Technology is a broad concept that deals with the usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects the ability to control and adapt to the environment. A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other A craft is a Skill, especially involving practical arts. It may refer to a Trade or particular art See also Natural environment The '''biophysical''' environment is the symbiosis between the physical environment and the Biological In human society, it is a consequence of science and engineering, although several technological advances predate the two concepts. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Technology is a term with origins in the Greek language: "technologia", "τεχνολογία" — "techne", "τέχνη" ("craft") and "logia", "λογία" ("saying"). Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly  However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of a Technology. "Saucepan" redirects here In Australia "the Saucepan" is sometimes used as an unofficial name for part of the constellation of Pavo, when finding the System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma is a set of interacting or interdependent Entities, real or abstract An organization (or organisation &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology". This article is about the Amiga demo for other uses see State of the art (disambiguation. Other species have also been observed to have created and used technology, including non-human primates, dolphins, and crows.
People's use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology development is the process of Research and development of Technology. A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons. A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons A club (also known as cudgel, baton, truncheon, night stick, and bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area The rising Technology has allowed our environment to be characterized as a global one Leisure or free time, is a period of Time spent out of work and essential domestic Activity. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in See also Natural environment The '''biophysical''' environment is the symbiosis between the physical environment and the Biological Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. A personal and cultural value is a Relative ethic value, an assumption upon which implementation can be extrapolated Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. The human condition encompasses all of the Experience of being Human. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, claiming that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. The term Luddite is a political/historical term relating to a political movement during the Industrial Revolution; it is primarily used Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of Civilization. Transhumanism (sometimes symbolized by >H or H+) a term often used as a synonym for " Human enhancement " is an international intellectual Techno-progressivism, technoprogressivism, tech-progressivism or techprogressivism (a portmanteau word combining " Technoscience Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations. A primate is a member of the biological order Primates ( Latin: "prime first rank" the group that contains Lemurs the Aye-aye Dolphins are Marine mammals that are closely related to Whales and Porpoises There are almost forty species of dolphin in seventeen genera.
In general technology is the relationship that society has with its tools and crafts, and to what extent society can control its environment. The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area" and "a capability given by the practical application of knowledge". Merriam-Webster, which was originally the G & C Merriam Company of Springfield Massachusetts, is an American company that publishes reference books  Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is "practice, the way we do things around here". Ursula Martius Franklin CC, OOnt, PhD, DSc, LLD, FRSC, (born September 16, 1921 in  The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology, rather than technology as a whole. High tech is Technology that is at the cutting edge —the most advanced technology currently available  Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life", and as "organized inorganic matter. Bernard Stiegler (born April 1, 1952) is a French Philosopher and Director of the Department of Cultural Development at the Centre Technics and Time 1 The Fault of Epimetheus ( French: La technique et le temps 1 La faute d'Épiméthée) is a book by the French philosopher "
Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. A crowbar, pry bar, or prybar, more informally a jimmy, jimmy bar, jemmy ( British Isles) or gooseneck is A spoon is a Utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl at the end of a handle used primarily for serving and eating Liquid, or semi-liquid foods and solid foods A space station is an artificial structure designed for Humans to live in Outer space. Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology. A business process or business method is a collection of interrelated Tasks, which accomplish a particular goal 
The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. When combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology", it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. This article is about the Amiga demo for other uses see State of the art (disambiguation. High tech is Technology that is at the cutting edge —the most advanced technology currently available
Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture.  Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and, as a result, has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has, at its basis, the development of the Internet and the computer. Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way Cyberculture is the Culture that has emerged or is emerging from the use of Computer networks for communication, entertainment and business The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions.  Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and
The distinction between science, engineering and technology is not always clear. Science is the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Reason involves the ability to think understand and draw Conclusions in an Abstract way as in Human thinking A phenomenon (from Greek φαινόμενoν, pl φαινόμενα - phenomena) is any observable occurrence Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena  Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety. In Economics, utility is a measure of the relative satisfaction from or desirability of Consumption of various Goods and services. Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf) the condition of being protected against physical social spiritual financial political
Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. A system person or organization that tends to achieve a goal and demonstrate it in subsequent actions The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology
Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge. The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J In Science and engineering, a conductor is a material which contains movable Electric charges. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. A semiconductor' is a Solid material that has Electrical conductivity in between a conductor and an insulator; it can vary over that A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference. 
