgul (ˈminas ˈmɔrɡuɫ ( Sindarin: Tower of Black Magic) also known by its earlier name of Minas Ithil ( Sindarin: Tower of the While travelling there, the three were captured by Rangers of Gondor led by Boromir's brother Faramir. In J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth legendarium, Faramir is a Fictional character appearing in The Lord of the Rings. After hearing the story of his Brother's death, Faramir became convinced that the Ring was better off destroyed than used as a weapon. He spared Gollum's life, resupplied the hobbits, and warned them about the path they were to take. At the end of the volume, Gollum betrayed Frodo to the great spider Shelob, hoping to scavenge the Ring from Frodo's remains after she had consumed the hobbit. Literature Shelob was an "evil thing in Spider form" living high in the Ephel Dúath mountains that border Mordor; the “last child of Shelob's bite paralysed Frodo, but Sam fought her off using Sting. The following list of weapons and armour of Middle-earth includes all weaponry and Armour directly taken from J Frodo was soon taken by orcs to the nearby fortress of Cirith Ungol. Cirith Ungol (ˈkiriθ ˈuŋgɔl is a location in J R R Tolkien 's fictional universe of Middle-earth in his fantasy work The Lord of the Rings. Sam had thought his master dead, and saved the Ring, but was now left to find Frodo's whereabouts. Meanwhile, Sauron launched an all-out military assault upon Middle-earth, precipitating the War of the Ring, with the Witch-king (leader of the Ringwraiths) leading a large army into battle against Gondor. In the fictional Fantasy -world of J R R Tolkien, the War of the Ring was fought between Sauron and the free peoples of Middle-earth Literature Within the context of Tolkien's Legendarium, the Witch-king was originally a great king of Men. Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J R R Tolkien 's writings described as the greatest realm of Men in the west of Middle-earth by the end of the
The third volume, The Return of the King, begins with Gandalf arriving at Minas Tirith in Gondor with Pippin to alert the city of the impending attack. The Return of the King is the third and final volume of J R R This article is about the city in the Third Age. For the First Age tower of the same name see Minas Tirith (First Age. Merry joined the army of Rohan, while the others led by Aragorn elected to journey through the 'Paths of the Dead' in the hope of enlisting the help of an undead army against the Corsairs of Umbar. The Corsairs of Umbar were a fleet of Men of Umbar in J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth legendarium, allied to Sauron in Gandalf, Aragorn and the others of the Fellowship then assisted in the final battles against the armies of Sauron, including the siege of Minas Tirith. In J R R Tolkien 's fantasy fiction, the Battle of the Pelennor Fields is the battle for the city of Minas Tirith between the forces of Gondor With the timely aid of Rohan's cavalry and Aragorn's assault up the river, a significant portion of Sauron's army was defeated and Minas Tirith saved. However, Sauron still had thousands of troops available, and the main characters were forced into a climactic all-or-nothing battle before the Black Gate of Mordor, where the alliance of Gondor and Rohan fought desperately against Sauron's armies in order to distract him from the Ringbearer, and hoped to gain time for Frodo to destroy it.
In Book VI, Sam rescued Frodo from captivity. The pair then made their way through the rugged lands of Mordor and, after much struggle, finally reached Mount Doom itself (tailed closely by Gollum). However, at the edge of the Cracks of Doom, the temptation of the Ring proved too great for Frodo; he placed the Ring on his finger and claimed it for himself. While the Ringwraiths flew at top speed toward Mount Doom, Gollum struggled with Frodo for the "Precious" and succeeded in taking the Ring by biting off Frodo's finger. Crazed with triumph, Gollum lost his footing and fell into the fire, destroying the Ring. With the end of the Ring, Sauron's armies lost heart, the Ringwraiths disintegrated, and Aragorn's army was victorious.
Thus, Sauron was banished from the world and his realm ended. Aragorn was crowned king of Gondor and married Arwen, the daughter of Elrond. All conflict was not over, however, for Saruman had managed to escape his captivity in Orthanc and enslave the Shire. Although he was soon overthrown by the Hobbits, and the four heroes helped to restore order and beautify the land again, it was not the same Shire that they had left. At the end, Frodo remained wounded in body and spirit and, accompanied by Bilbo, sailed west over the Sea to the Undying Lands, where he could find peace.
The Appendices contain much material concerning the timeline of the story, and information on the peoples and the languages of Middle-earth. This article includes several chronologies relating to J R R Tolkien 's Legendarium. Notably, Arwen, physically absent for much of the book, is dealt with in full here; her backstory and future with Aragorn are related.
According to Tolkien's timeline, the events depicted in the story occurred between Bilbo's announcement of his T.A. September 22, 3001 birthday party, and Sam's re-arrival to Bag End on T.A. October 6, 3021. The Third Age is a time period from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians The Third Age is a time period from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Most of the events portrayed in the story occur in 3018 and 3019, with Frodo heading out from Bag End on T.A. September 23, 3018, and the destruction of the Ring six months later on T.A. March 25, 3019. The Third Age is a time period from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English The Third Age is a time period from J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth fantasy writings Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6.
|The Lord of the Rings|
|Volume I - Volume II - Volume III|
The Lord of the Rings was started as a sequel to The Hobbit, a fantasy story published in 1937 that Tolkien had originally written for and read to his children. The Hobbit or There and Back Again is an award-winning fantasy  The popularity of The Hobbit led to demands from his publishers for more stories about hobbits and goblins, and so that same year, at the age of 45, Tolkien began writing the story that would become The Lord of the Rings. A goblin is an evil crabby or Mischievous Creature of Folklore, often described as a grotesquely disfigured or Gnome -like phantom The story would not be finished until 12 years later, in 1949, and it would not be fully published until 1955, by which time Tolkien was 63 years old.
