The Lizard is a peninsula of Cornwall, and contains the most southerly point of mainland Cornwall and of the island Great Britain, Lizard Point. Lizard Point in Cornwall is the southernmost tip of the Lizard Peninsula. A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar This is a list of the extreme points of the United Kingdom: the points that are farther North, South, East or West than any other See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Lizard Point in Cornwall is the southernmost tip of the Lizard Peninsula. The peninsula measures approximately 14 by 14 miles (23 km). Historically a particularly hazardous stretch of coastline, it was also known as the "Graveyard of Ships". The name 'Lizard' is most probably a corruption of the Cornish name 'Lys Ardh', meaning 'high court'; it is purely coincidental that much of the peninsula is composed of a rock called serpentine. For the Cornish-English dialect see West Country dialects and List of Cornish dialect words. The serpentine group describes a group of common rock-forming hydrous Magnesium Iron phyllosilicate (()3 Minerals they The Lizard is important from a geological point of view as it is Britain's only example of an ophiolite. An Ophiolite is a section of the Earth's Oceanic crust and the underlying upper mantle that has been uplifted or emplaced to be exposed within Continental The Lizard peninsula's original name may have been the Celtic name 'Predannack' ("British one") as during the Iron Age (Pytheas c. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. Dates Pliny says that Timaeus (born about 350 BC believed Pytheas' story of the discovery of Amber. 325 BC) and Roman period, Britain was known as Pretannike and as Albion (and Britons the 'Pretani'). Albion (Ἀλβιών in Greek) is the oldest known name of the island of Great Britain.  Greek and Roman scribes were responsible for changing the initial P into B, but the original P remains in the Welsh word Prydein and the Cornish place-name Predannack. Prydain ( Middle Welsh: Prydein) is the modern Welsh name for Britain.
There is evidence of early habitation with several burial mounds and stones. A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a Mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves Part of the peninsula is known as the Meneage (land of the monks). There are several towns and villages on the peninsula, some of which are covered below.
Helston once headed the River Cober, before it was cut off from the sea by Loe Bar in the 13th century. Helston (Hellys or Henlys is a small Town and Civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom The Loe, also known as Loe Pool, is the largest natural freshwater lake in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It was a small port which exported tin and copper. Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Helston was certainly in existence in the sixth century when it was inhabited by Saxons. The name comes from the Cornish 'hen lis' or 'old court' and 'ton' denoting that it was a Saxon manor; the Domesday Book refers to it as Henliston. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey It was granted its charter by King John in 1201. John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death It was here that tin ingots were weighed to determine the duty due to the Duke of Cornwall. The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first Dukedom created in the Peerage of England.
By the 14th century, a hamlet of fishermen's dwellings had established itself around the cove at Porthleven, named from the old Cornish porth (harbour) and leven (level or smooth). It grew with miners and farmworkers; and building of a harbour began in 1811. In 1855 the harbour was deepened, and a boatbuilding industry began, lasting until recently. The port imported coal, limestone and timber, and exported tin, copper and china clay. The harbour also heralded the start of Porthleven's golden days of pilchard fishing.
Mullion holds the 15th century church of St Mellanus, and the Old Inn from the 16th century. Mullion (Eglosvelyan is a village Civil parish and small fishing harbour in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, England, in the United The harbour was completed in 1895 and financed by Lord Robartes of Lanhydrock as a recompense to the fishermen for several disastrous pilchard seasons.
The small church of St Peter in Coverack, built in 1885 for £500, has a serpentine pulpit, a rock unique to The Lizard. Coverack (Cornish Goveryk is a coastal village and fishing port in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
The Great Western Railway operated a road motor service to The Lizard from Helston railway station. The Great Western Railway ( GWR) was a British railway company and a notable example of Civil engineering, linking London with the West The Great Western Railway road motor services operated from 1903 to 1933 both as a feeder to their train services and as a cheaper alternative to building new railways in rural areas Helston railway station was the terminus of the Helston Railway in Cornwall, in England ( United Kingdom) Commencing on 17 August 1903, it was the first successful British railway-run bus service and was initially provided as a cheaper alternative to a proposed light railway. Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Light railway refers to a Railway built at lower costs and to lower standards than typical "heavy rail"
The Lizard has been the site of many maritime disasters. It forms a natural obstacle to entry and exit of Falmouth and its naturally deep estuary. Falmouth (Aberfal is a town Civil parish and Port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK.