The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery, partly of evolution. Homo is the Genus that includes modern humans and their close relatives Early humans evolved from a race of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third that of modern humans. Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct Hominid which lived between 3 Foraging theory is a branch of Behavioral ecology that studies the foraging behavior of animals in response to the environment in which the animal lives A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the "great apes" including the extinct and extant Humans Chimpanzees Bipedalism is a form of Terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs  Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history, but approximately 50,000 years ago, a complex set of behaviors and tool use emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully-modern language. Behavioral modernity is a term used in Anthropology, Archeology and Sociology to refer to a list of traits that distinguish present day humans and their A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them 
Human ancestors have been using stone and other tools since long before the emergence of Homo sapiens approximately 200,000 years ago. define a chopper as a Pebble tool with an irregular cutting edge formed through the removal of flakes from one side of a stone Acheulean (also spelled Acheulian,) is the name given to an Archaeological industry of Stone tool manufacture associated with prehistoric Hominins Clovis points are the diagnostic Projectile point associated with the North American Clovis culture. Lithic reduction involves the use of a hard hammer percussor such as a Hammerstone, a soft hammer fabricator (made of Wood, Bone or Antler) Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus  The earliest methods of stone tool making, known as the Oldowan "industry", date back to at least 2. A stone tool is in the most general sense any Tool made of stone. Oldowan (earlier spelled Olduwan or sometimes Oldawan) is an anthropological designation for an industrial complex of Stone tools used by 3 million years ago, with the earliest direct evidence of tool usage found in Ethiopia within the Great Rift Valley, dating back to 2. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page The Great Rift Valley is a name given in the late 19th century by English explorer John Walter Gregory to the continuous geographic trough approximately in length that runs 5 million years ago.  This era of stone tool use is called the Paleolithic, or "Old stone age", and spans all of human history up to the development of agriculture approximately 12,000 years ago. The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
To make a stone tool, a "core" of hard stone with specific flaking properties (such as flint) was struck with a hammerstone. In Archaeology, a lithic core is a distinctive artifact that results from the practice of Lithic reduction. Flint (or flintstone) is a hard sedimentary Cryptocrystalline form of the Mineral Quartz, categorized as a variety of Chert In Archaeology, a hammerstone is a hard Cobble used to strike Lithic flakes off a lump of Tool stone during the process of Lithic reduction This flaking produced a sharp edge on the core stone as well as on the flakes, either of which could be used as tools, primarily in the form of choppers or scrapers. define a chopper as a Pebble tool with an irregular cutting edge formed through the removal of flakes from one side of a stone Archaeology, scrapers are unifacial tools that were used either for Hideworking or Woodworking purposes  These tools greatly aided the early humans in their hunter-gatherer lifestyle to perform a variety of tasks including butchering carcasses (and breaking bones to get at the marrow); chopping wood; cracking open nuts; skinning an animal for its hide; and even forming other tools out of softer materials such as bone and wood. A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild Foraging and Hunting Hides are Skins obtained from animals for human use Examples of animal hide sources are Deer and Cattle typically used for producing Leather, 
The earliest stone tools were crude, being little more than a fractured rock. In the Acheulian era, beginning approximately 1. Acheulean (also spelled Acheulian,) is the name given to an Archaeological industry of Stone tool manufacture associated with prehistoric Hominins 65 million years ago, methods of working these stone into specific shapes, such as hand axes emerged. A handaxe is a bifacial Lower and Middle Paleolithic core Tool. The Middle Paleolithic, approximately 300,000 years ago, saw the introduction of the prepared-core technique, where multiple blades could be rapidly formed from a single core stone. The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, The prepared-core technique is means of producing Stone tools by first preparing common stone cores that can then be shaped into the desired implement  The Upper Paleolithic, beginning approximately 40,000 years ago, saw the introduction of pressure flaking, where a wood, bone, or antler punch could be used to shape a stone very finely. The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Africa Lithic reduction involves the use of a hard hammer percussor such as a Hammerstone, a soft hammer fabricator (made of Wood, Bone or Antler) 
The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός  The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1,000,000 BCE; scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500,000 BCE and 400,000 BCE. The Cradle of Humankind is a World Heritage Site first named by UNESCO in 1999 about 50 Kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, South Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin  Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that could be eaten. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation 
Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were a key to humanity's progress. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather As the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate; as early as 380,000 BCE, humans were constructing temporary wood huts.  Clothing, adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions; humans began to migrate out of Africa by 200,000 BCE and into other continents, such as Eurasia. It is theorized that pre-historical migration of human populations began with the movement of Homo erectus out of Africa across Eurasia For the superstate in George Orwell 's novel see Nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four. 
Humans began to work bones, antler, and hides, as evidenced by burins and racloirs produced during this period. Antlers are the usually large and complex horn -like appendages of most Deer species mostly worn by males only for some species such as Caribou by both Hides are Skins obtained from animals for human use Examples of animal hide sources are Deer and Cattle typically used for producing Leather, Burin from the French burin meaning "cold Chisel " has two specialised meanings for types of tools in English one meaning a Steel racloir is a name given by Archaeologists to a certain type of Flint tool made by prehistoric peoples
Man's technological ascent began in earnest in what is known as the Neolithic period ("New stone age"). The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance because it allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. Chipped stone tools were made by Stone age peoples worldwide Paleolithic tools were relatively simple repeated small flakes being struck or pressed from a cobble The discovery of agriculture allowed for the feeding of larger populations, and the transition to a sedentist lifestyle increased the number of children that could be simultaneously raised, as young children no longer needed to be carried, as was the case with the nomadic lifestyle. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture In evolutionary anthropology and archaeology, sedentism (sometimes denominated sedentariness is a term applied to the transition from Nomadic to permanent year-round Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising of crops more readily than they could to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle. 
With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization.  What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations, such as Sumer, is not specifically known; however, the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures, the specialization of labor, trade and war amongst adjacent cultures, and the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges, such as the building of dikes and reservoirs, are all thought to have played a role. Uruk ( URU UNUG, Sumerian: unug Akkadian: uruk) from the Akkadian rendering of the Sumerian Toponym 'unug' is modern Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - A reservoir is most broadly a place or hollow vessel where Fluid is kept in Reserve, for later use 
Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and forge native metals (naturally occurring in relatively pure form). A furnace is a device used for Heating The name derives from Latin fornax, Oven. A bellows is a device for delivering pressurized Air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. A forge is the workplace of a smith or a Blacksmith. A forge is sometimes referred to as a smithy.  Gold, copper, silver, and lead, were such early metals. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 8000 BCE). The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos  Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BCE). An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1400 BCE. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0
Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailboat. The earliest record of a ship under sail is shown on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200 BCE. From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used "the power of the Nile" annual floods to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely-built irrigation channels and 'catch' basins. Similarly, the early peoples of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, learned to use the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for much the same purposes. But more extensive use of wind and water (and even human) power required another invention.
According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 B. A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines C. The wheel was likely independently invented in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq) as well. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 B. C. , with most experts putting it closer to 4000 B. C. The oldest artifacts with drawings that depict wheeled carts date from about 3000 B. C. ; however, the wheel may have been in use for millennia before these drawings were made. There is also evidence from the same period of time that wheels were used for the production of pottery. In Pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares (Note that the original potter's wheel was probably not a wheel, but rather an irregularly shaped slab of flat wood with a small hollowed or pierced area near the center and mounted on a peg driven into the earth. It would have been rotated by repeated tugs by the potter or his assistant. ) More recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia. 