Tolkien did not originally intend to write a sequel to The Hobbit, and instead wrote several other children's tales, such as Roverandom. "Roverandom" is a story written by JRR Tolkien, originally told in 1925 As his main work, Tolkien began to outline the history of Arda, telling tales of the Silmarils, and many other stories of how the races and situations that we read about in the Lord of the Rings came to be. In J R R Tolkien 's Legendarium, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of prehistory wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings The Silmarils ( Quenya pl Silmarilli, radiance of pure light) are three brilliant jewels which contained the unmarred light of the Two Trees Tolkien died before he could complete and put together this work, today known as The Silmarillion, but his son Christopher Tolkien edited his father's work, filled in gaps, and published it in 1977. The Silmarillion is a collection of J R R Tolkien 's mythopoeic works edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November 1924 is the youngest son of the Author J  Some Tolkien biographers regard The Silmarillion as the true "work of his heart", as it provides the historical and linguistic context for the more popular work and for his constructed languages, and occupied the greater part of Tolkien's time. The Languages of Arda are artificial languages invented by J R As a result The Lord of the Rings ended up as the last movement of Tolkien's legendarium and in his own opinion "much larger, and I hope also in proportion the best, of the entire cycle. "
Persuaded by his publishers, he started 'a new Hobbit' in December 1937.  After several false starts, the story of the One Ring soon emerged, and the book mutated from being a sequel to The Hobbit to being, in theme, more a sequel to the unpublished Silmarillion. A sequel is a work in Literature, Film, or other media that portrays events following those of a previous work The Silmarillion is a collection of J R R Tolkien 's mythopoeic works edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in The idea of the first chapter ("A Long-Expected Party") arrived fully-formed, although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance, the significance of the Ring, and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of 1938.  Originally, he planned to write a story in which Bilbo had used up all his treasure and was looking for another adventure to gain more; however, he remembered the Ring and its powers and decided to write about it instead.  Once Tolkien considered the Ring, the books really became centred around it and its influence of the inhabitants of Middle-earth. In fact, each book is preceded by the verse:
He began with Bilbo as the main character, but decided that the story was too serious to use the fun-loving hobbit. Thus Tolkien looked for an alternate character to carry the ring, and he turned to members of Bilbo's family.  He thought about using a son, but this generated some difficult questions, such as the whereabouts of Bilbo's wife and whether he would let his son go into danger. In Greek legend, it was a hero's nephew that gained the item of power, and so the hobbit Frodo came into existence.  (Technically Tolkien made Frodo Bilbo's second cousin once removed, but because of age differences the two were to consider each other nephew and uncle. )
Writing was slow due to Tolkien's perfectionism, and was frequently interrupted by his obligations as an examiner, and by other academic duties. To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person  According to sources, he seems to have abandoned The Lord of the Rings during most of 1943 and only re-started it in April 1944.  This effort was written as a serial for Christopher Tolkien and C. S. Lewis — the former would be sent copies of chapters as they were written while he was serving in South Africa with the Royal Air Force. Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November 1924 is the youngest son of the Author J Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963 The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa He made another push in 1946, and showed a copy of the manuscript to his publishers in 1947.  The story was effectively finished the next year, but Tolkien did not finish revising earlier parts of the work until 1949. 