At Lizard Point stands the Lizard Lighthouse. The Lizard Lighthouse, on Lizard Point in Cornwall United Kingdom was built in 1619, but the inability to collect dues from passing ships forced its closure in 1623 In fact the light was erected by Sir John Killigrew by his own expense, it was built at the cost of '20 nobles a year' for 30 years, but it caused an uproar over the following years as King James the 1st considered charging vessels to pass. This caused so many problems that the lighthouse was demolished, but was successfully re-built in 1751 by order of Thomas Fonnereau and remains almost unchanged today. Thomas Fonnereau ( London, 27 October 1699 &ndash 20 March 1779) was a British businessman and politician the eldest son of the merchant
Further east lie The Manacles, near Porthoustock; one and a half square miles of jagged rocks just beneath the waves. The Manacles are a set of treacherous rocks off The Lizard Peninsula in Cornwall close to Coverack, which are a popular spot for diving
In 1721 the Royal Anne Galley, an oared frigate, was wrecked at Lizard Point. Of a crew of 185 only 3 survived; lost was Lord Belhaven who was en voyage to take up the Governorship of Barbados. Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation
A 44 gun frigate, HMS Anson, was wrecked at Loe Bar in 1807. Although close to shore many lost their lives in the storm. This inspired Henry Trengrouse to invent the rocket fired line, later to become the Breeches Buoy. Henry Trengrouse ( March 18, 1772 &ndash February 14, 1854) was an Cornish inventor
The transport ship Dispatch ran aground on the Manacles in 1809 on its return from the Peninsular War, losing 104 men from the 7th Hussars. The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence pitted an alliance of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal against France The following day, with local villagers still attempting a rescue, HMS Brig Primrose hit the northern end of these rocks, with 120 officers and men, the only survivor being a drummer boy.
The SS Mohegan, a 7,000 tonne passenger liner, also hit the Manacles in 1898 with the loss of 106 lives.
The American passenger liner, the Paris, was stranded on the Manacles in 1899, with no loss of life.
Smuggling was a regular, and often necessary, way of life in these parts, despite the efforts of coastguards or 'Preventive men'. A coast guard is a national organization responsible for various services at sea
In 1801, the King's Pardon was offered to any smuggler giving information on the Mullion musket men involved in a gunfight with the crew of HM Gun Vessel Hecate.
The biggest rescue in the RNLI's history was 17 March 1907 when the 12,000 tonne liner SS Suevic hit the Maenheere Reef near Lizard Point in Cornwall. The founder Sir William Hillary Sir William Hillary came to live on the Isle of Man in 1808 Design and construction When White Star inaugurated service from Liverpool to Sydney in 1899 they commissioned three ships to be built for that route Afric, ''Medic'' Lizard Point in Cornwall is the southernmost tip of the Lizard Peninsula. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar In a strong gale and dense fog RNLI lifeboat volunteers rescued 456 passengers, including 70 babies. Crews from the Lizard, Cadgwith, Coverack and Porthleven rowed out repeatedly for 16 hours to rescue all of the people on board. Cadgwith (Porthkaswydh is a picturesque village and fishing port in Cornwall, United Kingdom, situated on the Lizard Peninsula between The Lizard Coverack (Cornish Goveryk is a coastal village and fishing port in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Six silver RNLI medals were later awarded, two to Suevic crew members. 
RAF Predannack (see RNAS Predannack) was a Second World War airbase, from which Coastal Command squadrons flew anti-submarine sorties into the Bay of Biscay as well as convoy support in the western English Channel. Predannack Airfield is situated near Mullion on Cornwall 's Lizard Peninsula World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including RAF Coastal Command was an organization within the Royal Air Force which defended the United Kingdom from naval threats and countered German U-boats Cantabrian Sea redirects here Not to be confused with Biscay Bay Newfoundland and Labrador or Biscayne Bay. The runways still exist and the site is used by a local glider flying club and as an emergency/relief base for RNAS Culdrose (HMS Seahawk). Terminology A "glider" is an unpowered Aircraft. The most common types of glider are today used for sporting purposes Royal Naval Air Station Culdrose (HMS Seahawk) based in Cornwall, near Helston, on the Lizard Peninsula, has three major roles serving This is Europe's largest helicopter base, and currently hosts the Training and Occupational Conversion Unit operating the EH101 "Merlin" helicopter. History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. It is also the home base for Merlin Squadrons embarked upon Royal Navy warships, the Westland Sea King AEW variant helicopter, a Search And Rescue (Sea King, again) helicopter flight, and some BAe Hawk T. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout 1 trainer jets used for training purposes by the Royal Navy. The base also operates some other types of fixed wing aircraft for calibration and other training purposes. As befits the base's name, a non-flying example of a Hawker Sea Hawk forms the main gate guardian static display. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
RNAS Culdrose is a major contributor to the economy of The Lizard area.
In 1497 a Cornish rebellion began in St Keverne. The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising by the people of Cornwall in the far south west of Britain. The village blacksmith Michael Joseph (Michael An Gof in Cornish, meaning blacksmith) lead the uprising, protesting against the punitive taxes levied by Henry VII to pay for the war against the Scots. Michael Joseph (better known as Michael An Gof, where An Gof is Cornish for " Blacksmith " died 24 June 1497) The uprising was routed on its march to London and Joseph was subsequently hung, drawn and quartered.