The invention of the wheel revolutionized activities as disparate as transportation, war, and the production of pottery (for which it may have been first used). It didn't take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads and fast (rotary) potters' wheels enabled early mass production of pottery. But it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources.
Tools include both simple machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the pulley), and more complex machines (such as the clock, the engine, the electric generator and the electric motor, the computer, radio, and the Space Station, among many others). In Physics, especially Mechanics, a simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a Force. A screw is a shaft with a helical groove or thread formed on its surface and provision at one end to turn the screw A pulley (also called a sheave or block) is a Wheel with a groove between two Flanges around its Circumference Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, or Clock is a gene which encodes proteins regulating Circadian rhythm. An engine is a mechanical device that produces some form of output from a given input In Electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts Mechanical energy to Electrical energy, generally using Electromagnetic An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A space station is an artificial structure designed for Humans to live in Outer space. An integrated circuit — a key foundation for modern computers. Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. As tools increase in complexity, so does the type of knowledge needed to support them. Complex modern machines require libraries of written technical manuals of collected information that has continually increased and improved — their designers, builders, maintainers, and users often require the mastery of decades of sophisticated general and specific training. Moreover, these tools have become so complex that a comprehensive infrastructure of technical knowledge-based lesser tools, processes and practices (complex tools in themselves) exist to support them, including engineering, medicine, and computer science. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the Science of the theoretical foundations of Information and Computation and their Complex manufacturing and construction techniques and organizations are needed to construct and maintain them. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of increasingly more complex tools. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" The relationship of technology with society ( culture) is generally characterized as synergistic, symbiotic, co-dependent, co-influential, and co-producing, i. e. technology and society depend heavily one upon the other (technology upon culture, and culture upon technology). It is also generally believed that this synergistic relationship first occurred at the dawn of humankind with the invention of simple tools, and continues with modern technologies today. Today and throughout history, technology influences and is influenced by such societal issues/factors as economics, values, ethics, institutions, groups, the environment, government, among others. The discipline studying the impacts of science, technology, and society and vice versa is called Science and technology in society.
Generally, technicism is an over reliance or overconfidence in technology as a benefactor of society. Technicism is an over reliance or overconfidence in Technology as a benefactor of society
Taken to extreme, some argue that technicism is the belief that humanity will ultimately be able to control the entirety of existence using technology. In other words, human beings will someday be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology. Some, such as Monsma, connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority.
More commonly, technicism is a criticism of the commonly held belief that newer, more recently-developed technology is "better. " For example, more recently-developed computers are faster than older computers, and more recently-developed cars have greater gas efficiency and more features than older cars. Because current technologies are generally accepted as good, future technological developments are not considered circumspectly, resulting in what seems to be a blind acceptance of technological development.
Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. Extropianism, also referred to as extropism or Extropy, is an evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition Transhumanism (sometimes symbolized by >H or H+) a term often used as a synonym for " Human enhancement " is an international intellectual Singularitarianism is a Moral philosophy based upon the belief that a Technological singularity — the technological creation of smarter-than-human Intelligence Technological evolution is the name of a Science and technology studies Theory describing Technology development, developed by Czech philosopher Radovan In these ideologies, technological development is morally good. Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. The term scientism can be used as a neutral term to describe the view that Natural science has authority over all other interpretations of life such as philosophical Techno-utopianism or technoutopianism refers to any Ideology based on the belief that advanced Science and technology will eventually bring about an Human enhancement refers to any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the Human body through natural or artificial means The technological singularity is a theoretical future point of unprecedented technological progress caused in part by the ability of machines to improve themselves using Artificial Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist. 