A dispute with his publishers, Allen & Unwin, led to the book being offered to Collins in 1950. Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house is now an independent book publisher and distributor based in Australia. He intended The Silmarillion (itself largely unrevised at this point) to be published along with The Lord of the Rings, but A&U were unwilling to do this. The Silmarillion is a collection of J R R Tolkien 's mythopoeic works edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in After his contact at Collins, Milton Waldman, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently needed cutting", he eventually demanded that they publish the book in 1952. They did not do so, and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin, saying, "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff. "
Following the massive success of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien considered a sequel entitled The New Shadow, in which the Gondorians turn to dark cults and consider an uprising against Aragorn's son, Eldarion. See also House of Telcontar Sources Tuckboroughnet mentions the following parts of Tolkien's work as source for Eldarion Tolkien never went very far with this sequel, as it had more to do with human nature than with epic struggles, and the few pages which were written can be found in The Peoples of Middle-earth. The Peoples of Middle-earth (1996 is the 12th and final volume of The History of Middle-earth, edited by Christopher Tolkien from the unpublished Instead, Tolkien returned to writing and revising his Silmarillion story, though he died before he could finish this, and The Silmarillion was published posthumously by Tolkien's son and literary executor, Christopher Tolkien, in 1977. The Silmarillion is a collection of J R R Tolkien 's mythopoeic works edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November 1924 is the youngest son of the Author J
For publication, due largely to post-war paper shortages, but also to keep the price down, the book was divided into three volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring (Books I and II), The Two Towers (Books III and IV), and The Return of the King (Books V and VI plus six appendices). The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J The Two Towers is the second volume of J R R Tolkien 's High fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings. The Return of the King is the third and final volume of J R R Delays in producing appendices, maps and especially indices led to the volumes being published later than originally hoped — on 21 July 1954, on 11 November 1954 and on 20 October 1955 respectively in the United Kingdom, and slightly later in the United States. Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Events 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) The Return of the King was especially delayed. Tolkien, moreover, did not especially like the title The Return of the King, believing it gave away too much of the storyline. He had originally suggested The War of the Ring, which was dismissed by his publishers. Contents The volumes include (HoME 6 The Return of the Shadow ( 1988) (HoME 7 The Treason of Isengard ( 
The books were published under a 'profit-sharing' arrangement, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits. An index to the entire three-volume set at the end of third volume was promised in the first volume. However, this proved impractical to compile in a reasonable timescale. Later, in 1966, four indices, not compiled by Tolkien, were added to The Return of the King. Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings "trilogy". A trilogy is a set of three works of art usually Literature, Film, or Video games, that are connected and can be seen either as a single work or three In a letter to the poet W. H. Auden (who famously reviewed the final volume in 1956), Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work though he did at other times consider this incorrect, as it was written and conceived as a single book. Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973 ˈwɪstən ˈhjuː ˈɔːdən who signed his works W  It is also often called a novel; however, Tolkien also objected to this term as he viewed it as a romance. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative 
A 1999 British (ISBN 0-261-10387-3) seven-volume box set followed Tolkien's original six-book division, with the Appendices from the end of The Return of the King bound as a separate volume. The individual names for the books were decided based on a combination of suggestions Tolkien had made during his lifetime and the titles of the existing volumes. From Book I to Book VI, these titles were The Ring Sets Out, The Ring Goes South, The Treason of Isengard, The Ring Goes East, The War of the Ring, and The End of the Third Age . The titles The Treason of Isengard, The War of the Ring, and The End of the Third Age were also used as volume titles by Christopher Tolkien in The History of The Lord of the Rings. Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November 1924 is the youngest son of the Author J Contents The volumes include (HoME 6 The Return of the Shadow ( 1988) (HoME 7 The Treason of Isengard (
The name of the complete work is often abbreviated to LotR, or simply 'LR' (Tolkien himself used 'L. R. '), and the three volumes as FR or FotR (The Fellowship of the Ring), TT or TTT (The Two Towers), and RK or RotK (The Return of the King).
The Lord of the Rings developed as a personal exploration by Tolkien of his interests in philology, religion (particularly Roman Catholicism), fairy tales, as well as Norse mythology, but it was also crucially influenced by the effects of his military service during World War I. See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos A fairy tale or fairy story is a fictional Story that may feature folkloric characters (such as fairies, enchantments]] often involving Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All  Tolkien created a complete and highly detailed fictional universe (Eä), in which The Lord of the Rings was set, and many parts of this world were, as he freely admitted, influenced by other sources. This is an overview of the Cosmology of J R R Tolkien 's Middle-earth legendarium. 
Tolkien once described The Lord of the Rings to his friend, the English Jesuit Father Robert Murray, as "a fundamentally religious and Catholic work, unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". " There are many theological themes underlying the narrative including the battle of good versus evil, the triumph of humility over pride, and the activity of grace. In Christianity, divine Grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to Salvation — irrespective of actions In addition the saga includes themes which incorporate death and immortality, mercy and pity, resurrection, salvation, repentance, self-sacrifice, free will, justice, fellowship, authority and healing. In addition the Lord's Prayer "And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil" was reportedly present in Tolkien's mind as he described Frodo's struggles against the power of the One Ring. 
Tolkien's Elves and Dwarves are by and large based on Norse and related Germanic mythologies as well as the Celtic. Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland Celtic mythology is the Mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the Religion of the Iron Age Celts Like other Iron Age Names such as "Gandalf", "Gimli" and "Middle-earth" are directly derived from Norse mythology. Gandalf, which means "wand elf" or "magic elf" in Old Norse, appears in the "Catalogue of Dwarves" in the Voluspa, a poem in the Norse epic the Poetic Edda. Concept and creation Humphrey Carpenter in his 1977 biography relates that Tolkien owned a Postcard entitled Der Berggeist ("the mountain Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age Völuspá ( Prophecy of the Völva) is the first and best known poem of the Poetic Edda. The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval Manuscript Codex Regius.  The figure of Gandalf is particularly influenced by the Germanic deity Odin in his incarnation as "The Wanderer", an old man with one eye, a long white beard, a wide brimmed hat, and a staff; Tolkien stated that he thought of Gandalf as an "Odinic wanderer" in a letter of 1946, nearly a decade after the character was invented. Odin (ˈoʊdɪn from Old Norse Óðinn) is considered the chief god in Norse paganism. 
