The Teutonic takeover of Danzig (Gdańsk) on 13 November 1308 refers to an important event in the History of Gdańsk, leading to the incorporation of the city and the surrounding Pomerelia into the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St This article is about the History of Gdańsk (Danzig, a city located on the Baltic Sea. Pomerelia (Pommerellen is a historical region in northern Poland. The monastic state of the Teutonic Knights (Deutschordensland sometimes known in English by the German term Ordensstaat (ˈɔːdn̩ˌʃtɑːt or "Order-State" The takeover, during and after which a disputed number of citizens may have been killed, marks the beginning of tensions between Poland and Teutonic Order. Only after less than 200 years, the takeover was reversed when after the Thirteen Years War the Prussian Confederation seceded from the Order. The Thirteen Years' War was also the name of an Austrian-Ottoman War Thirteen Years War in Hungary The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg Wojna trzynastoletnia The Prussian Confederation (Preußischer Bund or Bund vor Gewalt; Związek Pruski was an organization formed in 1440 by a group of 53 gentry and clergy and 19 cities in
In 1224, during the reign of Zwantepolc de Danceke (Swantipolk II of Pomerania), Gdańsk underwent administrative reform based on Lübeck city rights. The Lübeck law was the constitution of a municipal form of government developed at Lübeck in Schleswig-Holstein after it was made a free city in 1226
Zwantepolc received ducal title in 1227, when emperor Frederick II verified the overlordship of the margraves of Brandenburg over the dukedom Pomerania. In 1236 in the Vertrag zu Kremmen (Treaty of Kremmen) Wartislaw had acknowledged Brandenburg's overlordship over Pomerania. In 1269 Brandenburg received the right to grant Pomerellia (or eastern Pomerania), where Gdańsk was situated, as lien.
During the late 13th century, disputes over succession arose. Conrad, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal would inherit Pomerelia from Duke Mestwin II of Pomerania, while in 1282, the Teutonic Order had inherited Mewe from Sambor II, thus gaining a foothold on the left bank of the Vistula. This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire Mestwin II (Mściwój II or Mszczuj II; 1220 &ndash December 25, 1294) was a Duke of Pomerelia from the Samborides dynasty from The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. Gniew (Mewe Gniéw is a Town situated on the left bank of the Vistula River in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. Sambor II of Tczew (Sambor II Tczewski ca 1211/12 &ndash December 1277 or 1278 was a Duke of Pomerania and prince of Lubiszewo Tczewskie. 
At the beginning of the 14th century, the region was plunged into war involving local Pomeranian nobility and the principality of Margraviate of Brandenburg to the west, which had acquired rights by the Treaty of Arnswalde of 1269. The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg was a major Principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 In the Treaty of Arnswalde, signed on 1 April 1269, the Brandenburgian Margraves of the House of Ascania John II, Otto IV Brandenburg's claim to the harbour city and Pomerania was partially based on a treaty of August 8, 1305 between the Rulers of Brandenburg and Wenceslaus III, promising the Meissen territory to the Bohemian crown in exchange for Pomerelia, although it never was finalised. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire Wenceslaus III Premyslid ( Czech and Slovak Václav, German: Wenzel III, Hungarian Vencel, Polish Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen; Sorbian: Mišno; Misena Misnia Misnensium is a Town of approximately 30000 near Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Pomerelia (Pommerellen is a historical region in northern Poland.
In Summer of 1308, a Pommerian rebellion in the city unseated the small forces loyal to King Władysław I of Poland presented there since 1306, and allied with Waldemar of Brandenburg  who entered the town, but not the castle which was held by a small garrison loyal to the king. Władysław the Short or Elbow-high (or Ladislaus I of Poland) ( Władysław I Łokietek) (1261 - March 2 1333 was a King of Poland. Waldemar of Brandenburg ( German: Waldemar der Große) (c 1280 &ndash 14 August 1319, Bärwalde) was Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal They, and the city's Pomeranian judge and castellan, Bogusza, on the advice of the Dominican prior Wilhelm, appealed to the Teutonic Knights in Prussia for assistance. A castellan was the Governor or caretaker of a Castle or Keep. The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. 
The Knights, led by Heinrich von Plötzke (and a relative of Gunther von Schwarzburg of the same name) arrived at the castle in August and drove the Brandenburgers from the city in September. Heinrich von Plötzke was an officer of the Teutonic Order during the late 13th and early 14th centuries Günther von Schwarzburg (1304 &ndash 1349 German king, was a descendant of the counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII count of Blankenburg When Władysław refused to pay them 10,000 marks in compensation, they remained in the castle and the City, which was opposed by some of the residents.
On 13 November, the knights did suppress an uprising in which a number of people were murdered. The exact figure is not known.