On the somewhat pessimistic side are certain philosophers like the Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, who believe that technological societies are inherently flawed a priori. The Luddites were a Social movement of British Textile artisans in the early Nineteenth century who protested&mdashoften by destroying mechanized The term Luddite is a political/historical term relating to a political movement during the Industrial Revolution; it is primarily used Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of Civilization. Techno-progressivism, technoprogressivism, tech-progressivism or techprogressivism (a portmanteau word combining " Technoscience Herbert Marcuse ( July 19, 1898 &ndash July 29, 1979) was a German philosopher and sociologist, and a member of John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist Philosopher and author They suggest that the result of such a society is to become evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological health (and probably physical health in general, as pollution from technological products is dispersed).
Many, such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious reservations, although not a priori flawed reservations, about technology. The Luddites were a Social movement of British Textile artisans in the early Nineteenth century who protested&mdashoften by destroying mechanized Martin Heidegger ( September 26, 1889 &ndash May 26, 1976) (ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛgɐ was an influential German philosopher Heidegger presents such a view in "The Question Concerning Technology": "Thus we shall never experience our relationship to the essence of technology so long as we merely conceive and push forward the technological, put up with it, or evade it. For Martin Heidegger broadly the question of being formed the essence of his philosophical inquiry Everywhere we remain unfree and chained to technology, whether we passionately affirm or deny it. "
Some of the most poignant criticisms of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics, for example Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and other writings, Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange, and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 &ndash 22 November 1963 was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Brave New World is a 1932 Novel by Aldous Huxley. Set in the London of AD 2540 (632 A Anthony Burgess (February 25 1917 — November 22 1993 was an English Novelist, Critic, Composer, Librettist, Poet Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel And, in Faust by Goethe, Faust's selling his soul to the devil in return for power over the physical world, is also often interpreted as a metaphor for the adoption of industrial technology. Faust or Faustus ( Latin for "auspicious" or "lucky" is the protagonist of a classic German Legend in which he makes ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə (in English generally ˈgɝːtə 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer
An overtly anti-technological treatise is Industrial Society and Its Future, written by Theodore Kaczynski (aka The Unabomber) and printed in several major newspapers (and later books) as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure.
The notion of appropriate technology, however, was developed in the 20th century (e. Technocriticism is a branch of Critical theory devoted to the study of Technological change. Technorealism is an attempt to expand the middle ground between Techno-utopianism and Neo-luddism by assessing the social and political implications of technologies Appropriate technology (AT is Technology that is designed with special consideration to the environmental ethical cultural social and economical aspects of the community The twentieth century of the Common Era began on g. , see the work of Jacques Ellul) to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. Jacques Ellul ( January 6 1912 &ndash May 19 1994) was a French Philosopher, sociologist, theologian Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids The eco-village movement emerged in part due to this concern. Ecovillages are intended to be socially economically and ecologically sustainable Intentional communities.
The use of basic technology is also a feature of other species apart from humans. These include primates such as chimpanzees, some dolphin communities, and crows. Chimpanzee (often shortened to chimp) is the common name for the two extant Species of Apes in the Genus Pan. Dolphins are Marine mammals that are closely related to Whales and Porpoises There are almost forty species of dolphin in seventeen genera. The true crows are large Passerine Birds that comprise the Genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. 
The ability to make and use tools was once considered a defining characteristic of the genus Homo. Homo is the Genus that includes modern humans and their close relatives  However, the discovery of tool construction among chimpanzees and related primates has discarded the notion of the use of technology as unique to humans. For example, researchers have observed wild chimpanzees utilising tools for foraging: some of the tools used include leaf sponges, termite fishing probes, pestles and levers. A pestle and mortar is a Tool used to crush grind and mix substances  West African chimpanzees also use stone hammers and anvils for cracking nuts. Chimpanzee (often shortened to chimp) is the common name for the two extant Species of Apes in the Genus Pan.