Specific literature influences on The Lord of the Rings from European mythologies include the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, which influenced the figures of the Rohirrim. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between  Tolkien may have also borrowed elements from the Völsunga saga (the Old Norse basis of the later German Nibelungenlied and Richard Wagner's opera series, Der Ring des Nibelungen, also called the Ring Cycle), specifically a magical golden ring and a broken sword which is reforged. The Völsunga saga is a Legendary saga, a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the origin and decline of the Volsung clan The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung) is a cycle of four epic Music dramas by the German composer In the Völsungasaga, these items are respectively Andvarinaut and Gram, and very broadly correspond to the One Ring and Narsil/Andúril. In Norse mythology, Andvarinaut ("Andvari's Gift" is a magical ring capable of producing gold first owned by Andvari. In Norse mythology, Gram ( Old Norse "wrath" is the name of the Sword that Sigurd (Siegfried used to kill the dragon In J R R Tolkien 's fictional prehistory of the world ( Arda) Narsil was the sword of King Elendil of the Dúnedain, although in a later age
Finnish mythology and more specifically the Finnish national epic Kalevala were also acknowledged by Tolkien as an influence on Middle-earth. Finnish mythology, that of the Finnish people, has many features shared with fellow Finnic Estonian mythology and its non-Finnic neighbours the Balts and The Kalevala is a book and epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian Folklore in the nineteenth  In a similar manner to The Lord of the Rings, the Kalevala centres around a magical item of great power, the Sampo, which bestows great fortune on its owner, but never makes its exact nature clear. In Finnish mythology, the Sampo was a magical artifact constructed by Ilmarinen that brought good fortune to its holder nobody knows exactly what Like the One Ring, the Sampo is fought over by forces of good and evil, and is ultimately lost to the world as it is destroyed towards the end of the story. In another parallel, the Kalevala's wizard character Väinämöinen also has many similarities to Gandalf in his immortal origins and wise nature, and both works end with their respective wizard departing on a ship to lands beyond the mortal world. Väinämöinen is the central character in the Finnish Folklore and the main character in the National epic Kalevala. Tolkien also based his Elvish language Quenya on Finnish. Elvish languages are Constructed languages used typically by elves in a Fantasy setting Quenya 'kwɛɲa is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi, "those who speak with voices" because when Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside 
Shakespeare's Macbeth influenced Tolkien in a number of ways. William Shakespeare ( baptised Macbeth is among the best-known of William Shakespeare 's plays, and is his shortest tragedy, believed to have been written some time between The Ent attack on Isengard was inspired by "Birnam Wood coming to Dunsinane" in the play; Tolkien felt men carrying boughs were not impressive enough, and thus he used actual tree-like creatures. Ents are a fictional race of humanoid Trees from J R R Tolkien 's fantasy world of Middle-earth. The Destruction of Isengard is a Fictional Battle from JRR Tolkien ’s Middle-earth legendarium. For the assault on Isengard by the Ents see Destruction of Isengard. Dunsinane Hill is near the village of Collace in Perthshire, Scotland.  The phrase "crack of doom" was actually coined by Shakespeare for Macbeth, with an entirely different meaning. The "Crack of Doom" is the modern English for the Old English term for Ragnarök, the great catastrophe of Norse mythology.
On a more personal level, some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in Sarehole and Birmingham. Sarehole ( is an area in Hall Green, Birmingham, England (formerly in Worcestershire, but transferred to the city in 1911 Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um  It has also been suggested that The Shire and its surroundings were based on the countryside around Stonyhurst College in Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the 1940s. The Shire is a region of J R R Tolkien 's fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works Stonyhurst College is an independent, Roman Catholic school in the Jesuit tradition Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea  The Lord of the Rings was crucially influenced by Tolkien's experiences during World War I and his son's during World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The central action of the books — a climactic, age-ending war between good and evil — is the central event of many mythologies, notably the Norse, but it is also a clear reference to the well-known description of World War I, which was commonly referred to as "the war to end all wars".
After the publication of The Lord of the Rings these influences led to speculation that the One Ring was an allegory for the nuclear bomb. An allegory (from αλλος allos "other" and el αγορευειν agoreuein "to speak in public" is a figurative mode of representation A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.  Tolkien, however, repeatedly insisted that his works were not an allegory of any kind.  He stated in the foreword to The Lord of the Rings that he disliked allegories, which he felt imposed the "domination of the author" on the reader. Instead he preferred what he termed "applicability", the freedom of the reader to interpret the work in the light of his or her own life and times. 
Nevertheless, a number of the work's themes have modern resonances. There is a strong theme of despair in the face of new mechanized warfare that Tolkien himself had experienced in the trenches of World War I. Some describe the element of the passing of a mythical "Golden Age" as influenced by Tolkien's concerns about the growing encroachment of urbanisation and industrialisation into the "traditional" English lifestyle and countryside. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one  The development of a specially bred Orc army, and the destruction of the environment to aid this, also have modern resonances; and the effects of the Ring on its users evoke the modern literature of drug addiction as much as any historic quest literature.
The three parts were first published several months apart, in 1954 and 1955 by Allen & Unwin. Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house is now an independent book publisher and distributor based in Australia. The novel has since been reissued many times by multiple publishers, as one-, three-, six- or seven-volume sets. There were significant changes in the text from the first editions of the three separate parts to the next three-volume print.