Norman Davies, in his extensive history of Poland notes that the Knights "drove Waldemar from the city, and calmly slaughtered its inhabitants", . Ivor Norman Richard Davies Fellow of the British Academy (born 8 June 1939 to Richard and Elizabeth Davies God's Playground is a Book written in 1979 by Norman Davies, covering the History of Poland. During the Cold War, in a Polish answer to US congressman B. Carroll Reece of Tennessee who had stated "The citizens of Danzig are German as they always had been", it is claimed that the Knights treacherously gained access into the Polish garrison as allies, then turned their arms against the Poles, massacred first the soldiers, then the civilians, 10,000 men, women and children. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Brazilla Carroll Reece ( December 22, 1889 &ndash March 19, 1961) was a U  Polish reports spread by Władysław indicated that 10,000 inhabitants were slain in the city, although that number has also been considered greater than the city's population at the time.  Other estimates give about 100 victims.
As of November 2007, the city's website claims "Teutonic Knights. . . , having captured the castle in 1308 butchered the population. Since then the event is known as "the Gdańsk slaughter ", yet no book knows that term  . Apparently a "Monument commemorates the massacre of the population of Gdansk in 1308. "
The "New Cambridge Medieval History" of 1999 states "when the Poles refused to accept monetary compensation, the Order resolved the ensuing conflict by conquering further towns like Schwetz". Świecie (Schwetz is a Town in northern Poland with 25968 inhabitants (2006 situated in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999 it The local colony of merchants and artisans was specifically attacked because they competed with the Knights' town of Elbing (Elbląg), a nearby city. Elbląg (Elbing Elbinga is a City in northern Poland with 127892 inhabitants (2006 . Other sources indicate that "we have conclusive proof that before 1308, the population of Danzig must have been Polish as the Teutonic Knights would not have slaughtered 10,000 of their own" . The massacre was the Polish answer to the German claim that Danzig is historically and ethnically a German city.  Others point out parallels to the contemporary prosecution of the Knights Templar and that, after Polish accusations of sodomy, the Teutonic Knights were even briefly excommunicated by the pope who for financial reasons supported the Polish tax payers In fact, the Knights moved their headquarters from Venice to the Ordensburg Marienburg. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order Malbork Castle (Ordensburg Marienburg was built by the Teutonic Order as an Ordensburg and named Marienburg (literally "Mary's Castle"
The Knights then captured the rest of Pomerelia from Brandenburg's troops. In September 1309, Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg-Stendal sold his claim to the territory to the Teutonic Order for 10,000 marks in the Treaty of Soldin, thereby connecting the Order's territory with that of the Holy Roman Empire. Waldemar of Brandenburg ( German: Waldemar der Große) (c 1280 &ndash 14 August 1319, Bärwalde) was Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal Stendal (ˈʃtɛndaːl is a Town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is the capital of Stendal District and unofficial capital of the Altmark The Treaty of Soldin (Vertrag von Soldin of 1309 was a Treaty signed at Soldin (Myślibórz by Waldemar Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal, and the The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Dantzike was incorporated into the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. The monastic state of the Teutonic Knights (Deutschordensland sometimes known in English by the German term Ordensstaat (ˈɔːdn̩ˌʃtɑːt or "Order-State"
Previously allied against the Prussians, the takeover triggered a series of conflicts between Poland and the Teutonic Order. The possession of Danzig and Pomerelia by the Teutonic Order was questioned consistently by the Polish kings Wladislaus I and Casimir the Great in legal suits in the papal court in 1320 and 1333. Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz Wielki April 30 1310 – November 5 1370 last King of Poland from the Piast dynasty (1333–1370 was the son of King Władysław Also, in the 1330s, a war ensued.
Peace was established in the Treaty of Kalisz in 1343; although the Polish kings were able to retain the title "Duke of Pomerania" and were recognized as titular overlords of the crusaders, the Knights retained control of Danzig. The Treaty of Kalisz (pokój kaliski Vertrag von Kalisch was a Peace treaty signed by King Casimir III the Great of Poland and the Teutonic 
Development of the city initially stagnated after its capture by the Teutonic Knights. Initially the new rulers tried to reduce the economic significance of Danzig by abolishing the local government and the privileges of the Lübeck traders. This apparently relates to the fact that the city council, including Arnold Hecht and Conrad Letzkau, was removed and beheaded in 1411. Later they had to accept the fact that city defended its independence and was the largest and most important seaport of the region after overtaking Elbing. Subsequently it flourished, benefiting from major investment and economic prosperity in Monastic state of Teutonic Knights and Poland, which stimulated trade along the Vistula. The city had become a full member of the merchant association called Hanseatic League by 1361, but its merchants remained resentful at the barriers to the trade up the Vistula river to Poland, along with the lack of political rights in a state ruled in the interest of the Order's religiously-motivated knight-monks.