In 1900 Guglielmo Marconi stayed the Housel Bay Hotel in his quest to locate a coastal radio station to receive signals from ships equipped with his apparatus. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi mar'koni (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937 was an Italian inventor best known for his development of a Radiotelegraph system He leased a plot “in the wheat field adjoining the hotel” where the Lizard Wireless Telegraph Station still stands today. Recently restored by the National Trust, it looks as it did in January 1901, when Marconi received the distance record signals of 186 miles (299 km) from his transmitter station at Niton, Isle of Wight. Niton is a village on the Isle of Wight, near Ventnor with a thriving population of approximately 3000 supporting two pubs, several Churches,
The Lizard Wireless Station is the oldest Marconi station to survive in its original state in the world and is located to the west of the Lloyds Signal Station in what appears to be a wooden hut.
In December 1901, on the cliffs above Poldhu, Guglielmo Marconi sent a radio communication across the Atlantic to St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. Poldhu is a small area in south Cornwall, England, UK, situated on the Lizard Peninsula it comprises Poldhu Point and Poldhu Cove Marchese Guglielmo Marconi mar'koni (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937 was an Italian inventor best known for his development of a Radiotelegraph system St John's (ˌseɪntˈdʒanz French Saint-Jean) is the provincial capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada and located on the eastern tip Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
In 1869, John Pender formed the Falmouth Gibraltar and Malta Telegraph company, intending to connect India to England with an undersea cable. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Although intended to land at Falmouth, the final landing point was Porthcurno near Land's End. Porthcurno is a small village in the parish of St Levan (N 500247 W 53921 located in a valley on the south coast of Cornwall, England, Land's End ( Cornish name Penn an Wlas) is a headland on the Penwith Peninsula, located near Penzance in Cornwall
A radar station called RAF Drytree was built during World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The site was later chosen for the Telstar project in 1962; its rocky foundations, clear atmosphere and closeness to the equator being uniquely suitable. Telstar was the first active Communications satellite (launched in 1962 and the first Satellite designed to transmit telephone and high-speed data communications This became the Goonhilly satellite earth station, now owned by BT Group plc. Goonhilly Satellite Earth Station is a large telecommunications site located on Goonhilly Downs near Helston on the Lizard peninsula in Cornwall This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. An earth station or ground station is the surface-based (terrestrial end of a Communications link to an object in Outer space. BT Group plc (formerly British Telecommunications plc) which trades as BT (ˌbiːˈtiː bee tee) (previously known as British Telecom and still Some important developments in TV satellite transmission were made at Goonhilly station.
A wind farm exists near to the Goonhilly station site. A wind turbine is a rotating machine which converts the Kinetic energy in Wind into Mechanical energy.
Titanium was discovered here by Reverend William Gregor in 1791. Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 William Gregor ( 25 December 1761 &ndash 11 June 1817) was the British Clergyman and Mineralogist who discovered
Several nature sites exist on the Lizard Peninsula; Predannack nature reserve, Mullion Island, Goonhilly Downs and the National Seal sanctuary at Gweek. The Geology of The Lizard, Cornwall in the United Kingdom has been the subject of much study Goonhilly Downs is a Site of Special Scientific Interest that forms a raised plateau in the central western area of the Lizard Peninsula in Cornwall Gweek is a Village and Civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, England renowned for its Seal Sanctuary. It is also home to one of England's rarest breeding birds – the Chough. Chough is the Genus Pyrrhocorax of Birds in the Corvidae ( Crow) family. This species of crow, distinctive due to its red beak and legs, as well as the haunting "chee-aw" call, began breeding on Lizard in 2002. This followed a concerted effort by the Cornish Chough Project in conjunction with DEFRA and the RSPB. The Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs ( Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds ( RSPB) is a British Charitable organisation which works to promote conservation and protection
The Lizard contains some of the most specialised flora of any area in Britain, including many Red Data Book plant species. Of particular note is the Cornish heath, Erica vagans, that occurs in abundance here, but which is found nowhere else in Britain. The Cornish heath ( Erica vagans) is a Species of heath that bears pink Flowers and mid-green Foliage. It is also one of the few places where the rare formicine ant, Formica exsecta, (the narrow-headed ant), can be found. Formicinae is a Subfamily within the Formicidae containing Ants of moderate evolutionary development Ants are social Insects of the family Formicidae and along with the related families of Wasps and Bees belong to the order Formica exsecta (the narrow-headed ant or excised wood ant) is a Species of Ant found throughout Western Europe and Asia Formica exsecta (the narrow-headed ant or excised wood ant) is a Species of Ant found throughout Western Europe and Asia
The Lizard was featured on the BBC television programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of the South West. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Seven Natural Wonders was a Television series that aired on BBC Two from 3 May to 20 June 2005.
Daphne du Maurier based many novels on this part of Cornwall, including Frenchman's Creek. Daphne du Maurier Lady Browning DBE ( 13 May, 1907 – 19 April, 1989) (ˈdæfnɪ du ˈmɒɹieɪ was a British Frenchman's Creek is a 1942 Historical novel by Daphne du Maurier.