In the early 1960s Donald A. Wollheim, science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books, theorized that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because the U. Donald Allen Wollheim (October 1 1914 &ndash November 2, 1990) was a Science fiction writer, editor, publisher and Ace Books is the oldest active specialty Publisher of Science fiction and Fantasy books United States copyright law governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works in the United States. S. hardcover edition had been bound from pages printed in the United Kingdom, with the original intention being for them to be printed in the British edition. Ace Books proceeded to publish an edition, unauthorized by Tolkien and without royalties to him. Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Grass-roots pressure from these fans became so great that Ace Books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien, well below what he might have been due in an appropriate publication. For other meanings see Grass roots (disambiguation. A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a Political movement However, this poor beginning was overshadowed when an authorized edition followed from Ballantine Books to tremendous commercial success. The Ballantine Publishing Group, better known as Ballantine Books, is a major American book Publisher founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine. By the mid-1960s the novel, due to its wide exposure on the American public stage, had become a true cultural phenomenon. Also at this time Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would have an unquestioned US copyright. This would later become the Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings. Years later the copyright theory advanced by Ace Books was repudiated and their paperback edition found to have been a violation of Tolkien's copyright under US law. 
Since the original printings of the 1950s and 1960s, many different editions of The Lord of the Rings have appeared. In the 1990s (partly in anticipation of the forthcoming The Lord of the Rings film trilogy) several new editions were released, including a three-volume hardback edition from Houghton-Mifflin, featuring colour illustrations by Alan Lee. The Lord of the Rings film trilogy consists of three Live action Fantasy Epic films The Fellowship of the Ring ( 2001 Alan Lee (born August 20, 1947) is an English book Illustrator and movie conceptual designer In 2004 a new edition was published for the fiftieth anniversary of the book's original publication.
The novel has been translated, with various degrees of success, into dozens of other languages. The Lord of the Rings by J R R Tolkien appeared 1954&ndash55 in the original English.  Tolkien, an expert in philology, examined many of these translations, and had comments on each that reflect both the translation process and his work. See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" To aid translators, and because he was unhappy with some choices made by early translators such as Åke Ohlmarks, Tolkien wrote his "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings" (1967). The Lord of the Rings by J R R Tolkien appeared 1954&ndash55 in the original English. Because it purports to be a translation of the Red Book of Westmarch, with the English language in the original purporting to represent the Westron of the original, translators need to imitate the complex interplay between English and non-English (Elvish) nomenclature in the book. The Red Book of Westmarch (sometimes Red Book of the Periannath, and The Downfall of the Lord of the Rings, also known as the Thain's Book after its principal Westron, or the Common Speech, is an Artificial language developed by J
The Lord of the Rings has received mixed reviews since its inception, ranging from terrible to excellent. Recent reviews in various media have been, in a majority, highly positive and Tolkien's literary achievement is slowly being acknowledged as a significant one. On its initial review the Sunday Telegraph felt it was "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century. The Sunday Telegraph is a British Broadsheet newspaper, founded in 1961 " The Sunday Times seemed to echo these sentiments when in its review it was stated that "the English-speaking world is divided into those who have read The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit and those who are going to read them. The Sunday Times is a Sunday Broadsheet Newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. " The New York Herald Tribune also seemed to have an idea of how popular the books would become, writing in its review that they were "destined to outlast our time. The New York Herald Tribune was a daily newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. " W. H. Auden, a huge admirer of Tolkien's writings, regarded 'The Lord of the Rings' as a 'masterpiece,' furthermore stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of Milton's Paradise Lost. Paradise Lost is an Epic poem in Blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. Other supporters of the book from the literary world included Iris Murdoch, Naomi Mitchison, Richard Hughes and C.S. Lewis. Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE ( 15 July 1919 &ndash 8 February 1999) was a Dublin -born writer and philosopher Naomi May Margaret Mitchison CBE (née Haldane 1 November 1897 Edinburgh – 11 January 1999 at Carradale) was a Scottish Novelist The name Richard Hughes can mean the following people Richard Hughes (jockey, Irish jockey Richard Hughes (writer, British writer Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963
Not all original reviews, however, were so kind. New York Times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself. " Critic Richard Jenkyns, writing in The New Republic, criticized a perceived lack of psychological depth. The New Republic ( TNR) is an American Magazine of politics and the arts Both the characters and the work itself are, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fiber. " Even within Tolkien's literary group, The Inklings, reviews were mixed. The Inklings was an informal literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford, England, for nearly two decades between the early Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings, and Christopher Tolkien records Dyson as "lying on the couch, and lolling and shouting and saying, 'Oh God, no more Elves. Henry Victor Dyson Dyson (1896–1975 generally known as Hugo Dyson and who signed his writings H Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November 1924 is the youngest son of the Author J '" However, another Inkling, C. S. Lewis, had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963 Here is a book which will break your heart. " Despite these reviews and its lack of paperback printing until the 1960s, The Lord of the Rings initially sold well in hardback. 
Several other authors in the genre, however, seemed to agree more with Dyson than Lewis. Science-fiction author David Brin criticized the book for what he perceived to be its unquestioning devotion to a traditional elitist social structure, its positive depiction of the slaughter of the opposing forces, and its romantic backward-looking worldview. Glen David Brin, PhD (born October 6, 1950) is an American scientist and award-winning author of Science fiction. Elitism is the belief or attitude that those individuals who are considered members of the Elite &mdash a select group of people with outstanding personal abilities intellect Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the  Michael Moorcock, another famous science fiction and fantasy author, is also critical of The Lord of the Rings. Michael John Moorcock (born 18 December 1939, in London) is an English writer primarily of Science fiction and fantasy who has also In his essay, "Epic Pooh", he equates Tolkien's work to Winnie-the-Pooh and criticizes it and similar works for their perceived Merry England point of view. Epic Pooh is a 1978 article by the British Science fiction writer Michael Moorcock, originally written for the British Science Fiction Association Winnie-the-Pooh, commonly shortened to Pooh Bear and once referred to as Edward Bear, is a fictional Bear created by A " Merry England " sometimes archaised as " Merrie England " refers to a Utopian conception of English society and culture based on an Idyllic  Incidentally, Moorcock met both Tolkien and Lewis in his teens and claims to have liked them personally, even though he does not admire them on artistic grounds.
In 1957, it was awarded the International Fantasy Award. The International Fantasy Award was an annual Literary award for the best Science fiction or Fantasy book and in 1951-1953 the best non-fiction book of Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the 1960s. Ace Books is the oldest active specialty Publisher of Science fiction and Fantasy books The Ballantine Publishing Group, better known as Ballantine Books, is a major American book Publisher founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine. The book has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.  In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted by the BBC, The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's best-loved book. The Big Read was a 2003 survey carried out by the BBC, with the goal of finding the "Nation's Best-loved Book" by way of a viewer vote via the Web SMS and telephone " In similar 2004 polls both Germany and Australia also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book. In a 1999 poll of Amazon.com customers, The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the millennium. Amazoncom Inc ( is an American electronic commerce ( E-commerce) company in Seattle Washington. "
The Lord of the Rings has been adapted for film, radio and stage multiple times. This article is about the films and other media For the article on the musical see The Lord of the Rings (musical The Lord of the Peter Robert Jackson, CNZM (born 31 October 1961 is a three-time Academy Award -winning New Zealand director producer and writer best known for directing
The book has been adapted for radio four times. In 1955 and 1956, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) broadcast The Lord of the Rings, a 12-part radio adaptation of the story. During 1955 and 1956 a condensed radio dramatisation of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in twelve episodes on BBC Radio 's the Third Programme. In the 1960s radio station WBAI in New York produced a short radio adaptation. WBAI, a part of the Pacifica Radio Network, is a Non-commercial, listener-supported Radio station, broadcasting at 99 This article is about the films and other media For the article on the musical see The Lord of the Rings (musical The Lord of the A 1979 dramatization of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in the United States and subsequently issued on tape and CD. In 1979 the US National Public Radio broadcast a radio dramatisation of J In 1981, the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings, a new dramatization in 26 half-hour instalments. In 1981 the UK radio station BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation of J
Three film adaptations have been made. The first was J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1978), by animator Ralph Bakshi, the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story (hence its original title, The Lord of the Rings Part 1). JRR Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated Fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. Ralph Bakshi (born October 29 1938 is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films It covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers. The second, The Return of the King (1980), was an animated television special by Rankin-Bass, who had produced a similar version of The Hobbit (1977). The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J Rankin/Bass Productions Inc (formerly Videocraft International Ltd The third was director Peter Jackson's live action The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, produced by New Line Cinema and released in three instalments as The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002), and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). Peter Robert Jackson, CNZM (born 31 October 1961 is a three-time Academy Award -winning New Zealand director producer and writer best known for directing The Lord of the Rings film trilogy consists of three Live action Fantasy Epic films The Fellowship of the Ring ( 2001 New Line Cinema, founded in 1967 is one of the major American Film studios Though it initially began as an independent film studio it became a The Lord of the Rings The Fellowship of the Ring is a 2001 Fantasy film directed by Peter Jackson based on the similarly titled first The Lord of the Rings The Two Towers is a 2002 Fantasy film directed by Peter Jackson based on the second volume of J This article is about the live-action movie which shares a title with a book, video game, and animated film. The final installment of this trilogy was only the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier, after 1997's Titanic, and, like Titanic, won a total of 11 Oscars, including 'best motion picture' and 'best director'. Titanic is a 1997 Disaster film directed written co-produced and co-edited by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS ''Titanic'' The live-action film trilogy has done much in recent years to bring the novel back into the public consciousness. 
In 1990, Recorded Books published an unabridged audio version of the books (ISBN 1402516274). Abridgement or abridgment is a term defined as "shortening" or "condensing" and is most commonly used in reference to the act of reducing a written work They hired British actor Rob Inglis — who had previously starred in one-man stage productions of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings — to read. Inglis performs the books verbatim, using distinct voices for each character, and sings all of the songs. Tolkien had written music for some of the songs in the book; for the rest, Inglis, along with director Claudia Howard, wrote additional music.
There have been several stage productions based on the book. Full-length stage adaptations of each of The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Two Towers (2002), and The Return of the King (2003) were staged in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States . A large-scale musical theatre adaptation, The Lord of the Rings was first staged in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in 2006 and opened in London in May 2007. Musical theatre is a form of Theatre combining Music, Songs spoken Dialogue and Dance. This article is about the theatrical productions For other uses see The Lord of the Rings (disambiguation. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
The most recent production is 'Lord Of The Rings' within the Drury Theatre, in London. This is so successful due to its million pound set and unique intervals. The current Frodo is 'James Byng'
The enormous popularity of Tolkien's epic saga greatly expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. The works of J R R Tolkien have served as the inspiration topainters musicians film-makers and writers to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the "father" Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings, the genre flowered throughout the 1960s. Many other books in a broadly similar vein were published, including the Earthsea books of Ursula K. Le Guin, The Riftwar Saga by Raymond Feist, The Belgariad by David Eddings, The Sword of Shannara by Terry Brooks, the Thomas Covenant novels of Stephen R. Donaldson; the "Wheel of Time" books of Robert Jordan, and, in the case of the Gormenghast books by Mervyn Peake and The Worm Ouroboros by E. R. Eddison, rediscovered. Earthsea is a Fictional realm created by Ursula K Le Guin for her short story " The Word of Unbinding " published in 1964 but that became more Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (ˈɝsələ ˈkroʊbɚ ləˈgwɪn (born October 21, 1929) is an American author Raymond Elias Feist (born 1945 Los Angeles California) is an American Author who primarily writes fantasy fiction The Belgariad is a five- Book Fantasy epic written by David Eddings. David Eddings (born July 7, 1931) is an American author who has written several best-selling series of epic fantasy novels The Sword of Shannara is a 1977 epic fantasy novel by Terry Brooks. Terence Dean "Terry" Brooks (born January 8, 1944) is a writer of Fantasy fiction. The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant the Unbeliever is a trilogy of Fantasy novels by Stephen R A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Stephen Reeder Donaldson (born May 13, 1947 in Cleveland Ohio) is an American fantasy, Science fiction and mystery The Wheel of Time (abbreviated by fans to WoT) is a series of epic fantasy novels written by the late American author James Oliver Robert Jordan was the Pen name of James Oliver Rigney Jr ( October 17, 1948 &ndash September 16, 2007) under which he The Gormenghast series is a series of books written by Mervyn Peake centered around Castle Gormenghast and the character Titus Groan. Biography Mervyn Peake was born of British parents in Kuling ( Lushan) in Jiangxi Province of central China in 1911 only three months before the revolution The Worm Ouroboros (1922 is a Heroic High fantasy Novel by Eric Rücker Eddison. Eric Rücker Eddison ( November 24, 1882 – August 18, 1945) was an English civil servant and author writing under the name "E
With a significant overlapping of their respective followings, there has been and still is extensive cross-pollination of influence between the fantasy and science fiction genres. In this way, the work also had an influence upon such science fiction authors as Frank Herbert and Arthur C. Clarke and filmmakers such as George Lucas. Franklin Patrick Herbert Jr ( October 8 1920 &ndash February 11 1986) was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful American Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008 was a British Science fiction Author, Inventor, and George Walton Lucas Jr (born May 14, 1944) is an Academy Award -winning American Film director, producer, Screenwriter 
It strongly influenced the role playing game industry which achieved popularity in the 1970s with Dungeons & Dragons, a game which features many races found in The Lord of the Rings, most notably halflings (another term for hobbits), elves, dwarves, half-elves, orcs, and dragons. A role-playing game ( RPG; often roleplaying game) is a Game in which the participants assume the roles of Fictional characters. Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a Fantasy Role-playing game (RPG originally designed by Halfling is another name for J R R Tolkien 's Hobbit and is a fictional race sometimes found in Fantasy Novels and Games In J R R Tolkien 's fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Half-elven ( Sindarin singular Peredhil, plural Peredhel, Quenya In the Dungeons & Dragons roleplaying game orcs are a primitive race of barbaric humanoid. However, Gary Gygax, lead designer of the game, maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings, stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game. Ernest Gary Gygax ( July 27, 1938 &ndash March 4, 2008) ( IPA:) was an American Writer and Game designer  The video game industry has also been influenced by the legacy of The Lord of the Rings, with titles such as Ultima, EverQuest, and the Warcraft series, as well as, quite naturally, video games set in Middle-earth itself. EverQuest, often called EQ, is a 3D fantasy -themed Massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) that was released The Warcraft universe is a Fictional universe in which a series of games and books published by Blizzard Entertainment are set While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J
As in all artistic fields, a great many lesser derivatives of the more prominent works appeared. The term "Tolkienesque" is used in the genre to refer to the oft-used and abused storyline of The Lord of the Rings: a group of adventurers embarking on a quest to save a magical fantasy world from the armies of an evil dark lord, and is a testament to how much the popularity of these books has increased, since many critics initially decried it as being "Wagner for children" (a reference to Der Ring des Nibelungen) — an especially interesting commentary in light of a possible interpretation of the books as a Christian response to Wagner. There are many elements that show up throughout the fantasy genre in different guises Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung) is a cycle of four epic Music dramas by the German composer  The book also helped popularize alternative spellings for the plurals of elf and dwarf (using -ves instead of -fs).
The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, from its publication in the 1950s, but especially throughout the 1960s and 1970s, where young people embraced it as a countercultural saga - "Frodo Lives!" and "Gandalf for President" were two phrases popular among American Tolkien fans during this time. Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance — Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or " Frodo Lives! " was a popular Counterculture slogan in the 1960s and 1970s referring to the character Frodo Baggins from J Tolkien fandom is an international informal community of fans of the works of J  More recent examples include The Lord of the Rings-themed editions of popular board games (e. g. , Risk: Lord of the Rings Trilogy Edition, chess and Monopoly); and parodies such as Bored of the Rings, Lord of the Beans, the South Park episode The Return of the Fellowship of the Ring to the Two Towers, the Mad Magazine musical send-up titled "The Ring And I," and The Very Secret Diaries. Risk Lord of the Rings Trilogy Edition is a Board game based upon the game Risk, but set in J Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. Monopoly is a Board game published by Parker Brothers, a subsidiary of Hasbro. Bored of the Rings is the title of a paperback parody of J R R Lord of the Beans is the 27th episode in the VeggieTales animated series South Park is an animated American television comedy series created and written by Trey Parker and Matt Stone for Comedy Central "The Return of the Fellowship of the Ring to the Two Towers" is episode 92 (or 6 Mad is a monthly American Humor Magazine founded by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines in 1952 The Very Secret Diaries are a series of satirical Slash fiction stories written by Cassandra Clare in the form of diary entries by various characters in The relatively new HBO series The Flight of the Conchords also has band members singing a spoof song entitled "Frodo. " Its influence has been vastly extended in the present day, largely due to the Peter Jackson-directed live-action films. Peter Robert Jackson, CNZM (born 31 October 1961 is a three-time Academy Award -winning New Zealand director producer and writer best known for directing
The book, along with Tolkien's other writings, has influenced many musicians. Rock bands of the 1970s were musically and lyrically inspired by the major fantasy counter-culture of the time; British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin is arguably the most well-known group to be directly inspired by Tolkien, and have five songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings (Stairway to Heaven, Ramble On, The Battle of Evermore, Over the Hills and Far Away, and Misty Mountain Hop). Led Zeppelin were " Stairway to Heaven " is a song by the English rock band Led Zeppelin. " Ramble On " is a song by English rock band Led Zeppelin from their 1969 album Led Zeppelin II. " The Battle of Evermore " is an acoustic guitar and Mandolin song by the English Rock band Led Zeppelin, featured on their " Misty Mountain Hop " is a song from English Rock band Led Zeppelin 's untitled fourth album, released in 1971. Later, from the 1980s to the present day, several (mostly Northern European) metal bands have drawn inspiration from Tolkien, often with a focus on the 'dark' or evil characters and forces in Tolkien's Middle-earth. Furthermore, several bands from this metal subgenre have taken their names from Tolkien's story (Burzum, Gorgoroth, Amon Amarth, Ephel Duath and Cirith Ungol for example), and even band members have adopted stage names borrowed from the story, such as Count Grishnackh and Shagrath. Burzum is the musical project of Varg Vikernes (under the pseudonym "Count Grishnackh" Gorgoroth is a Black metal band from Bergen, Norway that was founded by Infernus in 1992 Amon Amarth is a Viking -themed Melodic death metal band from Tumba, Sweden founded in 1992 Ephel Duath is an Italian Progressive metal band formed in 1998 in Padova, Italy. Cirith Ungol was a Californian heavy metal band who formed in 1972 and split up in May 1992 Varg Vikernes (varg 'vikeɳes born Kristian Vikernes on February 11 1973 near Bergen, Norway) is a Black metal musician convicted murderer
Outside of rock music, a number of classical and New Age music artists have also been influenced by Tolkien's work. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music New Age music is peaceful Music of various styles which is intended to create inspiration relaxation and positive feelings often used by listeners for Yoga, The New Age artist Enya wrote an instrumental piece called "Lothlórien" in 1991, and composed two songs for the film The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring - "May It Be" (sung in English and Quenya) and "Aníron" (sung in Sindarin). Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin on May 17 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland, sometimes presented in The Lord of the Rings The Fellowship of the Ring is a 2001 Fantasy film directed by Peter Jackson based on the similarly titled first Quenya 'kwɛɲa is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi, "those who speak with voices" because when Sindarin is an Artificial language developed by J R R Tolkien. Swedish keyboardist Bo Hansson released an instrumental album entitled "Music Inspired by Lord of the Rings" in 1970. Bo Hansson was born on 10 April 1943 in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is a Musician best known for his four instrumental albums released The Danish Tolkien Ensemble have released a number of albums that have set the complete poems and songs of The Lord of the Rings to music, with some featuring recitation by Christopher Lee. The Tolkien Ensemble (founded in 1995) is a Danish ensemble which aims to create "the world's first complete musical interpretation of the poems and songs from Christopher Frank Carandini Lee CBE, CStJ (born 27 May 1922 is a two-time Screen Actors Guild Award-nominated Saturn Award-winning English Actor
Secondary literature on The Lord of the Rings:
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